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C# 5.0 in a Nutshell, 5th Edition

Cover of C# 5.0 in a Nutshell, 5th Edition by Joseph Albahari... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. C# 5.0 in a Nutshell
  2. Preface
    1. Intended Audience
    2. How This Book Is Organized
    3. What You Need to Use This Book
    4. Conventions Used in This Book
    5. Using Code Examples
    6. Safari® Books Online
    7. How to Contact Us
    8. Acknowledgments
      1. Joseph Albahari
      2. Ben Albahari
  3. 1. Introducing C# and the .NET Framework
    1. Object Orientation
    2. Type Safety
    3. Memory Management
    4. Platform Support
    5. C#’s Relationship with the CLR
    6. The CLR and .NET Framework
    7. C# and Windows Runtime
    8. What’s New in C# 5.0
    9. What’s New in C# 4.0
    10. What’s New in C# 3.0
  4. 2. C# Language Basics
    1. A First C# Program
      1. Compilation
    2. Syntax
      1. Identifiers and Keywords
      2. Literals, Punctuators, and Operators
      3. Comments
    3. Type Basics
      1. Predefined Type Examples
      2. Custom Type Examples
      3. Conversions
      4. Value Types Versus Reference Types
      5. Predefined Type Taxonomy
    4. Numeric Types
      1. Numeric Literals
      2. Numeric Conversions
      3. Arithmetic Operators
      4. Increment and Decrement Operators
      5. Specialized Integral Operations
      6. 8- and 16-Bit Integrals
      7. Special Float and Double Values
      8. double Versus decimal
      9. Real Number Rounding Errors
    5. Boolean Type and Operators
      1. Bool Conversions
      2. Equality and Comparison Operators
      3. Conditional Operators
    6. Strings and Characters
      1. Char Conversions
      2. String Type
    7. Arrays
      1. Default Element Initialization
      2. Multidimensional Arrays
      3. Simplified Array Initialization Expressions
      4. Bounds Checking
    8. Variables and Parameters
      1. The Stack and the Heap
      2. Definite Assignment
      3. Default Values
      4. Parameters
      5. var—Implicitly Typed Local Variables
    9. Expressions and Operators
      1. Primary Expressions
      2. Void Expressions
      3. Assignment Expressions
      4. Operator Precedence and Associativity
      5. Operator Table
    10. Statements
      1. Declaration Statements
      2. Expression Statements
      3. Selection Statements
      4. Iteration Statements
      5. Jump Statements
      6. Miscellaneous Statements
    11. Namespaces
      1. The using Directive
      2. Rules Within a Namespace
      3. Aliasing Types and Namespaces
      4. Advanced Namespace Features
  5. 3. Creating Types in C#
    1. Classes
      1. Fields
      2. Methods
      3. Instance Constructors
      4. Object Initializers
      5. The this Reference
      6. Properties
      7. Indexers
      8. Constants
      9. Static Constructors
      10. Static Classes
      11. Finalizers
      12. Partial Types and Methods
    2. Inheritance
      1. Polymorphism
      2. Casting and Reference Conversions
      3. Virtual Function Members
      4. Abstract Classes and Abstract Members
      5. Hiding Inherited Members
      6. Sealing Functions and Classes
      7. The base Keyword
      8. Constructors and Inheritance
      9. Overloading and Resolution
    3. The object Type
      1. Boxing and Unboxing
      2. Static and Runtime Type Checking
      3. The GetType Method and typeof Operator
      4. The ToString Method
      5. Object Member Listing
    4. Structs
      1. Struct Construction Semantics
    5. Access Modifiers
      1. Examples
      2. Friend Assemblies
      3. Accessibility Capping
      4. Restrictions on Access Modifiers
    6. Interfaces
      1. Extending an Interface
      2. Explicit Interface Implementation
      3. Implementing Interface Members Virtually
      4. Reimplementing an Interface in a Subclass
      5. Interfaces and Boxing
    7. Enums
      1. Enum Conversions
      2. Flags Enums
      3. Enum Operators
      4. Type-Safety Issues
    8. Nested Types
    9. Generics
      1. Generic Types
      2. Why Generics Exist
      3. Generic Methods
      4. Declaring Type Parameters
      5. typeof and Unbound Generic Types
      6. The default Generic Value
      7. Generic Constraints
      8. Subclassing Generic Types
      9. Self-Referencing Generic Declarations
      10. Static Data
      11. Type Parameters and Conversions
      12. Covariance
      13. Contravariance
      14. C# Generics Versus C++ Templates
  6. 4. Advanced C#
    1. Delegates
      1. Writing Plug-in Methods with Delegates
      2. Multicast Delegates
      3. Instance Versus Static Method Targets
      4. Generic Delegate Types
      5. The Func and Action Delegates
      6. Delegates Versus Interfaces
      7. Delegate Compatibility
    2. Events
      1. Standard Event Pattern
      2. Event Accessors
      3. Event Modifiers
    3. Lambda Expressions
      1. Explicitly Specifying Lambda Parameter Types
      2. Capturing Outer Variables
    4. Anonymous Methods
    5. try Statements and Exceptions
      1. The catch Clause
      2. The finally Block
      3. Throwing Exceptions
      4. Key Properties of System.Exception
      5. Common Exception Types
      6. The TryXXX Method Pattern
      7. Alternatives to Exceptions
    6. Enumeration and Iterators
      1. Enumeration
      2. Collection Initializers
      3. Iterators
      4. Iterator Semantics
      5. Composing Sequences
    7. Nullable Types
      1. Nullable <T> Struct
      2. Operator Lifting
      3. bool? with & and | Operators
      4. Null Coalescing Operator
      5. Scenarios for Nullable Types
      6. Alternatives to Nullable Types
    8. Operator Overloading
      1. Operator Functions
      2. Overloading Equality and Comparison Operators
      3. Custom Implicit and Explicit Conversions
      4. Overloading true and false
    9. Extension Methods
      1. Extension Method Chaining
      2. Ambiguity and Resolution
    10. Anonymous Types
    11. Dynamic Binding
      1. Static Binding Versus Dynamic Binding
      2. Custom Binding
      3. Language Binding
      4. RuntimeBinderException
      5. Runtime Representation of Dynamic
      6. Dynamic Conversions
      7. var Versus dynamic
      8. Dynamic Expressions
      9. Dynamic Calls without Dynamic Receivers
      10. Static Types in Dynamic Expressions
      11. Uncallable Functions
    12. Attributes
      1. Attribute Classes
      2. Named and Positional Attribute Parameters
      3. Attribute Targets
      4. Specifying Multiple Attributes
    13. Caller Info Attributes (C# 5)
    14. Unsafe Code and Pointers
      1. Pointer Basics
      2. Unsafe Code
      3. The fixed Statement
      4. The Pointer-to-Member Operator
      5. Arrays
      6. void*
      7. Pointers to Unmanaged Code
    15. Preprocessor Directives
      1. Conditional Attributes
      2. Pragma Warning
    16. XML Documentation
      1. Standard XML Documentation Tags
      2. User-Defined Tags
      3. Type or Member Cross-References
  7. 5. Framework Overview
    1. The CLR and Core Framework
      1. System Types
      2. Text Processing
      3. Collections
      4. Queries
      5. XML
      6. Diagnostics and Code Contracts
      7. Concurrency and Asynchrony
      8. Streams and I/O
      9. Networking
      10. Serialization
      11. Assemblies, Reflection, and Attributes
      12. Dynamic Programming
      13. Security
      14. Advanced Threading
      15. Parallel Programming
      16. Application Domains
      17. Native and COM Interoperability
    2. Applied Technologies
      1. User Interface Technologies
      2. Backend Technologies
      3. Distributed System Technologies
  8. 6. Framework Fundamentals
    1. String and Text Handling
      1. Char
      2. String
      3. Comparing Strings
      4. StringBuilder
      5. Text Encodings and Unicode
    2. Dates and Times
      1. TimeSpan
      2. DateTime and DateTimeOffset
    3. Dates and Time Zones
      1. DateTime and Time Zones
      2. DateTimeOffset and Time Zones
      3. TimeZone and TimeZoneInfo
      4. Daylight Saving Time and DateTime
    4. Formatting and Parsing
      1. ToString and Parse
      2. Format Providers
    5. Standard Format Strings and Parsing Flags
      1. Numeric Format Strings
      2. NumberStyles
      3. Date/Time Format Strings
      4. DateTimeStyles
      5. Enum Format Strings
    6. Other Conversion Mechanisms
      1. Convert
      2. XmlConvert
      3. Type Converters
      4. BitConverter
    7. Globalization
      1. Globalization Checklist
      2. Testing
    8. Working with Numbers
      1. Conversions
      2. Math
      3. BigInteger
      4. Complex
      5. Random
    9. Enums
      1. Enum Conversions
      2. Enumerating Enum Values
      3. How Enums Work
    10. Tuples
      1. Comparing Tuples
    11. The Guid Struct
    12. Equality Comparison
      1. Value Versus Referential Equality
      2. Standard Equality Protocols
      3. Equality and Custom Types
    13. Order Comparison
      1. IComparable
      2. < and >
      3. Implementing the IComparable Interfaces
    14. Utility Classes
      1. Console
      2. Environment
      3. Process
  9. 7. Collections
    1. Enumeration
      1. IEnumerable and IEnumerator
      2. IEnumerable<T> and IEnumerator<T>
      3. Implementing the Enumeration Interfaces
    2. The ICollection and IList Interfaces
      1. ICollection<T> and ICollection
      2. IList<T> and IList
      3. IReadOnlyList<T>
    3. The Array Class
      1. Construction and Indexing
      2. Enumeration
      3. Length and Rank
      4. Searching
      5. Sorting
      6. Reversing Elements
      7. Copying
      8. Converting and Resizing
    4. Lists, Queues, Stacks, and Sets
      1. List<T> and ArrayList
      2. LinkedList<T>
      3. Queue<T> and Queue
      4. Stack<T> and Stack
      5. BitArray
      6. HashSet<T> and SortedSet<T>
    5. Dictionaries
      1. IDictionary<TKey,TValue>
      2. IDictionary
      3. Dictionary<TKey,TValue> and Hashtable
      4. OrderedDictionary
      5. ListDictionary and HybridDictionary
      6. Sorted Dictionaries
    6. Customizable Collections and Proxies
      1. Collection<T> and CollectionBase
      2. KeyedCollection<TKey,TItem> and DictionaryBase
      3. ReadOnlyCollection<T>
    7. Plugging in Equality and Order
      1. IEqualityComparer and EqualityComparer
      2. IComparer and Comparer
      3. StringComparer
      4. IStructuralEquatable and IStructuralComparable
  10. 8. LINQ Queries
    1. Getting Started
    2. Fluent Syntax
      1. Chaining Query Operators
      2. Composing Lambda Expressions
      3. Natural Ordering
      4. Other Operators
    3. Query Expressions
      1. Range Variables
      2. Query Syntax Versus SQL Syntax
      3. Query Syntax Versus Fluent Syntax
      4. Mixed Syntax Queries
    4. Deferred Execution
      1. Reevaluation
      2. Captured Variables
      3. How Deferred Execution Works
      4. Chaining Decorators
      5. How Queries Are Executed
    5. Subqueries
      1. Subqueries and Deferred Execution
    6. Composition Strategies
      1. Progressive Query Building
      2. The into Keyword
      3. Wrapping Queries
    7. Projection Strategies
      1. Object Initializers
      2. Anonymous Types
      3. The let Keyword
    8. Interpreted Queries
      1. How Interpreted Queries Work
      2. Combining Interpreted and Local Queries
      3. AsEnumerable
    9. LINQ to SQL and Entity Framework
      1. LINQ to SQL Entity Classes
      2. Entity Framework Entity Classes
      3. DataContext and ObjectContext
      4. Associations
      5. Deferred Execution with L2S and EF
      6. DataLoadOptions
      7. Eager Loading in Entity Framework
      8. Updates
      9. API Differences Between L2S and EF
    10. Building Query Expressions
      1. Delegates Versus Expression Trees
      2. Expression Trees
  11. 9. LINQ Operators
    1. Overview
      1. Sequence→Sequence
      2. Sequence→Element or Value
      3. Void→Sequence
    2. Filtering
      1. Where
      2. Take and Skip
      3. TakeWhile and SkipWhile
      4. Distinct
    3. Projecting
      1. Select
      2. SelectMany
    4. Joining
      1. Join and GroupJoin
      2. The Zip Operator
    5. Ordering
      1. OrderBy, OrderByDescending, ThenBy, and ThenByDescending
    6. Grouping
      1. GroupBy
    7. Set Operators
      1. Concat and Union
      2. Intersect and Except
    8. Conversion Methods
      1. OfType and Cast
      2. ToArray, ToList, ToDictionary, and ToLookup
      3. AsEnumerable and AsQueryable
    9. Element Operators
      1. First, Last, and Single
      2. ElementAt
      3. DefaultIfEmpty
    10. Aggregation Methods
      1. Count and LongCount
      2. Min and Max
      3. Sum and Average
      4. Aggregate
    11. Quantifiers
      1. Contains and Any
      2. All and SequenceEqual
    12. Generation Methods
      1. Empty
      2. Range and Repeat
  12. 10. LINQ to XML
    1. Architectural Overview
      1. What Is a DOM?
      2. The LINQ to XML DOM
    2. X-DOM Overview
      1. Loading and Parsing
      2. Saving and Serializing
    3. Instantiating an X-DOM
      1. Functional Construction
      2. Specifying Content
      3. Automatic Deep Cloning
    4. Navigating and Querying
      1. Child Node Navigation
      2. Parent Navigation
      3. Peer Node Navigation
      4. Attribute Navigation
    5. Updating an X-DOM
      1. Simple Value Updates
      2. Updating Child Nodes and Attributes
      3. Updating through the Parent
    6. Working with Values
      1. Setting Values
      2. Getting Values
      3. Values and Mixed Content Nodes
      4. Automatic XText Concatenation
    7. Documents and Declarations
      1. XDocument
      2. XML Declarations
    8. Names and Namespaces
      1. Namespaces in XML
      2. Specifying Namespaces in the X-DOM
      3. The X-DOM and Default Namespaces
      4. Prefixes
    9. Annotations
    10. Projecting into an X-DOM
      1. Eliminating Empty Elements
      2. Streaming a Projection
      3. Transforming an X-DOM
  13. 11. Other XML Technologies
    1. XmlReader
      1. Reading Nodes
      2. Reading Elements
      3. Reading Attributes
      4. Namespaces and Prefixes
    2. XmlWriter
      1. Writing Attributes
      2. Writing Other Node Types
      3. Namespaces and Prefixes
    3. Patterns for Using XmlReader/XmlWriter
      1. Working with Hierarchical Data
      2. Mixing XmlReader/XmlWriter with an X-DOM
    4. XmlDocument
      1. Loading and Saving an XmlDocument
      2. Traversing an XmlDocument
      3. InnerText and InnerXml
      4. Creating and Manipulating Nodes
      5. Namespaces
    5. XPath
      1. Common XPath Operators
      2. XPathNavigator
      3. Querying with Namespaces
      4. XPathDocument
    6. XSD and Schema Validation
      1. Performing Schema Validation
    7. XSLT
  14. 12. Disposal and Garbage Collection
    1. IDisposable, Dispose, and Close
      1. Standard Disposal Semantics
      2. When to Dispose
      3. Opt-in Disposal
      4. Clearing Fields in Disposal
    2. Automatic Garbage Collection
      1. Roots
      2. Garbage Collection and WinRT
    3. Finalizers
      1. Calling Dispose from a Finalizer
      2. Resurrection
    4. How the Garbage Collector Works
      1. Optimization Techniques
      2. Forcing Garbage Collection
      3. Memory Pressure
    5. Managed Memory Leaks
      1. Timers
      2. Diagnosing Memory Leaks
    6. Weak References
      1. Weak References and Caching
      2. Weak References and Events
  15. 13. Diagnostics and Code Contracts
    1. Conditional Compilation
      1. Conditional Compilation Versus Static Variable Flags
      2. The Conditional Attribute
    2. Debug and Trace Classes
      1. Fail and Assert
      2. TraceListener
      3. Flushing and Closing Listeners
    3. Code Contracts Overview
      1. Why Use Code Contracts?
      2. Contract Principles
    4. Preconditions
      1. Contract.Requires
      2. Contract.Requires<TException>
      3. Contract.EndContractBlock
      4. Preconditions and Overridden Methods
    5. Postconditions
      1. Contract.Ensures
      2. Contract.EnsuresOnThrow<TException>
      3. Contract.Result<T> and Contract.ValueAtReturn<T>
      4. Contract.OldValue<T>
      5. Postconditions and Overridden Methods
    6. Assertions and Object Invariants
      1. Assertions
      2. Object Invariants
    7. Contracts on Interfaces and Abstract Methods
    8. Dealing with Contract Failure
      1. The ContractFailed Event
      2. Exceptions Within Contract Conditions
    9. Selectively Enforcing Contracts
      1. Contracts in Release Builds
      2. Call-Site Checking
    10. Static Contract Checking
      1. The ContractVerification Attribute
      2. Baselines
      3. The SuppressMessage Attribute
    11. Debugger Integration
      1. Attaching and Breaking
      2. Debugger Attributes
    12. Processes and Process Threads
      1. Examining Running Processes
      2. Examining Threads in a Process
    13. StackTrace and StackFrame
    14. Windows Event Logs
      1. Writing to the Event Log
      2. Reading the Event Log
      3. Monitoring the Event Log
    15. Performance Counters
      1. Enumerating the Available Counters
      2. Reading Performance Counter Data
      3. Creating Counters and Writing Performance Data
    16. The Stopwatch Class
  16. 14. Concurrency & Asynchrony
    1. Introduction
    2. Threading
      1. Creating a Thread
      2. Join and Sleep
      3. Blocking
      4. Local Versus Shared State
      5. Locking and Thread Safety
      6. Passing Data to a Thread
      7. Exception Handling
      8. Foreground Versus Background Threads
      9. Thread Priority
      10. Signaling
      11. Threading in Rich Client Applications
      12. Synchronization Contexts
      13. The Thread Pool
    3. Tasks
      1. Starting a Task
      2. Returning values
      3. Exceptions
      4. Continuations
      5. TaskCompletionSource
      6. Task.Delay
    4. Principles of Asynchrony
      1. Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Operations
      2. What is Asynchronous Programming?
      3. Asynchronous Programming and Continuations
      4. Why Language Support is Important
    5. Asynchronous Functions in C# 5.0
      1. Awaiting
      2. Writing Asynchronous Functions
      3. Asynchronous Lambda Expressions
      4. Asynchronous Methods in WinRT
      5. Asynchrony and Synchronization Contexts
      6. Optimizations
    6. Asynchronous Patterns
      1. Cancellation
      2. Progress Reporting
      3. The Task-based Asynchronous Pattern (TAP)
      4. Task Combinators
    7. Obsolete Patterns
      1. Asynchronous Programming Model (APM)
      2. Event-Based Asynchronous Pattern (EAP)
      3. BackgroundWorker
  17. 15. Streams and I/O
    1. Stream Architecture
    2. Using Streams
      1. Reading and Writing
      2. Seeking
      3. Closing and Flushing
      4. Timeouts
      5. Thread Safety
      6. Backing Store Streams
      7. FileStream
      8. MemoryStream
      9. PipeStream
      10. BufferedStream
    3. Stream Adapters
      1. Text Adapters
      2. Binary Adapters
      3. Closing and Disposing Stream Adapters
    4. Compression Streams
      1. Compressing in Memory
    5. Working with Zip Files
    6. File and Directory Operations
      1. The File Class
      2. The Directory Class
      3. FileInfo and DirectoryInfo
      4. Path
      5. Special Folders
      6. Querying Volume Information
      7. Catching Filesystem Events
    7. File I/O in Windows Runtime
      1. Working with Directories
      2. Working with Files
      3. Isolated Storage in Metro Apps
    8. Memory-Mapped Files
      1. Memory-Mapped Files and Random File I/O
      2. Memory-Mapped Files and Shared Memory
      3. Working with View Accessors
    9. Isolated Storage
      1. Isolation Types
      2. Reading and Writing Isolated Storage
      3. Store Location
      4. Enumerating Isolated Storage
  18. 16. Networking
    1. Network Architecture
    2. Addresses and Ports
    3. URIs
    4. Client-Side Classes
      1. WebClient
      2. WebRequest and WebResponse
      3. HttpClient
      4. Proxies
      5. Authentication
      6. Exception Handling
    5. Working with HTTP
      1. Headers
      2. Query Strings
      3. Uploading Form Data
      4. Cookies
      5. Forms Authentication
      6. SSL
    6. Writing an HTTP Server
    7. Using FTP
    8. Using DNS
    9. Sending Mail with SmtpClient
    10. Using TCP
      1. Concurrency with TCP
    11. Receiving POP3 Mail with TCP
    12. TCP in Windows Runtime
  19. 17. Serialization
    1. Serialization Concepts
      1. Serialization Engines
      2. Formatters
      3. Explicit Versus Implicit Serialization
    2. The Data Contract Serializer
      1. DataContractSerializer Versus NetDataContractSerializer
      2. Using the Serializers
      3. Serializing Subclasses
      4. Object References
      5. Version Tolerance
      6. Member Ordering
      7. Null and Empty Values
    3. Data Contracts and Collections
      1. Subclassed Collection Elements
      2. Customizing Collection and Element Names
    4. Extending Data Contracts
      1. Serialization and Deserialization Hooks
      2. Interoperating with [Serializable]
      3. Interoperating with IXmlSerializable
    5. The Binary Serializer
      1. Getting Started
    6. Binary Serialization Attributes
      1. [NonSerialized]
      2. [OnDeserializing] and [OnDeserialized]
      3. [OnSerializing] and [OnSerialized]
      4. [OptionalField] and Versioning
    7. Binary Serialization with ISerializable
      1. Subclassing Serializable Classes
    8. XML Serialization
      1. Getting Started with Attribute-Based Serialization
      2. Subclasses and Child Objects
      3. Serializing Collections
      4. IXmlSerializable
  20. 18. Assemblies
    1. What’s in an Assembly
      1. The Assembly Manifest
      2. The Application Manifest
      3. Modules
      4. The Assembly Class
    2. Strong Names and Assembly Signing
      1. How to Strongly Name an Assembly
      2. Delay Signing
    3. Assembly Names
      1. Fully Qualified Names
      2. The AssemblyName Class
      3. Assembly Informational and File Versions
    4. Authenticode Signing
      1. How to Sign with Authenticode
      2. Authenticode Validation
    5. The Global Assembly Cache
      1. How to Install Assemblies to the GAC
      2. GAC and Versioning
    6. Resources and Satellite Assemblies
      1. Directly Embedding Resources
      2. .resources Files
      3. .resx Files
      4. Satellite Assemblies
      5. Cultures and Subcultures
    7. Resolving and Loading Assemblies
      1. Assembly and Type Resolution Rules
      2. AssemblyResolve
      3. Loading Assemblies
    8. Deploying Assemblies Outside the Base Folder
    9. Packing a Single-File Executable
      1. Selective Patching
    10. Working with Unreferenced Assemblies
  21. 19. Reflection and Metadata
    1. Reflecting and Activating Types
      1. Obtaining a Type
      2. Type Names
      3. Base Types and Interfaces
      4. Instantiating Types
      5. Generic Types
    2. Reflecting and Invoking Members
      1. Member Types
      2. C# Members Versus CLR Members
      3. Generic Type Members
      4. Dynamically Invoking a Member
      5. Method Parameters
      6. Using Delegates for Performance
      7. Accessing Nonpublic Members
      8. Generic Methods
      9. Anonymously Calling Members of a Generic Interface
    3. Reflecting Assemblies
      1. Loading an Assembly into a Reflection-Only Context
      2. Modules
    4. Working with Attributes
      1. Attribute Basics
      2. The AttributeUsage Attribute
      3. Defining Your Own Attribute
      4. Retrieving Attributes at Runtime
      5. Retrieving Attributes in the Reflection-Only Context
    5. Dynamic Code Generation
      1. Generating IL with DynamicMethod
      2. The Evaluation Stack
      3. Passing Arguments to a Dynamic Method
      4. Generating Local Variables
      5. Branching
      6. Instantiating Objects and Calling Instance Methods
      7. Exception Handling
    6. Emitting Assemblies and Types
      1. Saving Emitted Assemblies
      2. The Reflection.Emit Object Model
    7. Emitting Type Members
      1. Emitting Methods
      2. Emitting Fields and Properties
      3. Emitting Constructors
      4. Attaching Attributes
    8. Emitting Generic Methods and Types
      1. Defining Generic Methods
      2. Defining Generic Types
    9. Awkward Emission Targets
      1. Uncreated Closed Generics
      2. Circular Dependencies
    10. Parsing IL
      1. Writing a Disassembler
  22. 20. Dynamic Programming
    1. The Dynamic Language Runtime
    2. Numeric Type Unification
    3. Dynamic Member Overload Resolution
      1. Simplifying the Visitor Pattern
      2. Anonymously Calling Members of a Generic Type
    4. Implementing Dynamic Objects
      1. DynamicObject
      2. ExpandoObject
    5. Interoperating with Dynamic Languages
      1. Passing State Between C# and a Script
  23. 21. Security
    1. Permissions
      1. CodeAccessPermission and PrincipalPermission
      2. PermissionSet
      3. Declarative Versus Imperative Security
    2. Code Access Security (CAS)
      1. How Code Access Security Is Applied
      2. Testing for Full Trust
    3. Allowing Partially Trusted Callers
      1. Elevation of Privilege
      2. APTCA and [SecurityTransparent]
    4. The Transparency Model
      1. How the Transparency Model Works
      2. How to Write APTCA Libraries with Transparency
      3. Transparency in Full-Trust Scenarios
    5. Sandboxing Another Assembly
      1. Asserting Permissions
    6. Operating System Security
      1. Running in a Standard User Account
      2. Administrative Elevation and Virtualization
    7. Identity and Role Security
      1. Assigning Users and Roles
    8. Cryptography Overview
    9. Windows Data Protection
    10. Hashing
    11. Symmetric Encryption
      1. Encrypting in Memory
      2. Chaining Encryption Streams
      3. Disposing Encryption Objects
      4. Key Management
    12. Public Key Encryption and Signing
      1. The RSA Class
      2. Digital Signing
  24. 22. Advanced Threading
    1. Synchronization Overview
    2. Exclusive Locking
      1. The lock Statement
      2. Monitor.Enter and Monitor.Exit
      3. Choosing the Synchronization Object
      4. When to Lock
      5. Locking and Atomicity
      6. Nested Locking
      7. Deadlocks
      8. Performance
      9. Mutex
    3. Locking and Thread Safety
      1. Thread Safety and .NET Framework Types
      2. Thread Safety in Application Servers
      3. Immutable Objects
    4. Non-Exclusive Locking
      1. Semaphore
      2. Reader/Writer Locks
    5. Signaling with Event Wait Handles
      1. AutoResetEvent
      2. ManualResetEvent
      3. CountdownEvent
      4. Creating a Cross-Process EventWaitHandle
      5. Wait Handles and Continuations
      6. Converting Wait Handles to Tasks
      7. WaitAny, WaitAll, and SignalAndWait
    6. The Barrier Class
    7. Lazy Initialization
      1. Lazy<T>
      2. LazyInitializer
    8. Thread-Local Storage
      1. [ThreadStatic]
      2. ThreadLocal<T>
      3. GetData and SetData
    9. Interrupt and Abort
    10. Suspend and Resume
    11. Timers
      1. Multithreaded Timers
      2. Single-Threaded Timers
  25. 23. Parallel Programming
    1. Why PFX?
      1. PFX Concepts
      2. PFX Components
      3. When to Use PFX
    2. PLINQ
      1. Parallel Execution Ballistics
      2. PLINQ and Ordering
      3. PLINQ Limitations
      4. Example: Parallel Spellchecker
      5. Functional Purity
      6. Setting the Degree of Parallelism
      7. Cancellation
      8. Optimizing PLINQ
    3. The Parallel Class
      1. Parallel.Invoke
      2. Parallel.For and Parallel.ForEach
    4. Task Parallelism
      1. Creating and Starting Tasks
      2. Waiting on Multiple Tasks
      3. Canceling Tasks
      4. Continuations
      5. Task Schedulers
      6. TaskFactory
    5. Working with AggregateException
      1. Flatten and Handle
    6. Concurrent Collections
      1. IProducerConsumerCollection<T>
      2. ConcurrentBag<T>
    7. BlockingCollection<T>
      1. Writing a Producer/Consumer Queue
  26. 24. Application Domains
    1. Application Domain Architecture
    2. Creating and Destroying Application Domains
    3. Using Multiple Application Domains
    4. Using DoCallBack
    5. Monitoring Application Domains
    6. Domains and Threads
    7. Sharing Data Between Domains
      1. Sharing Data via Slots
      2. Intra-Process Remoting
      3. Isolating Types and Assemblies
  27. 25. Native and COM Interoperability
    1. Calling into Native DLLs
    2. Type Marshaling
      1. Marshaling Common Types
      2. Marshaling Classes and Structs
      3. In and Out Marshaling
    3. Callbacks from Unmanaged Code
    4. Simulating a C Union
    5. Shared Memory
    6. Mapping a Struct to Unmanaged Memory
      1. fixed and fixed {...}
    7. COM Interoperability
      1. The Purpose of COM
      2. The Basics of the COM Type System
    8. Calling a COM Component from C#
      1. Optional Parameters and Named Arguments
      2. Implicit ref Parameters
      3. Indexers
      4. Dynamic Binding
    9. Embedding Interop Types
      1. Type Equivalence
    10. Primary Interop Assemblies
    11. Exposing C# Objects to COM
  28. 26. Regular Expressions
    1. Regular Expression Basics
      1. Compiled Regular Expressions
      2. RegexOptions
      3. Character Escapes
      4. Character Sets
    2. Quantifiers
      1. Greedy Versus Lazy Quantifiers
    3. Zero-Width Assertions
      1. Lookahead and Lookbehind
      2. Anchors
      3. Word Boundaries
    4. Groups
      1. Named Groups
    5. Replacing and Splitting Text
      1. MatchEvaluator Delegate
      2. Splitting Text
    6. Cookbook Regular Expressions
      1. Recipes
    7. Regular Expressions Language Reference
  29. Index
  30. About the Authors
  31. Colophon
  32. Copyright
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Chapter 23. Parallel Programming

In this chapter, we cover the multithreading APIs and constructs aimed at leveraging multicore processors:

  • Parallel LINQ or PLINQ

  • The Parallel class

  • The task parallelism constructs

  • The concurrent collections

These were added in Framework 4.0 and are collectively known (loosely) as PFX (Parallel Framework). The Parallel class together with the task parallelism constructs is called the Task Parallel Library or TPL.

You’ll need to be comfortable with the fundamentals in Chapter 14 before reading this chapter—particularly locking, thread safety, and the Task class.

Why PFX?

In recent times, CPU manufacturers have shifted from single- to multicore processors. This is problematic for us as programmers because our standard single-threaded code will not automatically run faster as a result of those extra cores.

Leveraging multiple cores is easy for most server applications, where each thread can independently handle a separate client request, but is harder on the desktop—because it typically requires that you take your computationally intensive code and do the following:

  1. Partition it into small chunks.

  2. Execute those chunks in parallel via multithreading.

  3. Collate the results as they become available, in a thread-safe and performant manner.

Although you can do all of this with the classic multithreading constructs, it’s awkward—particularly the steps of partitioning and collating. A further problem is that the usual strategy of locking for thread safety causes a lot of ...

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