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### Understanding Variable Scope

The final topic we'll discuss in this chapter is variable scope—in other words, where variables exist. This is pertinent to functions because variables within a function are not accessible by code outside a function. And, for that matter, variables outside a function are not necessarily accessible inside the function.

## Understanding Static Variables

Variables within functions are different not only because of variable scope but also because they can be static. Let's start with this example:

```void up_one (void) {
int num = 0;
printf ("%d\n", ++num);
}
```

Even though num is incremented with each up_one() call, its ending value will only be 1 because it's reinitialized to 0 each time the function is called. In other words, ...

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