You are previewing Cabling: The Complete Guide to Copper and Fiber-Optic Networking, Fourth Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Cabling: The Complete Guide to Copper and Fiber-Optic Networking, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Two books in one! Complete coverage of data cabling and fiber optics makes this the most comprehensive cabling book on the market

With the growing demand for fiber optics in large-scale communications networks, network professionals need complete, up-to-the-minute information. The fourth edition of this popular guide provides you with the latest on copper and fiber-optic networking. It is particularly useful for those studying for the Fiber Optics Installer or Fiber Optics Technician certifications.

Part I covers the basics of cabling, while Part II is devoted to in-depth information on fiber optics, allowing you to stay up to speed on all aspects of the field.

  • Demonstrates how to work with all of the various types of cables-from those used to network desktops to hubs and switches up to those used by major telecommunications carriers

  • Appeals to anyone who plans, builds, and maintains a network

  • Offers a solid foundation in fiber optics

As the industry transitions from copper cabling to fiber optics, Cabling: The Complete Guide to Copper and Fiber-Optic Networking, Fourth Edition is a vital tool for network administrators and technicians.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Dear Reader
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Authors
  5. Introduction
    1. About This Book
    2. Who Is This Book For?
    3. How to Use This Book
    4. Enjoy!
  6. I. LAN Networks and Cabling Systems
    1. 1. Introduction to Data Cabling
      1. 1.1. The Golden Rules of Data Cabling
      2. 1.2. The Importance of Reliable Cabling
        1. 1.2.1. The Cost of Poor Cabling
        2. 1.2.2. Is the Cabling to Blame?
      3. 1.3. You've Come a Long Way, Baby: The Legacy of Proprietary Cabling Systems
        1. 1.3.1. Proprietary Cabling Is a Thing of the Past
        2. 1.3.2. The Need for a Comprehensive Standard
      4. 1.4. Cabling and the Need for Speed
        1. 1.4.1. Types of Communications Media
          1. 1.4.1.1. Twisted-Pair Cable
            1. 1.4.1.1.1. Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)
            2. 1.4.1.1.2. Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP)
            3. 1.4.1.1.3. Screened Twisted-Pair (ScTP)
            4. 1.4.1.1.4. Screened Shielded Twisted-Pair (S/STP or S/FTP)
          2. 1.4.1.2. Fiber-Optic Cable
            1. 1.4.1.2.1. Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cable
            2. 1.4.1.2.2. Multimode Fiber-Optic Cable
          3. 1.4.1.3. Coaxial Cable
      5. 1.5. Cable Design
        1. 1.5.1. Plenum
        2. 1.5.2. Riser
        3. 1.5.3. General Purpose
        4. 1.5.4. Limited Use
        5. 1.5.5. Cable Jackets
          1. 1.5.5.1. Cable Markings
          2. 1.5.5.2. Common Abbreviations
        6. 1.5.6. Wire Insulation
          1. 1.5.6.1. Materials Used for Wire Insulation
          2. 1.5.6.2. Insulation Colors
        7. 1.5.7. Twists
        8. 1.5.8. Wire Gauge
        9. 1.5.9. Solid Conductors vs. Stranded Conductors
        10. 1.5.10. Cable Length
        11. 1.5.11. Cable Length vs. Conductor Length
      6. 1.6. Data Communications 101
        1. 1.6.1. Bandwidth, Frequency, and Data Rate
          1. 1.6.1.1. Standards Provide a Structured Approach
          2. 1.6.1.2. The Secret Ingredient: Encoding and Multipair Simultaneous Send and Receive
        2. 1.6.2. What a Difference a dB Makes!
          1. 1.6.2.1. Digging a Little Deeper into Decibels
            1. 1.6.2.1.1. Decibels 101
            2. 1.6.2.1.2. Decibels and Power
            3. 1.6.2.1.3. Decibels and Voltage
          2. 1.6.2.2. Applying Knowledge of Decibels
      7. 1.7. Speed Bumps: What Slows Down Your Data
        1. 1.7.1. Hindrances to High-Speed Data Transfer
        2. 1.7.2. Attenuation (Loss of Signal)
        3. 1.7.3. Noise (Signal Interference)
      8. 1.8. Types of Crosstalk
        1. 1.8.1. Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
        2. 1.8.2. Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT)
        3. 1.8.3. Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT)
        4. 1.8.4. Pair-to-Pair Crosstalk
        5. 1.8.5. Power-Sum Crosstalk
        6. 1.8.6. Alien Crosstalk (AXT)
      9. 1.9. External Interference
      10. 1.10. Attenuation-to-Crosstalk Ratio (ACR)
      11. 1.11. Propagation Delay
      12. 1.12. Delay Skew
      13. 1.13. The Future of Cabling Performance
      14. 1.14. The Bottom Line
    2. 2. Cabling Specifications and Standards
      1. 2.1. Structured Cabling and Standardization
      2. 2.2. Standards and Specification Organizations
        1. 2.2.1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
        2. 2.2.2. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
        3. 2.2.3. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
        4. 2.2.4. Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)
        5. 2.2.5. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
        6. 2.2.6. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
        7. 2.2.7. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
        8. 2.2.8. Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
        9. 2.2.9. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
        10. 2.2.10. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
        11. 2.2.11. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
        12. 2.2.12. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
        13. 2.2.13. International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
        14. 2.2.14. CSA International (CSA)
        15. 2.2.15. IP/MPLS Forum (ATM Forum)
        16. 2.2.16. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
        17. 2.2.17. Building Industry Consulting Services International (BICSI)
        18. 2.2.18. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
      3. 2.3. ANSI/TIA-568-C Cabling Standard
        1. 2.3.1. ANSI/TIA-568-C Purpose and Scope
        2. 2.3.2. Subsystems of a Structured Cabling System
          1. 2.3.2.1. Horizontal Cabling
            1. 2.3.2.1.1. Recognized Media
            2. 2.3.2.1.2. Telecommunications Outlets
            3. 2.3.2.1.3. Pair Numbers and Color Coding
          2. 2.3.2.2. Backbone Cabling
            1. 2.3.2.2.1. Basic Requirements for Backbone Cabling
            2. 2.3.2.2.2. Recognized Backbone Media
          3. 2.3.2.3. Work Area
          4. 2.3.2.4. Telecommunications Rooms and Telecommunications Enclosures
          5. 2.3.2.5. Entrance Facility
          6. 2.3.2.6. Equipment Room
        3. 2.3.3. Media and Connecting Hardware Performance
          1. 2.3.3.1. 100 Ohm Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling
            1. 2.3.3.1.1. Connecting Hardware: Performance Loss
            2. 2.3.3.1.2. Patch Cables and Cross-Connect Jumpers
          2. 2.3.3.2. Fiber-Optic Cabling
            1. 2.3.3.2.1. Multimode Optical-Fiber Cable
            2. 2.3.3.2.2. Single-Mode Optical-Fiber Cable
            3. 2.3.3.2.3. Optical Fiber and Telecommunications Rooms
        4. 2.3.4. TIA-569-B
          1. 2.3.4.1. Entrance Facility
          2. 2.3.4.2. Main Terminal Space
          3. 2.3.4.3. Equipment Room
          4. 2.3.4.4. Telecommunications Rooms
          5. 2.3.4.5. Horizontal Pathways
          6. 2.3.4.6. Backbone Pathways
          7. 2.3.4.7. Work Areas
        5. 2.3.5. ANSI/TIA-607-B
        6. 2.3.6. ANSI/TIA-570-B
        7. 2.3.7. ANSI/TIA-942
        8. 2.3.8. Other TIA/EIA Standards and Bulletins
      4. 2.4. ISO/IEC 11801
        1. 2.4.1. Differences Between ANSI/TIA-568-C and ISO/IEC 11801
        2. 2.4.2. Classification of Applications and Links
      5. 2.5. The Bottom Line
    3. 3. Choosing the Correct Cabling
      1. 3.1. Topologies
        1. 3.1.1. Hierarchical Star Topology
        2. 3.1.2. Bus Topology
        3. 3.1.3. Ring Topology
      2. 3.2. UTP, Optical Fiber, and Future-Proofing
      3. 3.3. Network Applications
        1. 3.3.1. Ethernet
          1. 3.3.1.1. 10Mbps Ethernet Systems
            1. 3.3.1.1.1. 10Base-T Ethernet
            2. 3.3.1.1.2. 10Base-F Ethernet
            3. 3.3.1.1.3. Getting the Fiber-Optic Cable Right
            4. 3.3.1.1.4. 10Base-2 Ethernet
          2. 3.3.1.2. 100Mbps Ethernet Systems
            1. 3.3.1.2.1. 100Base-TX Ethernet
            2. 3.3.1.2.2. 100Base-T4 Ethernet
            3. 3.3.1.2.3. 100Base-FX Ethernet
          3. 3.3.1.3. Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps)
            1. 3.3.1.3.1. Gigabit Ethernet and Fiber-Optic Cables
            2. 3.3.1.3.2. 1000Base-T Ethernet
          4. 3.3.1.4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10,000Mbps)
            1. 3.3.1.4.1. 10GBASE-SR (Short Range)
            2. 3.3.1.4.2. 10GBASE-LR (Long Range)
            3. 3.3.1.4.3. 10GBASE-LX4
            4. 3.3.1.4.4. 10GBASE-LRM
            5. 3.3.1.4.5. 10GBASE-T
          5. 3.3.1.5. What's Next?
        2. 3.3.2. Token Ring
          1. 3.3.2.1. Token Ring and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
          2. 3.3.2.2. Token Ring and Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
        3. 3.3.3. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
          1. 3.3.3.1. Cabling and FDDI
        4. 3.3.4. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
          1. 3.3.4.1. Cabling and ATM
      4. 3.4. The Bottom Line
    4. 4. Cable System and Infrastructure Constraints
      1. 4.1. Where Do Codes Come From?
        1. 4.1.1. The Federal Communications Commission
        2. 4.1.2. The National Fire Protection Association
        3. 4.1.3. Underwriters Laboratories
        4. 4.1.4. Codes and the Law
      2. 4.2. The National Electrical Code
        1. 4.2.1. NEC Chapter 1 General Requirements
          1. 4.2.1.1. Article 100—Definitions
          2. 4.2.1.2. Article 110.3 (B)—Installation and Use
          3. 4.2.1.3. Article 110.26—Spaces about Electrical Equipment
        2. 4.2.2. NEC Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection
          1. 4.2.2.1. Article 225.14 (D)—Conductors on Poles
          2. 4.2.2.2. Article 250—Grounding
          3. 4.2.2.3. Article 250.4 (A)(4)—Bonding of Electrically Conductive Materials and Other Equipment
          4. 4.2.2.4. Article 250.32—Two or More Buildings or Structures Supplied by a Feeder or Branch Circuit
          5. 4.2.2.5. Article 250.50—Grounding-Electrode System
          6. 4.2.2.6. Article 250.52—Grounding Electrodes
          7. 4.2.2.7. Article 250.60—Use of Air Terminals
          8. 4.2.2.8. Article 250.70—Methods of Grounding Conductor Connection to Electrodes
          9. 4.2.2.9. Article 250.94—Bonding to Other Services
          10. 4.2.2.10. Article 250.104—Bonding of Piping Systems and Exposed Structural Steel
          11. 4.2.2.11. Article 250.119—Identification of Equipment-Grounding Conductors
        3. 4.2.3. NEC Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials
          1. 4.2.3.1. Article 300.11—Securing and Supporting
          2. 4.2.3.2. Article 300.21—Spread of Fire or Products of Combustion
          3. 4.2.3.3. Article 300.22—Wiring in Ducts, Plenums, and Other Air-Handling Spaces
        4. 4.2.4. NEC Chapter 5 Special Occupancy
        5. 4.2.5. NEC Chapter 7 Special Conditions
          1. 4.2.5.1. Article 725.1—Scope
          2. 4.2.5.2. Article 760—Fire-Alarm Systems
          3. 4.2.5.3. Article 770—Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways
          4. 4.2.5.4. Article 770.12—Raceways for Optical Fiber Cables
          5. 4.2.5.5. Article 770.24—Mechanical Execution of Work
          6. 4.2.5.6. Article 770.154 (E)—Cable Substitutions
          7. 4.2.5.7. Article 770.179—Listings, Marking, and Installation of Optical Fiber Cables
          8. 4.2.5.8. Article 770.179—Listing Requirements for Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways
          9. 4.2.5.9. Article 770.182—Optical Fiber Raceways
        6. 4.2.6. NEC Chapter 8 Communications Systems
          1. 4.2.6.1. Article 800.1—Scope
          2. 4.2.6.2. Article 800.3 (A)—Hazardous Locations
          3. 4.2.6.3. Article 800.24—Mechanical Execution of Work
          4. 4.2.6.4. Article 800.44—Overhead Wires and Cables
          5. 4.2.6.5. Article 800.47—Underground Circuits Entering Buildings
          6. 4.2.6.6. Article 800.90—Protective Devices
            1. 4.2.6.6.1. Types of Primary Protectors
            2. 4.2.6.6.2. Requirements for Secondary Protectors
          7. 4.2.6.7. Article 800.100—Cable Grounding
          8. 4.2.6.8. Article 800.100—Primary-Protector Grounding
          9. 4.2.6.9. Article 800.154—Installation of Communications Wires, Cables, and Equipment
          10. 4.2.6.10. Article 179—Listings, Markings, and Installation of Communications Wires and Cables
          11. 4.2.6.11. Article 800.182—Communications Raceways
      3. 4.3. Knowing and Following the Codes
      4. 4.4. The Bottom Line
    5. 5. Cabling System Components
      1. 5.1. The Cable
        1. 5.1.1. Horizontal and Backbone Cables
          1. 5.1.1.1. Horizontal Cables
          2. 5.1.1.2. Backbone Cables
        2. 5.1.2. Patch Cords
        3. 5.1.3. Picking the Right Cable for the Job
      2. 5.2. Wall Plates and Connectors
      3. 5.3. Cabling Pathways
        1. 5.3.1. Conduit
        2. 5.3.2. Cable Trays
        3. 5.3.3. Raceways
        4. 5.3.4. Fiber-Protection Systems
      4. 5.4. Telecommunications Rooms, Enclosures, and Equipment Rooms
        1. 5.4.1. TIA/EIA Recommendations for Telecommunications Rooms
        2. 5.4.2. Cabling Racks and Enclosures
          1. 5.4.2.1. Wall-Mounted Brackets
          2. 5.4.2.2. Skeletal Frames (19″ Racks)
          3. 5.4.2.3. Full Equipment Cabinets
          4. 5.4.2.4. Cable Management Accessories
          5. 5.4.2.5. Electrical Grounding
        3. 5.4.3. Cross-Connect Devices
          1. 5.4.3.1. The 66 Punch-Down Blocks
          2. 5.4.3.2. The 110 and S-210 Punch-Down Blocks
          3. 5.4.3.3. Modular Patch Panels
          4. 5.4.3.4. Consolidation Points
          5. 5.4.3.5. Fiber-Optic Connector Panels
        4. 5.4.4. Administration Standards
      5. 5.5. The Bottom Line
    6. 6. Tools of the Trade
      1. 6.1. Building a Cabling Toolkit
      2. 6.2. Common Cabling Tools
        1. 6.2.1. Wire Strippers
          1. 6.2.1.1. Twisted-Pair Strippers
          2. 6.2.1.2. Coaxial Wire Strippers
          3. 6.2.1.3. Fiber-Optic Cable Strippers
        2. 6.2.2. Wire Cutters
        3. 6.2.3. Cable Crimpers
          1. 6.2.3.1. Twisted-Pair Crimpers
          2. 6.2.3.2. Coaxial-Cable Crimpers
        4. 6.2.4. Punch-Down Tools
        5. 6.2.5. Fish Tapes
        6. 6.2.6. Voltage Meter
      3. 6.3. Cable Testing
        1. 6.3.1. A Cable-Toning Tool
        2. 6.3.2. Twisted-Pair Continuity Tester
        3. 6.3.3. Coaxial Tester
        4. 6.3.4. Optical Fiber Testers
      4. 6.4. Cabling Supplies and Tools
        1. 6.4.1. Cable-Pulling Tools
        2. 6.4.2. Wire-Pulling Lubricant
        3. 6.4.3. Cable-Marking Supplies
          1. 6.4.3.1. Cable-Marking Labels
          2. 6.4.3.2. Wall-Plate Marking Supplies
      5. 6.5. Tools That a Smart Data Cable Technician Carries
      6. 6.6. A Preassembled Kit Could Be It
      7. 6.7. The Bottom Line
    7. 7. Copper Cable Media
      1. 7.1. Types of Copper Cabling
        1. 7.1.1. Major Cable Types Found Today
          1. 7.1.1.1. Category 1 UTP Cable
          2. 7.1.1.2. Category 2 UTP Cable
          3. 7.1.1.3. Category 3 UTP Cable
          4. 7.1.1.4. Category 5e Cable
          5. 7.1.1.5. Category 6 Cable
          6. 7.1.1.6. Category 6A Cable
          7. 7.1.1.7. 150 Ohm Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (IBM Type 1A)
          8. 7.1.1.8. Multi-pair UTP Cable
            1. 7.1.1.8.1. Color Codes and Multi-pair Cables
            2. 7.1.1.8.2. Binder Groups
          9. 7.1.1.9. Coaxial Cable
          10. 7.1.1.10. Hybrid or Composite Cable
        2. 7.1.2. Picking the Right Patch Cables
        3. 7.1.3. Why Pick Copper Cabling?
      2. 7.2. Best Practices for Copper Installation
        1. 7.2.1. Following Standards
          1. 7.2.1.1. Cable Distances
          2. 7.2.1.2. Wiring Patterns
        2. 7.2.2. Planning
        3. 7.2.3. Installing Copper Cable
          1. 7.2.3.1. Pulling Cable
          2. 7.2.3.2. Separating Voice and Data Patch Panels
          3. 7.2.3.3. Sheath Sharing
          4. 7.2.3.4. Avoiding Electromagnetic Interference
      3. 7.3. Copper Cable for Data Applications
        1. 7.3.1. 110-Blocks
        2. 7.3.2. Sample Data Installations
      4. 7.4. Copper Cable for Voice Applications
        1. 7.4.1. 66-Blocks
        2. 7.4.2. Sample Voice Installations
      5. 7.5. Testing
        1. 7.5.1. Tone Generators and Amplifier Probes
        2. 7.5.2. Continuity Testing
        3. 7.5.3. Wire-Map Testers
        4. 7.5.4. Cable Certification
        5. 7.5.5. Common Problems with Copper Cabling
          1. 7.5.5.1. Length Problems
          2. 7.5.5.2. Wire-Map Problems
          3. 7.5.5.3. NEXT and FEXT (Crosstalk) Problems
          4. 7.5.5.4. Attenuation Problems
      6. 7.6. The Bottom Line
    8. 8. Fiber-Optic Media
      1. 8.1. Introducing Fiber-Optic Transmission
      2. 8.2. Advantages of Fiber-Optic Cabling
        1. 8.2.1. Immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
        2. 8.2.2. Higher Possible Data Rates
        3. 8.2.3. Longer Maximum Distances
        4. 8.2.4. Better Security
      3. 8.3. Disadvantages of Fiber-Optic Cabling
        1. 8.3.1. Cost
        2. 8.3.2. Installation
      4. 8.4. Types of Fiber-Optic Cables
        1. 8.4.1. Composition of a Fiber-Optic Cable
          1. 8.4.1.1. Optical Fiber
            1. 8.4.1.1.1. Single-Mode Step-Index Glass
            2. 8.4.1.1.2. Multimode Graded-Index Glass
            3. 8.4.1.1.3. Multimode Plastic
          2. 8.4.1.2. Buffer
          3. 8.4.1.3. Strength Members
          4. 8.4.1.4. Shield Materials
          5. 8.4.1.5. Cable Jacket
        2. 8.4.2. Additional Designations of Fiber-Optic Cables
          1. 8.4.2.1. Core/Cladding Size
            1. 8.4.2.1.1. 8.3/125
            2. 8.4.2.1.2. 50/125
            3. 8.4.2.1.3. 62.5/125
          2. 8.4.2.2. Number of Optical Fibers
          3. 8.4.2.3. LAN/WAN Application
      5. 8.5. Fiber Installation Issues
        1. 8.5.1. Components of a Typical Installation
          1. 8.5.1.1. Fiber-Optic Enclosures
          2. 8.5.1.2. Fiber-Optic Connectors
        2. 8.5.2. Fiber-Optic Performance Factors
          1. 8.5.2.1. Attenuation
          2. 8.5.2.2. Acceptance Angle
          3. 8.5.2.3. Numerical Aperture (NA)
          4. 8.5.2.4. Modal Dispersion and Bandwidth
          5. 8.5.2.5. Chromatic Dispersion
      6. 8.6. The Bottom Line
    9. 9. Wall Plates
      1. 9.1. Wall Plate Design and Installation Issues
        1. 9.1.1. Manufacturer System
        2. 9.1.2. Wall Plate Location
          1. 9.1.2.1. Vertical Position
          2. 9.1.2.2. Horizontal Position
        3. 9.1.3. Wall Plate Mounting System
          1. 9.1.3.1. Outlet Boxes
          2. 9.1.3.2. Cut-In Mounting
            1. 9.1.3.2.1. Remodel Boxes
            2. 9.1.3.2.2. Cover-Plate Mounting Brackets
          3. 9.1.3.3. Surface-Mount Outlet Boxes
        4. 9.1.4. Fixed-Design or Modular Plate
      2. 9.2. Fixed-Design Wall Plates
        1. 9.2.1. Number of Jacks
        2. 9.2.2. Types of Jacks
        3. 9.2.3. Labeling
      3. 9.3. Modular Wall Plates
        1. 9.3.1. Number of Jacks
        2. 9.3.2. Wall Plate Jack Considerations
          1. 9.3.2.1. Wall Plate System Type
          2. 9.3.2.2. Cable Connection
          3. 9.3.2.3. Jack Orientation
          4. 9.3.2.4. Wiring Pattern
        3. 9.3.3. Labeling
      4. 9.4. Biscuit Jacks
        1. 9.4.1. Types of Biscuit Jacks
        2. 9.4.2. Advantages of Biscuit Jacks
        3. 9.4.3. Disadvantages of Biscuit Jacks
      5. 9.5. The Bottom Line
    10. 10. Connectors
      1. 10.1. Twisted-Pair Cable Connectors
        1. 10.1.1. Patch-Panel Terminations
        2. 10.1.2. Solid- vs. Stranded-Conductor Cables
        3. 10.1.3. Modular Jacks and Plugs
          1. 10.1.3.1. Wiring Schemes
            1. 10.1.3.1.1. USOC Wiring Scheme
            2. 10.1.3.1.2. ANSI/TIA -568-C Wiring Schemes T568A and T568B
            3. 10.1.3.1.3. Other Wiring Schemes
          2. 10.1.3.2. Pins Used by Specific Applications
          3. 10.1.3.3. Using a Single Horizontal Cable Run for Two 10Base-T Connections
          4. 10.1.3.4. Crossover Cables
        4. 10.1.4. Shielded Twisted-Pair Connectors
      2. 10.2. Coaxial Cable Connectors
        1. 10.2.1. F-Series Coaxial Connectors
        2. 10.2.2. N-Series Coaxial Connectors
        3. 10.2.3. The BNC Connector
      3. 10.3. Fiber-Optic Cable Connectors
        1. 10.3.1. SC, ST, and FC Fiber-Optic Connector Types
        2. 10.3.2. The SFF Connector
        3. 10.3.3. Installing Fiber-Optic Connectors
          1. 10.3.3.1. Crimping
          2. 10.3.3.2. Gluing
      4. 10.4. The Bottom Line
    11. 11. Network Equipment
      1. 11.1. Network Connectivity Devices
      2. 11.2. Workstation Ports
        1. 11.2.1. Network Interface Cards
        2. 11.2.2. Media Converters
      3. 11.3. Repeaters and Hubs
      4. 11.4. Bridges
      5. 11.5. Switches
        1. 11.5.1. Workgroup Switches
        2. 11.5.2. Blocking vs. Nonblocking
        3. 11.5.3. Core Switches
        4. 11.5.4. Pluggable Transceivers and Form Factors
      6. 11.6. Servers
      7. 11.7. Routers
      8. 11.8. The Bottom Line
    12. 12. Wireless Networks
      1. 12.1. Infrared Transmissions
        1. 12.1.1. How Infrared Transmissions Work
          1. 12.1.1.1. Point-to-Point Infrared Transmission
          2. 12.1.1.2. Broadcast Infrared Transmission
      2. 12.2. Advantages of Infrared
        1. 12.2.1. Disadvantages of Infrared
        2. 12.2.2. Examples of Infrared Transmissions
          1. 12.2.2.1. IrDA Ports
          2. 12.2.2.2. Infrared-Laser Devices
      3. 12.3. Radio Frequency (RF) Systems
        1. 12.3.1. How RF Works
          1. 12.3.1.1. Low Power, Single Frequency
          2. 12.3.1.2. High Power, Single Frequency
          3. 12.3.1.3. Spread Spectrum
        2. 12.3.2. Advantages of RF
        3. 12.3.3. Disadvantages of RF
        4. 12.3.4. Examples of RF
      4. 12.4. Microwave Communications
        1. 12.4.1. How Microwave Communication Works
          1. 12.4.1.1. Terrestrial Microwave Systems
          2. 12.4.1.2. Satellite Microwave Systems
        2. 12.4.2. Advantages of Microwave Communications
        3. 12.4.3. Disadvantages of Microwave Communications
        4. 12.4.4. Examples of Microwave Communications
      5. 12.5. The Bottom Line
    13. 13. Cabling System Design and Installation
      1. 13.1. Elements of a Successful Cabling Installation
        1. 13.1.1. Proper Design
          1. 13.1.1.1. Desired Standards and Performance Characteristics
          2. 13.1.1.2. Flexibility
          3. 13.1.1.3. Longevity
          4. 13.1.1.4. Ease of Administration
          5. 13.1.1.5. Economy
        2. 13.1.2. Quality Materials
        3. 13.1.3. Good Workmanship
      2. 13.2. Cabling Topologies
        1. 13.2.1. Bus Topology
        2. 13.2.2. Hierarchical Star Topology
        3. 13.2.3. Ring Topology
        4. 13.2.4. Mesh Topology
        5. 13.2.5. Backbones and Segments
          1. 13.2.5.1. Understanding the Backbone
          2. 13.2.5.2. Understanding Segments
        6. 13.2.6. Selecting the Right Topology
      3. 13.3. Cabling Plant Uses
        1. 13.3.1. Telephone
        2. 13.3.2. Television
        3. 13.3.3. Fire Detection and Security Cabling
      4. 13.4. Choice of Media
      5. 13.5. Telecommunications Rooms
        1. 13.5.1. LAN Wiring
        2. 13.5.2. Telephone Wiring
        3. 13.5.3. Power Requirements
        4. 13.5.4. HVAC Considerations
      6. 13.6. Cabling Management
        1. 13.6.1. Physical Protection
          1. 13.6.1.1. Conduit
          2. 13.6.1.2. Cable Trays
          3. 13.6.1.3. Standoffs
          4. 13.6.1.4. D-Rings
        2. 13.6.2. Electrical Protection (Spike Protection)
          1. 13.6.2.1. Standby Power Supply (SPS)
          2. 13.6.2.2. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
        3. 13.6.3. Fire Protection
      7. 13.7. Data and Cabling Security
        1. 13.7.1. EM (Electromagnetic) Transmission Regulation
        2. 13.7.2. Tapping Prevention
      8. 13.8. Cabling Installation Procedures
        1. 13.8.1. Design the Cabling System
        2. 13.8.2. Schedule the Installation
        3. 13.8.3. Install the Cabling
          1. 13.8.3.1. Cabling Tools
            1. 13.8.3.1.1. Pen and Paper
            2. 13.8.3.1.2. Hand Tools
            3. 13.8.3.1.3. Cable Spool Racks
            4. 13.8.3.1.4. Fish Tape
            5. 13.8.3.1.5. Pull String
            6. 13.8.3.1.6. Cable-Pulling Lubricant
            7. 13.8.3.1.7. Labeling Materials
            8. 13.8.3.1.8. Two-Way Radio
            9. 13.8.3.1.9. Tennis Ball
          2. 13.8.3.2. Pulling Cable
            1. 13.8.3.2.1. Tensile Strength
            2. 13.8.3.2.2. Bend Radius
            3. 13.8.3.2.3. Protection While Pulling
          3. 13.8.3.3. Cabling System Documentation
        4. 13.8.4. Terminate the Cable
        5. 13.8.5. Test the Installation
      9. 13.9. The Bottom Line
    14. 14. Cable Connector Installation
      1. 14.1. Twisted-Pair Cable Connector Installation
        1. 14.1.1. Types of Connectors
        2. 14.1.2. Conductor Arrangement
        3. 14.1.3. Connector Crimping Procedures
          1. 14.1.3.1. Prerequisites
          2. 14.1.3.2. Installing the Connector
          3. 14.1.3.3. Testing
      2. 14.2. Coaxial Cable Connector Installation
        1. 14.2.1. Types of Connectors
        2. 14.2.2. Connector Crimping Procedures
          1. 14.2.2.1. Prerequisites
          2. 14.2.2.2. Installing the Connector
          3. 14.2.2.3. Testing
      3. 14.3. Fiber-Optic Cable Connector Installation
        1. 14.3.1. Connector Types
        2. 14.3.2. Connectorizing Methods
          1. 14.3.2.1. Epoxy Connectors
          2. 14.3.2.2. Mechanical Connectors
        3. 14.3.3. Connector Installation Procedures
          1. 14.3.3.1. Prerequisites
          2. 14.3.3.2. Installing the Connector
            1. 14.3.3.2.1. Cut and Strip the Cable
            2. 14.3.3.2.2. Trim the Aramid Yarn
            3. 14.3.3.2.3. Strip the Optical-Fiber Buffer
            4. 14.3.3.2.4. Prepare the Epoxy
            5. 14.3.3.2.5. Epoxy the Connector
            6. 14.3.3.2.6. Insert the Fiber into the Connector
            7. 14.3.3.2.7. Dry the Epoxy
            8. 14.3.3.2.8. Scribe and Remove Extra Fiber
            9. 14.3.3.2.9. Polish the Tip
            10. 14.3.3.2.10. Inspect the Connector
            11. 14.3.3.2.11. Finish
      4. 14.4. The Bottom Line
    15. 15. Cable System Testing and Troubleshooting
      1. 15.1. Installation Testing
        1. 15.1.1. Copper Cable Tests
          1. 15.1.1.1. Wire Mapping
          2. 15.1.1.2. Cable Length
            1. 15.1.1.2.1. Time-Domain Reflectometry
            2. 15.1.1.2.2. Locating Cable Faults
            3. 15.1.1.2.3. Resistance Measuring
          3. 15.1.1.3. Performance Testing
            1. 15.1.1.3.1. Impedance
            2. 15.1.1.3.2. Attenuation
            3. 15.1.1.3.3. Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
            4. 15.1.1.3.4. Power-Sum NEXT
            5. 15.1.1.3.5. Attenuation to (Near-End) Crosstalk Ratio (ACR)
            6. 15.1.1.3.6. Attenuation to Power-Sum (Near-End) Crosstalk Ratio (PSACR)
            7. 15.1.1.3.7. Far-End Crosstalk (FEXT) and Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio Far End (ACRF)
            8. 15.1.1.3.8. Power-Sum FEXT (PSFEXT) and PSACRF
            9. 15.1.1.3.9. Propagation Delay and Delay Skew
            10. 15.1.1.3.10. Noise
        2. 15.1.2. Fiber-Optic Tests
          1. 15.1.2.1. Optical Power
          2. 15.1.2.2. Loss (Attenuation)
      2. 15.2. Cable Plant Certification
        1. 15.2.1. Creating a Testing Regimen
        2. 15.2.2. Copper Cable Certification
        3. 15.2.3. Fiber-Optic Certification
        4. 15.2.4. Third-Party Certification
      3. 15.3. Cable Testing Tools
        1. 15.3.1. Wire-Map Testers
        2. 15.3.2. Continuity Testers
        3. 15.3.3. Tone Generators
        4. 15.3.4. Time-Domain Reflectometers
          1. 15.3.4.1. Fault Detection
          2. 15.3.4.2. Blind Spots
          3. 15.3.4.3. Integrated TDRs
        5. 15.3.5. Fiber-Optic Power Meters
        6. 15.3.6. Fiber-Optic Test Sources
        7. 15.3.7. Optical Loss Test Sets and Test Kits
        8. 15.3.8. Optical Time-Domain Reflectometers
        9. 15.3.9. Fiber-Optic Inspection Microscopes
        10. 15.3.10. Visual Fault Locators
        11. 15.3.11. Multifunction Cable Scanners
      4. 15.4. Troubleshooting Cabling Problems
        1. 15.4.1. Establishing a Baseline
        2. 15.4.2. Locating the Problem
        3. 15.4.3. Resolving Specific Problems
          1. 15.4.3.1. Wire-Map Faults
          2. 15.4.3.2. Excessive Length
          3. 15.4.3.3. Opens and Shorts
          4. 15.4.3.4. Excessive Attenuation
          5. 15.4.3.5. Excessive Crosstalk
          6. 15.4.3.6. Excessive Noise
      5. 15.5. The Bottom Line
    16. 16. Creating a Request for Proposal
      1. 16.1. What Is a Request for Proposal?
        1. 16.1.1. Setting the Tone for the Project
        2. 16.1.2. The Goals of the RFP
      2. 16.2. Developing a Request for Proposal
        1. 16.2.1. The Needs Analysis
          1. 16.2.1.1. Getting Input from Key Players
          2. 16.2.1.2. The Bonus: Getting Buy-In
        2. 16.2.2. Designing the Project for the RFP
          1. 16.2.2.1. Components of a Cabling Infrastructure
            1. 16.2.2.1.1. Backbone Cabling
            2. 16.2.2.1.2. Telecommunications Rooms
            3. 16.2.2.1.3. Horizontal Cabling
            4. 16.2.2.1.4. Work Area
          2. 16.2.2.2. How Much Is Enough?
            1. 16.2.2.2.1. Wall Plates and Information Outlets
            2. 16.2.2.2.2. Backbone and Horizontal Cabling
          3. 16.2.2.3. Rules for Designing Your Infrastructure
        3. 16.2.3. Writing the RFP
          1. 16.2.3.1. Including the Right Content in the RFP
          2. 16.2.3.2. What Makes a Good RFP?
      3. 16.3. Distributing the RFP and Managing the Vendor-Selection Process
        1. 16.3.1. Distributing RFPs to Prospective Vendors
        2. 16.3.2. Vendor Selection
      4. 16.4. Project Administration
        1. 16.4.1. Project Management Tips
        2. 16.4.2. Planning for the Cutover
      5. 16.5. Technology Network Infrastructure Request for Proposal (A Sample RFP)
        1. 16.5.1. General
          1. 16.5.1.1. Contractor's Requirements
          2. 16.5.1.2. Purpose of This RFP
          3. 16.5.1.3. Work Included
          4. 16.5.1.4. Intent
        2. 16.5.2. Cable Plant
          1. 16.5.2.1. Horizontal Cable
          2. 16.5.2.2. Data Backbone Cabling
          3. 16.5.2.3. Fire-Code Compliance
          4. 16.5.2.4. Wiring Pathways
          5. 16.5.2.5. Wiring Identification
          6. 16.5.2.6. Telecommunications Rooms
          7. 16.5.2.7. MC/IC Cable Management
          8. 16.5.2.8. As-Built Diagrams
          9. 16.5.2.9. Network Hardware Specifications
          10. 16.5.2.10. Bidding Process
          11. 16.5.2.11. Bid Submittals
          12. 16.5.2.12. Miscellaneous
      6. 16.6. The Bottom Line
    17. 17. Cabling @ Work: Experience from the Field
      1. 17.1. Hints and Guidelines
        1. 17.1.1. Know What You Are Doing
        2. 17.1.2. Plan the Installation
        3. 17.1.3. Have the Right Equipment
        4. 17.1.4. Test and Document
        5. 17.1.5. Train Your Crew
      2. 17.2. Work Safely
        1. 17.2.1. Make It Pretty
        2. 17.2.2. Look Good Yourself
        3. 17.2.3. Plan for Contingencies
        4. 17.2.4. Match Your Work to the Job
        5. 17.2.5. Waste Not, Want Not
      3. 17.3. Case Studies
        1. 17.3.1. A Small Job
        2. 17.3.2. A Large Job
        3. 17.3.3. An Inside Job
      4. 17.4. The Bottom Line
  7. II. Fiber-Optic Cabling and Components
    1. 18. History of Fiber Optics
      1. 18.1. Evolution of Light in Communication
        1. 18.1.1. Early Forms of Light Communication
        2. 18.1.2. The Quest for Data Transmission
      2. 18.2. Evolution of Optical Fiber Manufacturing Technology
        1. 18.2.1. Controlling the Course of Light
        2. 18.2.2. Extending Fiber's Reach
      3. 18.3. Evolution of Optical Fiber Integration and Application
      4. 18.4. The Bottom Line
    2. 19. Principles of Fiber-Optic Transmission
      1. 19.1. The Fiber-Optic Link
        1. 19.1.1. Transmitter
        2. 19.1.2. Receiver
        3. 19.1.3. Optical Fibers
        4. 19.1.4. Connectors
      2. 19.2. Amplitude Modulation
      3. 19.3. Analog Transmission
      4. 19.4. Digital Data Transmission
      5. 19.5. Analog Data Transmission vs. Digital Data Transmission
      6. 19.6. Analog to Digital (A/D) Conversion
        1. 19.6.1. Sample Rate
        2. 19.6.2. Quantizing Error
      7. 19.7. Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion
      8. 19.8. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
      9. 19.9. Multiplexing
      10. 19.10. Decibels (dB)
        1. 19.10.1. Calculating dB Loss and Gain
        2. 19.10.2. Expressing dB in Percentages
        3. 19.10.3. The Rules of Thumb
      11. 19.11. Absolute Power
      12. 19.12. The Bottom Line
    3. 20. Basic Principles of Light
      1. 20.1. Light as Electromagnetic Energy
      2. 20.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      3. 20.3. Refraction
        1. 20.3.1. What Causes Refraction?
        2. 20.3.2. Calculating the Index of Refraction
      4. 20.4. Total Internal Reflection
      5. 20.5. Fresnel Reflections
      6. 20.6. The Bottom Line
    4. 21. Optical Fiber Construction and Theory
      1. 21.1. Optical Fiber Components
        1. 21.1.1. Core
        2. 21.1.2. Cladding
        3. 21.1.3. Coating
        4. 21.1.4. Standards
        5. 21.1.5. Materials
      2. 21.2. Tensile Strength
      3. 21.3. Manufacturing Optical Fiber
        1. 21.3.1. Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD)
        2. 21.3.2. Outside Vapor Deposition (OVD)
        3. 21.3.3. Vapor Axial Deposition (VAD)
        4. 21.3.4. Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (PCVD)
      4. 21.4. Mode
        1. 21.4.1. Calculating the Numerical Aperture and Modes
        2. 21.4.2. Refractive Index Profiles
          1. 21.4.2.1. Multimode Step-Index Fiber
          2. 21.4.2.2. Multimode Graded-Index Fiber
          3. 21.4.2.3. Single-Mode Step-Index Fiber
          4. 21.4.2.4. Single-Mode Depressed-Clad Fiber
      5. 21.5. The Bottom Line
    5. 22. Optical Fiber Characteristics
      1. 22.1. It All Adds Up
      2. 22.2. Dispersion
        1. 22.2.1. Modal Dispersion
        2. 22.2.2. Material Dispersion
        3. 22.2.3. Waveguide Dispersion
        4. 22.2.4. Chromatic Dispersion
          1. 22.2.4.1. Reduced Spectral Width
        5. 22.2.5. Polarization-Mode Dispersion
        6. 22.2.6. How Dispersion Affects Bandwidth
      3. 22.3. Attenuation
        1. 22.3.1. Absorption
        2. 22.3.2. Scattering
        3. 22.3.3. Total Attenuation
      4. 22.4. Bending Losses
        1. 22.4.1. Microbends
        2. 22.4.2. Macrobends
      5. 22.5. Numerical Aperture
      6. 22.6. Equilibrium Mode Distribution
      7. 22.7. Fiber Specifications
      8. 22.8. The Bottom Line
    6. 23. Safety
      1. 23.1. Basic Safety
        1. 23.1.1. Engineering Controls
        2. 23.1.2. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
        3. 23.1.3. Good Work Habits
      2. 23.2. Light Sources
        1. 23.2.1. Federal Regulations and International Standards
          1. 23.2.1.1. Federal Regulations
          2. 23.2.1.2. Standards
            1. 23.2.1.2.1. OSHA Standards for OFCS Service Groups
            2. 23.2.1.2.2. OSHA Laser Hazard Classes
            3. 23.2.1.2.3. IEC Laser Hazard Classifications
            4. 23.2.1.2.4. IEC Laser Hazard Levels for OFCS
        2. 23.2.2. Laser Safety
      3. 23.3. Handling Fiber
      4. 23.4. Chemicals
        1. 23.4.1. Isopropyl Alcohol
        2. 23.4.2. Solvents
        3. 23.4.3. Anaerobic Epoxy
      5. 23.5. Site Safety
        1. 23.5.1. Electrical
        2. 23.5.2. Ladders
        3. 23.5.3. Trenches
      6. 23.6. Emergencies
        1. 23.6.1. Injury
        2. 23.6.2. Chemical Exposure
        3. 23.6.3. Fire
      7. 23.7. The Bottom Line
    7. 24. Fiber-Optic Cables
      1. 24.1. Basic Cable
      2. 24.2. Cable Components
        1. 24.2.1. Buffer
          1. 24.2.1.1. Loose Buffer
          2. 24.2.1.2. Tight Buffer
        2. 24.2.2. Strength Members
        3. 24.2.3. Jacket
      3. 24.3. Cable Types
        1. 24.3.1. Cordage
          1. 24.3.1.1. Simplex Cordage
          2. 24.3.1.2. Duplex Cordage
        2. 24.3.2. Distribution Cable
        3. 24.3.3. Breakout Cable
        4. 24.3.4. Armored Cable
        5. 24.3.5. Messenger Cable
        6. 24.3.6. Ribbon Cable
        7. 24.3.7. Submarine Cable
        8. 24.3.8. Aerospace Cable
        9. 24.3.9. Hybrid Cable
        10. 24.3.10. Composite Cable
      4. 24.4. Cable Duty Specifications
      5. 24.5. Cable Termination Methods
        1. 24.5.1. Fanout Kit
        2. 24.5.2. Breakout Kit
      6. 24.6. Blown Fiber
      7. 24.7. NEC Standards for Fiber-Optic Cables and Raceways
        1. 24.7.1. NEC Fiber-Optic Cable Types
        2. 24.7.2. Fire Resistance
          1. 24.7.2.1. Plenum Cable
          2. 24.7.2.2. Riser Cable
          3. 24.7.2.3. General-Purpose Cable
        3. 24.7.3. NEC-Listed Raceways
      8. 24.8. Cable Markings and Codes
        1. 24.8.1. External Markings
        2. 24.8.2. Color Codes
        3. 24.8.3. Sequential Markings
      9. 24.9. Bend Radius Specifications
      10. 24.10. The Bottom Line
    8. 25. Splicing
      1. 25.1. Why Splice?
        1. 25.1.1. Splice Performance
        2. 25.1.2. Intrinsic Factors
          1. 25.1.2.1. Numerical Aperture (NA) Mismatch
          2. 25.1.2.2. Core Diameter Mismatch
          3. 25.1.2.3. Mode Field Diameter Mismatch
          4. 25.1.2.4. Cladding Diameter Mismatch
          5. 25.1.2.5. Concentricity
          6. 25.1.2.6. Noncircularity
        3. 25.1.3. Extrinsic Factors
          1. 25.1.3.1. Lateral Misalignment
          2. 25.1.3.2. End Separation
          3. 25.1.3.3. Angular Misalignment
      2. 25.2. Splicing Equipment
        1. 25.2.1. Cleaning Materials
        2. 25.2.2. Cleavers
        3. 25.2.3. Mechanical Splice
        4. 25.2.4. Fusion Splice
      3. 25.3. Splicing Procedures
        1. 25.3.1. Mechanical Splicing Procedure
        2. 25.3.2. Fusion Splicing Procedure
      4. 25.4. Splice Requirements
      5. 25.5. The Bottom Line
    9. 26. Connectors
      1. 26.1. The Fiber-Optic Connector
      2. 26.2. Connection Performance
        1. 26.2.1. Intrinsic Factors
        2. 26.2.2. Extrinsic Factors
        3. 26.2.3. Geometry
        4. 26.2.4. Interferometer
      3. 26.3. Connector Types
        1. 26.3.1. Single-Fiber Connectors
          1. 26.3.1.1. SC Connectors
          2. 26.3.1.2. ST Connectors
          3. 26.3.1.3. FC Connectors
          4. 26.3.1.4. LC Connectors
          5. 26.3.1.5. D4 Connectors
          6. 26.3.1.6. SMA Connectors
          7. 26.3.1.7. Biconic Connectors
          8. 26.3.1.8. Mini-BNC Connectors
        2. 26.3.2. Multiple-Fiber Connectors
          1. 26.3.2.1. FDDI Connectors
          2. 26.3.2.2. ESCON Connectors
          3. 26.3.2.3. SC Duplex Connectors
          4. 26.3.2.4. LC Duplex Connectors
          5. 26.3.2.5. MPO Connectors
          6. 26.3.2.6. MTP Connectors
          7. 26.3.2.7. MT-RJ Connectors
          8. 26.3.2.8. Pigtails
          9. 26.3.2.9. Specialized Connectors
      4. 26.4. Connector Termination
        1. 26.4.1. Tools
        2. 26.4.2. Epoxy
          1. 26.4.2.1. Oven-Cured Epoxy
          2. 26.4.2.2. Anaerobic Epoxy
        3. 26.4.3. Abrasives
          1. 26.4.3.1. Aluminum Oxide
          2. 26.4.3.2. Diamond
        4. 26.4.4. Hand Polishing
        5. 26.4.5. Assembling the Connector
          1. 26.4.5.1. Cable and Optical Fiber Preparation
          2. 26.4.5.2. Oven-Cured Epoxy Application, Connector Assembly, and Polishing
            1. 26.4.5.2.1. Oven-Cured Epoxy Application and Connector Assembly
            2. 26.4.5.2.2. Oven-Cured Epoxy Connector Polishing
          3. 26.4.5.3. Anaerobic Epoxy Application, Connector Assembly, and Polishing
            1. 26.4.5.3.1. Anaerobic Epoxy Application and Connector Assembly
            2. 26.4.5.3.2. Anaerobic Epoxy Connector Polishing
        6. 26.4.6. Machine Polishing
        7. 26.4.7. Pre-polished Connectors
      5. 26.5. Endface Cleaning and Inspection
        1. 26.5.1. Endface Cleaning
        2. 26.5.2. Endface Inspection
          1. 26.5.2.1. Inspection Microscopes
          2. 26.5.2.2. Examples of Endface Inspection
            1. 26.5.2.2.1. Good Quality, Clean Endfaces
            2. 26.5.2.2.2. Good Quality, Dirty Endfaces
            3. 26.5.2.2.3. Broken or Damaged Endfaces
        3. 26.5.3. Connector Performance
        4. 26.5.4. Connector Color Code
      6. 26.6. The Bottom Line
    10. 27. Fiber-Optic Light Sources
      1. 27.1. Semiconductor Light Sources
        1. 27.1.1. LED Sources
        2. 27.1.2. Laser Sources
      2. 27.2. Light Source Performance Characteristics
        1. 27.2.1. Output Pattern
          1. 27.2.1.1. LED Output Pattern
          2. 27.2.1.2. Laser Output Pattern
        2. 27.2.2. Source Wavelengths
          1. 27.2.2.1. LED Wavelengths
          2. 27.2.2.2. Laser Wavelengths
        3. 27.2.3. Source Spectral Output
          1. 27.2.3.1. LED Spectral Width
          2. 27.2.3.2. Laser Spectral Width
        4. 27.2.4. Source Output Power
          1. 27.2.4.1. LED Output Power
          2. 27.2.4.2. Laser Output Power
        5. 27.2.5. Source Modulation Speed
          1. 27.2.5.1. LED Modulation Speed
          2. 27.2.5.2. Laser Modulation Speed
      3. 27.3. Transmitter Performance Characteristics
        1. 27.3.1. LED Transmitter Performance Characteristics
        2. 27.3.2. LED Transmitter Applications
        3. 27.3.3. Laser Transmitter Performance Characteristics
        4. 27.3.4. Laser Transmitter Applications
      4. 27.4. Light Source Safety
        1. 27.4.1. Classifications
        2. 27.4.2. Safe Handling Precautions
      5. 27.5. The Bottom Line
    11. 28. Fiber-Optic Detectors and Receivers
      1. 28.1. Photodiode Fundamentals
      2. 28.2. Other Types of Photodiode
        1. 28.2.1. PIN Photodiode
        2. 28.2.2. Avalanche Photodiode
      3. 28.3. Photodiode Responsivity, Efficiency, and Speed
        1. 28.3.1. Responsivity
        2. 28.3.2. Quantum Efficiency
        3. 28.3.3. Switching Speed
      4. 28.4. Fiber-Optic Receiver
        1. 28.4.1. Packaging
        2. 28.4.2. Receptacle
        3. 28.4.3. Optical Subassembly
        4. 28.4.4. Electrical Subassembly
      5. 28.5. Receiver Performance Characteristics
        1. 28.5.1. Dynamic Range
        2. 28.5.2. Operating Wavelength
        3. 28.5.3. LED Receiver Performance Characteristics
        4. 28.5.4. Laser Receiver Performance Characteristics
      6. 28.6. The Bottom Line
    12. 29. Passive Components and Multiplexers
      1. 29.1. Standards
      2. 29.2. Parameters
      3. 29.3. Couplers
        1. 29.3.1. The Tee Coupler
          1. 29.3.1.1. Distribution and Loss of Output Power in a Tee Coupler
          2. 29.3.1.2. Methods of Describing Insertion Loss
          3. 29.3.1.3. Calculating the Output Power at the Ports of a Coupler
            1. 29.3.1.3.1. Calculating from the Insertion Loss Value
            2. 29.3.1.3.2. Calculating with the Insertion Loss and Excess Loss
        2. 29.3.2. The Star Coupler
          1. 29.3.2.1. Calculating the Losses with a Star Coupler
          2. 29.3.2.2. Advantages of Star Coupler Compared to Tee Coupler
      4. 29.4. Optical Switches
        1. 29.4.1. Optomechanical Switch
        2. 29.4.2. Thermo-Optic
        3. 29.4.3. Electro-Optic
      5. 29.5. Optical Attenuators
        1. 29.5.1. Principles of Optical Attenuators
          1. 29.5.1.1. Gap-Loss Principle
          2. 29.5.1.2. Absorptive Principle
          3. 29.5.1.3. Reflective Principle
        2. 29.5.2. Types of Attenuators
          1. 29.5.2.1. Fixed Attenuators
          2. 29.5.2.2. Stepwise Variable Attenuators
          3. 29.5.2.3. Continuously Variable Attenuators
        3. 29.5.3. Calculating the Attenuation Value
      6. 29.6. Optical Isolator
        1. 29.6.1. Polarized Optical Isolator
        2. 29.6.2. Magnetic Optical Isolator
      7. 29.7. Wavelength Division Multiplexing
      8. 29.8. Optical Amplifier
      9. 29.9. Optical Filter
      10. 29.10. The Bottom Line
    13. 30. Passive Optical Networks
      1. 30.1. Passive and Active Network Fundamentals
        1. 30.1.1. Passive Copper Network
        2. 30.1.2. Active Copper Network
        3. 30.1.3. Passive Optical Network
        4. 30.1.4. Active Optical Network
      2. 30.2. Fiber to the X
        1. 30.2.1. Fiber to the Home
        2. 30.2.2. Fiber to the Building
        3. 30.2.3. Fiber to the Curb
        4. 30.2.4. Fiber to the Node
      3. 30.3. Outside Plant Components
        1. 30.3.1. Cables
          1. 30.3.1.1. Feeder Cables
          2. 30.3.1.2. Distribution Cables
          3. 30.3.1.3. Drop Cables
        2. 30.3.2. Local Convergence Point
        3. 30.3.3. Network Access Point
        4. 30.3.4. Network Interface Device
      4. 30.4. The Bottom Line
    14. 31. Cable Installation and Hardware
      1. 31.1. Installation Specifications
        1. 31.1.1. Bend Radius
        2. 31.1.2. Tensile Rating
      2. 31.2. Installation Hardware
        1. 31.2.1. Pulling Eye
        2. 31.2.2. Pull Box
        3. 31.2.3. Splice Enclosures
        4. 31.2.4. Patch Panels
      3. 31.3. Installation Methods
        1. 31.3.1. Tray and Duct
        2. 31.3.2. Conduit
        3. 31.3.3. Direct Burial
        4. 31.3.4. Aerial
        5. 31.3.5. Blown Fiber
        6. 31.3.6. Cable Slack
      4. 31.4. Fire Resistance and Grounding
        1. 31.4.1. Fire Resistance
        2. 31.4.2. Grounding
        3. 31.4.3. Cable Types
      5. 31.5. Hardware Management
        1. 31.5.1. Cleanliness
        2. 31.5.2. Organization
        3. 31.5.3. Clamps and Cable Ties
        4. 31.5.4. Labeling
        5. 31.5.5. Documentation
      6. 31.6. Labeling Requirements
      7. 31.7. The Bottom Line
    15. 32. Fiber-Optic System Design Considerations
      1. 32.1. Basic Fiber-Optic System Design Considerations
      2. 32.2. The Advantages of Optical Fiber over Copper
        1. 32.2.1. Bandwidth
        2. 32.2.2. Attenuation
        3. 32.2.3. Electromagnetic Immunity
        4. 32.2.4. Size and Weight
        5. 32.2.5. Security
        6. 32.2.6. Safety
      3. 32.3. Link Performance Analysis
        1. 32.3.1. Cable Transmission Performance
        2. 32.3.2. Splice and Connector Performance
        3. 32.3.3. Power Budget
          1. 32.3.3.1. Multimode Link Analysis
          2. 32.3.3.2. Single-Mode Link Analysis
      4. 32.4. The Bottom Line
    16. 33. Test Equipment and Link/Cable Testing
      1. 33.1. Continuity Tester
      2. 33.2. Visual Fault Locator
      3. 33.3. Fiber Identifier
      4. 33.4. Optical Return Loss Test Set
      5. 33.5. Light Source and Optical Power Meter
        1. 33.5.1. Multimode OLTS
          1. 33.5.1.1. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) OLTS
          2. 33.5.1.2. LED OLTS
        2. 33.5.2. Single-Mode OLTS
      6. 33.6. Patch Cord
      7. 33.7. Test Jumper
      8. 33.8. Mode Filter
      9. 33.9. ANSI/TIA-526-14-A Optical Loss Measurement
        1. 33.9.1. Method A
        2. 33.9.2. Method B
        3. 33.9.3. Method C
      10. 33.10. Patch Cord Optical Power Loss Measurement
        1. 33.10.1. Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer
        2. 33.10.2. OTDR Theory
        3. 33.10.3. OTDR Display
        4. 33.10.4. OTDR Setup
          1. 33.10.4.1. Fiber Type
          2. 33.10.4.2. Wavelength
          3. 33.10.4.3. Range and Resolution
          4. 33.10.4.4. Pulse Width
          5. 33.10.4.5. Averages
          6. 33.10.4.6. Refractive Index
          7. 33.10.4.7. Thresholds
          8. 33.10.4.8. Backscatter Coefficient
        5. 33.10.5. Cable Plant Test Setup
        6. 33.10.6. Testing and Trace Analysis
          1. 33.10.6.1. Baseline Trace
          2. 33.10.6.2. Measuring the Attenuation of a Partial Length of Optical Fiber
          3. 33.10.6.3. Measuring the Distance to the End of the Optical Fiber
          4. 33.10.6.4. Measuring the Length of a Cable Segment
          5. 33.10.6.5. Measuring Interconnection Loss
          6. 33.10.6.6. Measuring the Loss of a Fusion Splice or Macrobend
          7. 33.10.6.7. Measuring the Loss of a Cable Segment and Interconnections
        7. 33.10.7. Documentation of OTDR Testing
      11. 33.11. The Bottom Line
    17. 34. Troubleshooting and Restoration
      1. 34.1. Inspection and Evaluation
        1. 34.1.1. Connector Inspection
        2. 34.1.2. Connector Endface Evaluation
        3. 34.1.3. Receptacle/Mating Sleeve Inspection and Cleaning
          1. 34.1.3.1. Cleaning an Endface with a Cleaning Stick
          2. 34.1.3.2. Cleaning an Endface with a Tape Type Cleaner
      2. 34.2. Continuity Tester Fault Location Techniques
      3. 34.3. Visual Fault Locator
      4. 34.4. Fiber Identifier
      5. 34.5. OTDR Fault Location Techniques
      6. 34.6. Restoration Practices
      7. 34.7. The Bottom Line
  8. III. appendices
    1. A. The Bottom Line Solutions
      1. A.1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Data Cabling
      2. A.2. Chapter 2: Cabling Specifications and Standards
      3. A.3. Chapter 3: Choosing the Correct Cabling
      4. A.4. Chapter 4: Cable System and Infrastructure Constraints
      5. A.5. Chapter 5: Cabling System Components
      6. A.6. Chapter 6: Tools of the Trade
      7. A.7. Chapter 7: Copper Cable Media
      8. A.8. Chapter 8: Fiber-Optic Media
      9. A.9. Chapter 9: Wall Plates
      10. A.10. Chapter 10: Connectors
      11. A.11. Chapter 11: Network Equipment
      12. A.12. Chapter 12: Wireless Networks
      13. A.13. Chapter 13: Cabling System Design and Installation
      14. A.14. Chapter 14: Cable Connector Installation
      15. A.15. Chapter 15: Cable System Testing and Troubleshooting
      16. A.16. Chapter 16: Creating a Request for Proposal
      17. A.17. Chapter 17: Cabling @ Work: Experience from the Field
      18. A.18. Chapter 18: History of Fiber Optics
      19. A.19. Chapter 19: Principles of Fiber-Optic Transmission
      20. A.20. Chapter 20: Basic Principles of Light
      21. A.21. Chapter 21: Optical Fiber Construction and Theory
      22. A.22. Chapter 22: Optical Fiber Characteristics
      23. A.23. Chapter 23: Safety
      24. A.24. Chapter 24: Fiber-Optic Cables
      25. A.25. Chapter 25: Splicing
      26. A.26. Chapter 26: Connectors
      27. A.27. Chapter 27: Fiber-Optic Light Sources
      28. A.28. Chapter 28: Fiber-Optic Detectors and Receivers
      29. A.29. Chapter 29: Passive Components and Multiplexers
      30. A.30. Chapter 30: Passive Optical Networks
      31. A.31. Chapter 31: Cable Installation and Hardware
      32. A.32. Chapter 32: Fiber-Optic System Design Considerations
      33. A.33. Chapter 33: Test Equipment and Link/Cable Testing
      34. A.34. Chapter 34: Troubleshooting and Restoration
    2. B. Cabling Resources
      1. B.1. Informational Internet Resources
        1. B.1.1. comp.dcom.cabling
        2. B.1.2. Whatis
        3. B.1.3. Wikipedia
        4. B.1.4. TIA Online
        5. B.1.5. Fiber Optics LAN Section (FOLS)
        6. B.1.6. TechFest
        7. B.1.7. TechEncyclopedia
        8. B.1.8. National Electrical Code Internet Connection
        9. B.1.9. Charles Spurgeon's Ethernet Website
        10. B.1.10. ATIS Telecom Glossary
        11. B.1.11. Protocols.com
        12. B.1.12. Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Internet Terms and Technical Support
      2. B.2. Books, Publications, and Videos
        1. B.2.1. Cabling Business Magazine
        2. B.2.2. Cabling Installation and Maintenance Magazine
        3. B.2.3. The Fiber Optic Association (FOA)
        4. B.2.4. Newton's Telecom Dictionary
        5. B.2.5. Premises Network
        6. B.2.6. BICSI's Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual and Information Transport Systems Installation Methods Manual
        7. B.2.7. ANSI/TIA-568-C Commercial Building Telecommunication Cabling Standard
      3. B.3. Manufacturers
        1. B.3.1. The Siemon Company
        2. B.3.2. MilesTek, Inc.
        3. B.3.3. IDEAL Industries, Inc.
        4. B.3.4. Leviton
        5. B.3.5. Ortronics
        6. B.3.6. Superior Essex
        7. B.3.7. CommScope
        8. B.3.8. Jensen Tools
        9. B.3.9. Labor Saving Devices, Inc.
        10. B.3.10. OFS
        11. B.3.11. Erico
        12. B.3.12. Berk-Tek
        13. B.3.13. Fluke
        14. B.3.14. Panduit
        15. B.3.15. Anixter
        16. B.3.16. Graybar
        17. B.3.17. Communications Supply Corporation
    3. C. Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) Certification
      1. C.1. Apply and Be Accepted as a Candidate for the Designation of RCDD
      2. C.2. Successfully Pass the Stringent RCDD Exam
      3. C.3. Maintain Your Accreditation Through Continuing Membership and Education
      4. C.4. Check Out BICSI and the RCDD Program for Yourself
    4. D. Home Cabling: Wiring Your Home for Now and the Future
      1. D.1. Home Cabling Facts and Trends
      2. D.2. Structured Residential Cabling
        1. D.2.1. Picking Cabling Equipment for Home Cabling
        2. D.2.2. A Word About Wireless
      3. D.3. Thinking Forward
    5. E. Overview of IEEE 1394 and USB Networking
      1. E.1. IEEE 1394
      2. E.2. USB
    6. F. The Electronics Technicians Association, International (ETA) Certifications
      1. F.1. Data Cabling Installer Certification (DCIC) 2007 Competency Requirements
        1. F.1.1. Basic Electricity
        2. F.1.2. Data Communications Basics
        3. F.1.3. Definitions, Symbols, And Abbreviations
        4. F.1.4. Cable Construction
        5. F.1.5. Cable Performance Characteristics
        6. F.1.6. Cabling Standards
        7. F.1.7. Basic Network Topologies
        8. F.1.8. Basic Network Architectures
        9. F.1.9. National Electric Code – NEC and UL Requirements
        10. F.1.10. Cabling System Components
        11. F.1.11. DCIC Installation Tools
        12. F.1.12. Connectors and Outlets
        13. F.1.13. Cabling System Design
        14. F.1.14. Cabling Installation
        15. F.1.15. Connector Installation
        16. F.1.16. Cabling Testing and Certification
        17. F.1.17. Cabling Troubleshooting
        18. F.1.18. Documentation
      2. F.2. Certified Fiber Optics Installer (CFOI) 2009 Competency Requirements
        1. F.2.1. History of Fiber Optic Cabling
        2. F.2.2. Principles of Fiber Optic Transmission
        3. F.2.3. Basic Principles of Light
        4. F.2.4. Optical Fiber Construction and Theory
        5. F.2.5. Optical Fiber Characteristics
        6. F.2.6. Fiber Optic Cabling Safety
        7. F.2.7. Fiber Optic Cables
        8. F.2.8. Splicing
        9. F.2.9. Connectors
        10. F.2.10. Fiber Optic Light Sources
        11. F.2.11. Fiber Optic Detectors and Receivers
        12. F.2.12. Cable Installation and Testing
        13. F.2.13. Fiber Optic System Design Considerations
        14. F.2.14. Test Equipment and Link/Cable Testing
      3. F.3. Fiber Optic Technician (FOT) 2007 Competency Requirements
        1. F.3.1. Principles of Fiber Optic Transmission
        2. F.3.2. Basic Principles of Light
        3. F.3.3. Optical Fiber Construction and Theory
        4. F.3.4. Optical Fiber Characteristics
        5. F.3.5. Advantages of Fiber Over Copper
        6. F.3.6. Fiber Optic Cables
        7. F.3.7. Sources
        8. F.3.8. Detectors
        9. F.3.9. Connectors
        10. F.3.10. Passive Components
        11. F.3.11. Types of Splicing
        12. F.3.12. Cable Installation and Hardware
        13. F.3.13. Fiber Optic Link
        14. F.3.14. Optical Fiber Measurement and Testing
        15. F.3.15. Link and Cable Testing
    7. Glossary
    8. Cable Connector and Tool Identification Guide