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Business Organization and Management: Text and Cases

Book Description

Managers are people who steer organizations towards meeting their objectives effectively and efficiently. Modern-day managers need to understand contemporary issues in management to achieve these objectives. Spread over nine parts, this book addresses these issues in simple and student-friendly language, and explains concepts through rich diagrams and examples.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: Understanding the Environment of Business
    1. 1. Introducing Business and Economy
      1. 1.1 - Introduction
      2. 1.2 - What is Business?
        1. 1.2.1 - Understanding Business
      3. 1.3 - Different Business Activities
        1. 1.3.1 - Business Activities
        2. 1.3.2 - Business Activities in India
      4. 1.4 - Evolution of Business and Emerging Markets
        1. 1.4.1 - Evolution of Business
      5. 1.5 - Why Study Business?
      6. 1.6 - Business: Executing for the Present and Adapting for the Future
      7. 1.7 - Business and Economy
        1. 1.7.1 - Economic System
        2. 1.7.2 - Global Economic System
        3. 1.7.3 - Micro- and Macroeconomics
        4. 1.7.4 - Different Types of Economic Systems
      8. 1.8 - Indian Economy and Business Today
        1. 1.8.1 - Indian Economic Policies
        2. 1.8.2 - Performance of Indian Economy and Business
        3. 1.8.3 - Innovation and Indian Business
      9. 1.9 - Challenges Ahead
      10. Summary
      11. Questions
    2. 2. Dynamics of Business Environment: Globalization, Liberalization and Privatization
      1. 2.1 - Introduction
      2. 2.2 - Dynamics of Business Environment
        1. 2.2.1 - Economic Environment
        2. 2.2.2 - Competitive Environment
        3. 2.2.3 - Political and Legal Environment
        4. 2.2.4 - Technological Environment
        5. 2.2.5 - Socio-cultural Environment
        6. 2.2.6 - Ecological Environment
      3. 2.3 - Changes in Economic Policy and Indian Business Environment
      4. 2.4 - Globalization
        1. 2.4.1 - Defining Globalization
        2. 2.4.2 - Features of Globalization
        3. 2.4.3 - Evaluation of Globalization
        4. 2.4.4 - The Case for Globalization
        5. 2.4.5 - The Case Against Globalization
        6. 2.4.6 - India's Experience with Globalization
      5. 2.5 - Liberalization
        1. 2.5.1 - Concept and Features of Liberalization
        2. 2.5.2 - Indian Context of Liberalization
        3. 2.5.3 - Impact of Liberalization in India
      6. 2.6 - Privatization
        1. 2.6.1 - Concept and Features of Privatization
        2. 2.6.2 - Privatization in India
        3. 2.6.3 - Benefits
        4. 2.6.4 - Criticism
        5. 2.6.5 - India's Experience with Privatization
      7. 2.7 - Impact of Globalization, Liberalization and Privatization
        1. 2.7.1 - Expansion of Markets and Increased Competition
        2. 2.7.2 - New Avenues of Entrepreneurial Opportunities
        3. 2.7.3 - Increased Availability of Finance
        4. 2.7.4 - Availability of Global Funds
        5. 2.7.5 - Efficiently Managed Businesses Have Global Opportunities
        6. 2.7.6 - Increased Demand for Ethical and Socially Responsible Behaviour
      8. 2.8 - Response of Indian Enterprises
      9. Summary
      10. Questions
    3. 3. Global Business and Multinational Corporations: Rise of Multinational Corporations from Emerging Markets
      1. 3.1 - Introduction
      2. 3.2 - Domestic to International Business
        1. 3.2.1 - Logic of International Business
        2. 3.2.2 - Restrictions on International Business
        3. 3.2.3 - Status of Global Business
      3. 3.3 - Motivation to Internationalize
        1. 3.3.1 - Motivation
        2. 3.3.2 - Emergence of Multinational Enterprises
      4. 3.4 - Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
        1. 3.4.1 - Defining MNCs
        2. 3.4.2 - Types of MNCs
        3. 3.4.3 - Features of MNCs
      5. 3.5 - Methods of Entering Foreign Markets
      6. 3.6 - Role of MNCs
        1. 3.6.1 - The Case for MNCs
        2. 3.6.2 - The Case Against MNCs
      7. 3.7 - Emergence of MNCs from Emerging Markets
        1. 3.7.1 - History of MNCs in India
        2. 3.7.2 - New Industrial Policy, 1991
      8. 3.8 - Indian Multinational Enterprises
        1. 3.8.1 - Rise of Indian Enterprises
        2. 3.8.2 - Indian Multinational Enterprises: Features and Challenges
      9. Summary
      10. Questions
    4. 4. Business, Society and Ethics
      1. 4.1 - Introduction
      2. 4.2 - Relationship Between Business and Society
      3. 4.3 - The Evolution of Social Responsibility (SR) in Business
        1. 4.3.1 - Defining SR
        2. 4.3.2 - Evolution of SR
        3. 4.3.3 - SR in India
        4. 4.3.4 - Why Should Business Be Socially Responsible?
      4. 4.4 - Areas of Social Responsibility
        1. 4.4.1 - Responsibility to Employees: Creating Jobs That Work
        2. 4.4.2 - Responsibility to Customers
        3. 4.4.3 - Responsibility to Investors
        4. 4.4.4 - Responsibility to Community
        5. 4.4.5 - Responsibility to the Environment
      5. 4.5 - Business Ethics
        1. 4.5.1 - Defining Business Ethics
        2. 4.5.2 - Ethical Issues
      6. 4.6 - Ethical Behaviour
        1. 4.6.1 - Factors Affecting Ethical Behaviour
        2. 4.6.2 - Encouraging Ethical Behaviour
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
  8. Part II: Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Business
    1. 5. Entrepreneurship and Innovation
      1. 5.1 - Introduction
      2. 5.2 - Entrepreneurs and Innovators
        1. 5.2.1 - Understanding the Entrepreneur and the Innovator
        2. 5.2.2 - Entrepreneurs and Innovators in Developing Countries
        3. 5.2.3 - Entrepreneurship
        4. 5.2.4 - Who Can Be an Entrepreneur?
      3. 5.3 - Entrepreneurship in India
      4. 5.4 - Motivation and Importance of Entrepreneurs
        1. 5.4.1 - Motivation
        2. 5.4.2 - Importance of Entrepreneurs
      5. 5.5 - Process of Innovation and Its Types
        1. 5.5.1 - Innovation Types
        2. 5.5.2 - What Drives Innovation?
        3. 5.5.3 - Innovation Process
        4. 5.5.4 - Evolution of the Life Cycles of Industries and Enterprises
      6. 5.6 - Entrepreneurial Opportunities
        1. 5.6.1 - Identifying Opportunities
        2. 5.6.2 - Entrepreneurship Opportunities in India
        3. 5.6.3 - Challenges to Entrepreneurship in India
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
      9. Further Readings
    2. 6. Small Businesses and Franchising
      1. 6.1 - Introduction
      2. 6.2 - Small Enterprises in India
        1. 6.2.1 - Defining Small Enterprises
        2. 6.2.2 - Status of Small Businesses
      3. 6.3 - Importance of SMEs
        1. 6.3.1 - Advantages of Small Businesses
        2. 6.3.2 - Disadvantages of Small Businesses
        3. 6.3.3 - Entrepreneurs Opportunities and Small Enterprises
      4. 6.4 - Small Businesses, Globalization and Government Support
      5. 6.5 - Franchising
        1. 6.5.1 - Understanding Franchising
        2. 6.5.2 - Types of Franchising
        3. 6.5.3 - Franchising: Small and Big Businesses
        4. 6.5.4 - Successful Entrepreneurship Through Franchising
        5. 6.5.5 - Growth of Franchising in India
        6. 6.5.6 - Challenges
      6. 6.6 - Network Marketing
        1. 6.6.1 - Concept and Business Model
      7. 6.7 - Challenges for Small Businesses
        1. 6.7.1 - Globalization and WTO
        2. 6.7.2 - Absence of Entrepreneurial Mindset
        3. 6.7.3 - Lack of Business Thinking and Ethical Base
        4. 6.7.4 - Infrastructural and Other Challenges
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
      10. Further Readings
    3. 7. Outsourcing to BPOs and KPOs
      1. 7.1 - Introduction
      2. 7.2 - Outsourcing: Strengthening Big and Empowering Small
        1. 7.2.1 - Outsourcing and Small Business
        2. 7.2.2 - Nature and Scope of Business Activities in BPO Industry
      3. 7.3 - Advantages and Limitations of BPO
        1. 7.3.1 - Advantages
        2. 7.3.2 - Limitations
        3. 7.3.3 - BPO Risks Faced by Indian Companies
      4. 7.4 - BPO In India: Opportunities and Challenges
        1. 7.4.1 - Opportunities
        2. 7.4.2 - Challenges
        3. 7.4.3 - Opportunities
        4. 7.4.4 - South to See Rural BPO Revolution
      5. 7.5 - From BPO to KPO—moving Up the Value Chain
        1. 7.5.1 - Knowledge Process Outsourcing
        2. 7.5.2 - Importance of KPO
        3. 7.5.3 - Differentiating KPO from BPO
      6. 7.6 - Factors Affecting Growth of KPO
        1. 7.6.1 - Key Factors Influencing KPO Growth
        2. 7.6.2 - Future of BPO and KPO
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
      9. Further Readings
    4. 8. Information Technology Revolution: E-commerce to E-business
      1. 8.1 - Introduction
      2. 8.2 - Information and Electronic Revolution
      3. 8.3 - E-commerce and Its Operation
        1. 8.3.1 - Defining E-commerce
        2. 8.3.2 - Scope and Importance of E-commerce
        3. 8.3.3 - Benefits and Limitations of E-Commerce
        4. 8.3.4 - E-commerce Operation
        5. 8.3.5 - Resources Required for Implementation of E-commerce
      4. 8.4 - E-commerce Models and Their Growth
        1. 8.4.1 - Types of E-commerce Models
        2. 8.4.2 - Growth of E-commerce
        3. 8.4.3 - Government Support to E-commerce
      5. 8.5 - M-commerce
      6. 8.6 - E-business
        1. 8.6.1 - Defining E-business
      7. 8.7 - The Future of E-commerce in India
      8. 8.8 - Ethical and Social Issues
      9. Summary
      10. Questions
  9. Part III: Setting Up Operations
    1. 9. Setting Up and Managing Business
      1. 9.1 - Introduction
      2. 9.2 - Identifying Business Opportunities and Undertaking Market Analysis
        1. 9.2.1 - Identifying Business Opportunities
        2. 9.2.2 - Evaluating Business Ideas
        3. 9.2.3 - Assessing Markets and Competitions
      3. 9.3 - Business Plan and Getting Started
        1. 9.3.1 - Establishing goals and Objectives
        2. 9.3.2 - Ownership Pattern and Location Decision
        3. 9.3.3 - Examining Processes and Technologies
        4. 9.3.4 - Early Funding and Financial Plan
        5. 9.3.5 - Marketing and Distribution Decisions
        6. 9.3.6 - Internal Organization and Personnel
        7. 9.3.7 - Preparing Business Plan
      4. 9.4 - Implementing a Business Plan
        1. 9.4.1 - Developing Business Model
        2. 9.4.2 - Competitive Advantages
        3. 9.4.3 - Launching of a Business
        4. 9.4.4 - Deciding Growth and Scaling Up
      5. 9.5 - Risk Management by Entrepreneurs
      6. 9.6 - Social and Ethical Issues
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
    2. 10. Deciding Business Ownership Pattern, Size and Location
      1. 10.1 - Introduction
      2. 10.2 - Basic Forms of Business Ownership
        1. 10.2.1 - Sole Proprietorship
        2. 10.2.2 - Partnership
        3. 10.2.3 - Company
        4. 10.2.4 - Special Types of Business Ownership
        5. 10.2.5 - Features of an Ideal Form of Ownership
        6. 10.2.6 - Factors Affecting the Choice of Ownership Form
      3. 10.3 - Size and Capacity of Business
      4. 10.4 - Location
        1. 10.4.1 - Importance of Location
        2. 10.4.2 - Factors Determining Location Decisions
        3. 10.4.3 - Selection of Plant Site
        4. 10.4.4 - Factors Determining the Location
        5. 10.4.5 - Clustering and Special Economic Zones
        6. 10.4.6 - Globalization, Technology Development and Location
      5. 10.5 - Ethical and Social Consideration in Location Decision
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    3. 11. Operations: Designing and Producing Quality Products and Services
      1. 11.1 - Introduction
      2. 11.2 - Production and Operations Management
        1. 11.2.1 - Defining Production and Operation
        2. 11.2.2 - Importance of Production and Operation
        3. 11.2.3 - Evolution of Production Technology
      3. 11.3 - Planning and Controlling of Operations
        1. 11.3.1 - Planning the Production Process
        2. 11.3.2 - Operational Control
        3. 11.3.3 - Mass Production and Mass Customization
      4. 11.4 - Supply Chain Management
      5. 11.5 - Issues in Operations Management
        1. 11.5.1 - Managing Productivity
        2. 11.5.2 - Quality
        3. 11.5.3 - Ethics and Environmental Issues
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
  10. Part IV: Marketing
    1. 12. Understanding Consumer and Marketing
      1. 12.1 - Introduction
      2. 12.2 - Customer and Marketing
        1. 12.2.1 - Marketing Concept
        2. 12.2.2 - Four Types of Utility
      3. 12.3 - Evolution of Marketing
        1. 12.3.1 - Production Orientation
        2. 12.3.2 - Sales Orientation
        3. 12.3.3 - Marketing Orientation
      4. 12.4 - Markets and Market Research
      5. 12.5 - Understanding Consumers and Building Relationships
      6. 12.6 - Developing Marketing Strategy
        1. 12.6.1 - Market Segmentations
        2. 12.6.2 - Target Marketing
        3. 12.6.3 - Positioning
        4. 12.6.4 - Marketing Mix
        5. 12.6.5 - Application of Marketing Mix
      7. 12.7 - Ethics and Social Issues in Marketing Strategy
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
      10. Further Readings
    2. 13. Creating and Pricing Products
      1. 13.1 - Introduction
      2. 13.2 - Products, Plc and Product Mix
        1. 13.2.1 - Defining a Product
        2. 13.2.2 - Product Line and Product Mix
        3. 13.2.3 - Product Life Cycle
        4. 13.2.4 - Managing the Product Mix
      3. 13.3 - Branding, Packaging and Labelling
        1. 13.3.1 - Defining Brand
        2. 13.3.2 - Choosing, Protecting and Building Brands
        3. 13.3.3 - Packaging
        4. 13.3.4 - Labelling
      4. 13.4 - Pricing Products
        1. 13.4.1 - The Meaning of Price
        2. 13.4.2 - Factors Affecting Pricing
      5. 13.5 - General Pricing Strategies
        1. 13.5.1 - Basic Pricing Strategies
        2. 13.5.2 - Other Pricing Strategies
      6. 13.6 - Ethical Issues in Product and Pricing
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
      9. Further Readings
    3. 14. Promotion of Products and Services
      1. 14.1 - Introduction
      2. 14.2 - Integrated Marketing Communications
        1. 14.2.1 - Defining the Concept
        2. 14.2.2 - The Role of Promotion
        3. 14.2.3 - Promotion Mix
        4. 14.2.4 - Elements of Promotion Mix
      3. 14.3 - Advertising
        1. 14.3.1 - Major Steps in Developing an Advertising Campaign
        2. 14.3.2 - Advertising Media Selection
        3. 14.3.3 - Advertising Planning Process
        4. 14.3.4 - Endorsement of Brands by Celebrities
      4. 14.4 - Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
        1. 14.4.1 - Personal Selling
        2. 14.4.2 - Sales Promotion
      5. 14.5 - Public Relations and Publicity
        1. 14.5.1 - Public Relations
        2. 14.5.2 - Publicity
      6. 14.6 - Promotional Planning
        1. 14.6.1 - Planning
        2. 14.6.2 - Factors Influencing Promotion Mix
        3. 14.6.3 - Determination of Promotion Mix
        4. 14.6.4 - Innovation and Promotion
      7. 14.7 - Promotion and Some Issues
        1. 14.7.1 - Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Promotion/Advertising
        2. 14.7.2 - Ethical and Social Considerations in Advertising and Promotion
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
    4. 15. Physical Distribution, Wholesaling and Retailing
      1. 15.1 - Introduction
      2. 15.2 - Distribution: Getting the Product at the Right Place
        1. 15.2.1 - Meaning and Importance of Distribution
      3. 15.3 - Types of Distribution Channels
        1. 15.3.1 - Distribution Channels
        2. 15.3.2 - Choice of Channel of Distribution
      4. 15.4 - Marketing Intermediaries: Wholesalers
      5. 15.5 - Marketing Intermediaries: Retailers
        1. 15.5.1 - Retailers
        2. 15.5.2 - Classification of Store Formats
        3. 15.5.3 - Types of Retail Formats
        4. 15.5.4 - Theories of Retailing
        5. 15.5.5 - Innovations in Retailing
        6. 15.5.6 - Retail Marketing Strategies
      6. 15.6 - Physical Distribution and Other Issues
        1. 15.6.1 - Elements of Physical Distribution System
        2. 15.6.2 - Ethical and Social Concerns
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
  11. Part V: Money, Finance and Investment
    1. 16. Money, Finance and Financial Institutions
      1. 16.1 - Introduction
      2. 16.2 - Money
        1. 16.2.1 - Definition of Money
        2. 16.2.2 - Kinds of Money
        3. 16.2.3 - Importance of Money
        4. 16.2.4 - Functions of Money
        5. 16.2.5 - Money Supply
      3. 16.3 - Finance and Financial Systems
        1. 16.3.1 - Definition of Finance
        2. 16.3.2 - Financial System
        3. 16.3.3 - The Indian Financial System
        4. 16.3.4 - Financial Institutions
        5. 16.3.5 - Financial Markets
      4. 16.4 - Globalization of Financial Systems
      5. 16.5 - Banks as Financial Institutions
        1. 16.5.1 - Definition of a Bank
        2. 16.5.2 - Banking In India and Its evolution
      6. 16.6 - Types of Banks
        1. 16.6.1 - Commercial Banks
        2. 16.6.2 - Development Banks
        3. 16.6.3 - Cooperative Banks
        4. 16.6.4 - Specialized Banks
      7. 16.7 - Functions of Commercial Banks
        1. 16.7.1 - Primary Functions
        2. 16.7.2 - Secondary Functions
      8. 16.8 - E-banking (Electronic Banking)
      9. 16.9 - The Reserve Bank of India: A Central Bank
        1. 16.9.1 - Functions of a Central Bank
        2. 16.9.2 - The Reserve Bank of India
        3. 16.9.3 - Evolution of the Reserve Bank of India and Economic Challenges
      10. 16.10 - Ethics and Social Responsiveness
        1. 16.10.1 - Inclusive Banking
        2. 16.10.2 - Social Responsiveness
        3. 16.10.3 - Islamic Banking
      11. Summary
      12. Questions
      13. Further Readings
    2. 17. Financial Management
      1. 17.1 - Introduction
      2. 17.2 - Financial Management
        1. 17.2.1 - Defining Financial Management
        2. 17.2.2 - Evolution of Financial Management
        3. 17.2.3 - Objectives of Financial Management
        4. 17.2.4 - Scope or Role of Financial Management
        5. 17.2.5 - Functions of a Finance Manager
      3. 17.3 - Meaning of Financial Planning
        1. 17.3.1 - Developing the Financial Plan
      4. 17.4 - Alternative Sources of Funds
        1. 17.4.1 - Short-term Finance
        2. 17.4.2 - Sources of Long-term Finance
      5. 17.5 - Capital Structure: Making Decisions on Using Financial Leverage
        1. 17.5.1 - Capital Structure and Capital Gearing
        2. 17.5.2 - Factors Affecting Capital Structure
        3. 17.5.3 - Optimum Capital Structure
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    3. 18. Understanding Securities Markets and Investment Opportunities
      1. 18.1 - Introduction
      2. 18.2 - Developing an Investment Programme
      3. 18.3 - Securities Markets
        1. 18.3.1 - Defining Securities Markets
        2. 18.3.2 - Stock Exchange
        3. 18.3.3 - Functions of the Stock Exchange
        4. 18.3.4 - Globalization, Integration of Stock Exchanges and Increased Volatility
        5. 18.3.5 - Methods or Techniques for Marketing New Securities
      4. 18.4 - Stock Exchanges In India
        1. 18.4.1 - Origin of Indian Stock Exchanges
        2. 18.4.2 - Over-the-Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI)
        3. 18.4.3 - NSE
        4. 18.4.4 - BSE and SENSEX
        5. 18.4.5 - SENSEX Movement: Impact of Economic Factors or Sentiments
      5. 18.5 - Regulations of Securities Markets
        1. 18.5.1 - Objectives of SEBI
        2. 18.5.2 - Functions and the Role of SEBI
      6. 18.6 - Ethical and Social Issues in Securities Market and Investment
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
    4. 19. Risk and Insurance
      1. 19.1 - Introduction
      2. 19.2 - Business Risk: Meaning and Causes
        1. 19.2.1 - Meaning of Business Risks
        2. 19.2.2 - Nature of Business Risks
        3. 19.2.3 - Causes of Business Risks
        4. 19.2.4 - Types of Business Risks
      3. 19.3 - Risk Management
        1. 19.3.1 - Avoiding Risks
        2. 19.3.2 - Preventing Risks
        3. 19.3.3 - Shifting Risks
        4. 19.3.4 - Assuming Risks
        5. 19.3.5 - Sharing or Spreading Risks
      4. 19.4 - Insurance
        1. 19.4.1 - Meaning of Insurance
        2. 19.4.2 - Brief History of Insurance
        3. 19.4.3 - Importance of Insurance
        4. 19.4.4 - Principles of Insurance
      5. 19.5 - Insurance In India: Status and Challenges
        1. 19.5.1 - Status
        2. 19.5.2 - Performance
        3. 19.5.3 - Constraints and Challenges
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
  12. Part VI: Human Resources
    1. 20. Planning and Management of Human Resources
      1. 20.1 - Introduction
      2. 20.2 - Human Resource Management: A People-Centred Approach
        1. 20.2.1 - Importance of HRM
        2. 20.2.2 - Defining HRM
      3. 20.3 - Human Resource Management Process
        1. 20.3.1 - Identify and Selecting Competent Employees
        2. 20.3.2 - Imparting Knowledge and Skills
        3. 20.3.3 - Retaining Competent and Talented Employees
      4. 20.4 - Factors Affecting the HRM Process
        1. 20.4.1 - Governmental Laws
        2. 20.4.2 - Employee/Labour Unions
        3. 20.4.3 - Demographic Trends
      5. 20.5 - Current Issues and Challenges
        1. 20.5.1 - Globalization and Ethics
        2. 20.5.2 - Managing Downsizing
        3. 20.5.3 - Managing Workforce Diversity
        4. 20.5.4 - Managing Sexual Harassment
        5. 20.5.5 - Managing Work–life Balance
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    2. 21. Talent Management: Attracting and Retaining Human Resources
      1. 21.1 - Introduction
      2. 21.2 - Talent Shortage and Need for Special Focus
        1. 21.2.1 - Talent and Shortage
        2. 21.2.2 - Importance of Talent
        3. 21.2.3 - Talent Management: Changing Orientation of Human Resource Management
      3. 21.3 - Developing Talents Through Training and Development
        1. 21.3.1 - Nature and Purpose of Training
        2. 21.3.2 - Importance and Need for Training
        3. 21.3.3 - Orientation
        4. 21.3.4 - Training Process
      4. 21.4 - Strategies for Retaining Talent
        1. 21.4.1 - Employee Performance Appraisal
        2. 21.4.2 - Compensation and Benefits
        3. 21.4.3 - Career Systems and Development
      5. Summary
      6. Questions
  13. Part VII: Management Process, Planning and Organizing
    1. 22. Understanding the Management Process
      1. 22.1 - Introduction
      2. 22.2 - Management
        1. 22.2.1 - Manager, Challenges and Salary
        2. 22.2.2 - Defining Management
        3. 22.2.3 - Nature of Management
        4. 22.2.4 - Manager
        5. 22.2.5 - Levels of Management
      3. 22.3 - What Do Managers Do?
        1. 22.3.1 - Management Functions
        2. 22.3.2 - Management Roles
      4. 22.4 - Managerial Skills and Competence: Key to Managerial Success
        1. 22.4.1 - Managerial Competencies
      5. 22.5 - Changing Nature of Management: Need for Value-based Management
        1. 22.5.1 - Changes Influencing Management
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    2. 23. Evolution of Management Thinking
      1. 23.1 - Introduction
      2. 23.2 - Evolution of Management
        1. 23.2.1 - Adam Smith, Industrial Revolution and Management Thoughts
        2. 23.2.2 - Lean manufacturing, Toyotism and Recall of Cars
      3. 23.3 - The Classical Approach
        1. 23.3.1 - Scientific Management
        2. 23.3.2 - The Theory of Bureaucracy
        3. 23.3.3 - Administrative Management
      4. 23.4 - Behavioural Approaches
        1. 23.4.1 - Early Advocates
        2. 23.4.2 - Hawthorne Studies and Human Relation Movement
        3. 23.4.3 - Organizational Behaviour
      5. 23.5 - Management Science Approach
        1. 23.5.1 - Quantitative Management and Operations Research
        2. 23.5.2 - Total Quality Management
        3. 23.5.3 - Management Information System
      6. 23.6 - Contemporary Approaches
        1. 23.6.1 - System Approach
        2. 23.6.2 - Contingency Approach
      7. 23.7 - Management Theory and the Twenty-first Century
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
    3. 24. Planning
      1. 24.1 - Introduction
      2. 24.2 - Planning: Coping with Uncertainty
        1. 24.2.1 - Defining Planning
        2. 24.2.2 - Purpose of Planning
        3. 24.2.3 - Types of Planning
      3. 24.3 - Organizational Planning Process
      4. 24.4 - Organizational Objectives and Plans
        1. 24.4.1 - Objectives
        2. 24.4.2 - Characteristics of Well-designed Objectives
        3. 24.4.3 - Importance of Objectives
        4. 24.4.4 - Types of Objectives
        5. 24.4.5 - Budgets
        6. 24.4.6 - Management by Objectives
        7. 24.4.7 - Strengths and Weaknesses of MBO
        8. 24.4.8 - Types of Plans
      5. 24.5 - Social and Environmental Issues in Planning
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    4. 25. Strategic Management: Planning and Growth Strategies
      1. 25.1 - Introduction
      2. 25.2 - Strategic Planning
      3. 25.3 - Strategic Management
        1. 25.3.1 - The strategic Management Process
        2. 25.3.2 - Business Model and Strategy
        3. 25.3.3 - Importance of Strategic Management
      4. 25.4 - Strategy Formulation: Three Types of Strategies
        1. 25.4.1 - Corporate Strategies
        2. 25.4.2 - Growth Strategies
        3. 25.4.3 - Stability Strategies
        4. 25.4.4 - Renewal and Divestment Strategies
        5. 25.4.5 - Managing Corporate Strategies
      5. 25.5 - Business Strategy
        1. 25.5.1 - Porter's Model of Competitive Forces
        2. 25.5.2 - Competitive Strategies
      6. 25.6 - Strategy Implementations and Control
      7. Summary
      8. Questions
    5. 26. Decision-making Process and Creative Problem-solving
      1. 26.1 - Introduction
      2. 26.2 - Decision Making
        1. 26.2.1 - Defining Decision Making
        2. 26.2.2 - Characteristics of Decision Making
        3. 26.2.3 - Coping With Uncertainty
        4. 26.2.4 - Increased Complexity of Decisions
      3. 26.3 - Types of Decisions
        1. 26.3.1 - Programmed Decisions
        2. 26.3.2 - Non-programmed Decisions
        3. 26.3.3 - Three Types of Decisions
        4. 26.3.4 - Individual and Group Decisions
      4. 26.4 - Decision-making Process
        1. 26.4.1 - Defining and Diagnosing a Problem
        2. 26.4.2 - Developing Objectives and Criteria
        3. 26.4.3 - Developing Alternatives
        4. 26.4.4 - Analysing Alternatives
        5. 26.4.5 - Selecting an Alternative
        6. 26.4.6 - Implementing the Alternative
        7. 26.4.7 - Evaluating Decision Effectiveness
      5. 26.5 - Decision-making Models
        1. 26.5.1 - The Economic Model or the Rational Model
        2. 26.5.2 - The Administrative Man Model or the Bounded Rationality Model
        3. 26.5.3 - Intuition and Decision Making
      6. 26.6 - Creativity and Innovation in Decision Making
      7. 26.7 - Information Technology and Decision Making
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
    6. 27. Organizational Structure and Design: Creating Flexible Organization
      1. 27.1 - Introduction
      2. 27.2 - Organizing and Organizational Structure
        1. 27.2.1 - Defining Organizing
        2. 27.2.2 - Organizational Structure
        3. 27.2.3 - Evolution of Organizational Structure
      3. 27.3 - Key Elements of Organizational Structure
        1. 27.3.1 - Work Specialization
        2. 27.3.2 - Formalization or Standardization
        3. 27.3.3 - Departmentalization
        4. 27.3.4 - Coordination
        5. 27.3.5 - Chain of Command
        6. 27.3.6 - Authority
        7. 27.3.7 - Centralization and Decentralization
        8. 27.3.8 - Line and Staff Authority
      4. 27.4 - Forms of Organizational Structure
        1. 27.4.1 - Mechanistic and Organic Structures
        2. 27.4.2 - Traditional Organizational Designs
      5. 27.5 - Contemporary Organizational Structure
        1. 27.5.1 - Factors Influencing Organizational Structure
        2. 27.5.2 - Project Organization
        3. 27.5.3 - Matrix Organization
        4. 27.5.4 - Network Organization or Virtual Organization
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
  14. Part VIII: Directing and Controlling
    1. 28. Motivating and Satisfying Employees
      1. 28.1 - Introduction
      2. 28.2 - Motivation: Concept, Nature and Significance
        1. 28.2.1 - Concept
        2. 28.2.2 - Nature of Motivation
        3. 28.2.3 - Sources of Motivation
        4. 28.2.4 - Significance
      3. 28.3 - Early Theories of Motivation
        1. 28.3.1 - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
        2. 28.3.2 - Herzberg's Two-factor Theory
        3. 28.3.3 - Comparison Between Maslow's and Herzberg's Theories
        4. 28.3.4 - Mcgregor's Theory x and Theory y
        5. 28.3.5 - Ouchi's Theory z
      4. 28.4 - Contemporary Theories of Motivation
        1. 28.4.1 - Goal-setting Theory
        2. 28.4.2 - Reinforcement Theory
        3. 28.4.3 - Job-design Theory
        4. 28.4.4 - Equity Theory
        5. 28.4.5 - Expectancy Theory
      5. 28.5 - Current Issues in Motivation
        1. 28.5.1 - From Theory to Practice
        2. 28.5.2 - Cross-cultural Challenges
        3. 28.5.3 - Ethics and Motivation
        4. 28.5.4 - Stock Options
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    2. 29. Leadership: Developing Vision to Transforming Organizations
      1. 29.1 - Introduction
      2. 29.2 - Leadership
        1. 29.2.1 - Concept
        2. 29.2.2 - Characteristics of Leadership
        3. 29.2.3 - Leading and Managing
        4. 29.2.4 - Significance of Leadership
        5. 29.2.5 - Leadership and Power
        6. 29.2.6 - Leadership Styles
        7. 29.2.7 - Likert's System 4 Management
      3. 29.3 - Evolution of Leadership Theories
        1. 29.3.1 - Trait Theories
        2. 29.3.2 - Behavioural Theories
        3. 29.3.3 - The Managerial Grid
        4. 29.3.4 - Contingency Theories or Situational Approach
        5. 29.3.5 - Transformational–transactional Leadership
      4. 29.4 - Current Issues
        1. 29.4.1 - Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
        2. 29.4.2 - Leading Across Cultures
      5. Summary
      6. Questions
    3. 30. Communicating in the Age of Internet
      1. 30.1 - Introduction
      2. 30.2 - The Nature and Function of Communication
        1. 30.2.1 - Defining Communication
        2. 30.2.2 - Functions of Communication
      3. 30.3 - The Communication Process
        1. 30.3.1 - Channels and Information Richness
        2. 30.3.2 - Methods of Communicating Interpersonally
        3. 30.3.3 - Organizational Communication
      4. 30.4 - Information Technology and Communication
      5. 30.5 - Communication Problems
        1. 30.5.1 - Barriers to Communication
        2. 30.5.2 - Overcoming Barriers to Communication
        3. 30.5.3 - Fostering Effective Communication
        4. 30.5.4 - Ethics and Communication
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    4. 31. Managerial Control and Techniques
      1. 31.1 - Introduction
      2. 31.2 - Control: Nature and Significance
        1. 31.2.1 - Nature of Control
        2. 31.2.2 - Significance of Control
      3. 31.3 - The Control Process
      4. 31.4 - Controlling for Organizational Performance
        1. 31.4.1 - Organizational Performance
        2. 31.4.2 - Measures of Organizational Performance
        3. 31.4.3 - Types of Control
        4. 31.4.4 - Financial Controls
        5. 31.4.5 - The Balanced Scorecard Approach
        6. 31.4.6 - Information Controls
        7. 31.4.7 - Benchmarking of Best Practices
        8. 31.4.8 - Automation-Based Control
      5. 31.5 - Current Issues
        1. 31.5.1 - Ethics and Accountability
        2. 31.5.2 - Control for Cross-cultural Differences
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
  15. Part IX: Managing for Future
    1. 32. Contemporary Management Thinking
      1. 32.1 - Introduction
      2. 32.2 - Challenges Before Business and Management
      3. 32.3 - Peter F. Drucker: Change, Innovation and Global Managers
        1. 32.3.1 - Change: Shift to Knowledge and Knowledge Society
        2. 32.3.2 - Management Concepts: MBO, Knowledge Workers, Core Competencies
        3. 32.3.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      4. 32.4 - Michael Porter: Competitive Strategies, Innovation, Clusters
        1. 32.4.1 - Change: Globalization of Businesses, Innovation and Entrepreneurs
        2. 32.4.2 - Management Concepts: the Five-forces Model and the Value Chain
        3. 32.4.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      5. 32.5 - Peter Senge: Learning and Organizations
        1. 32.5.1 - Change: System and Learning
        2. 32.5.2 - Management Concepts: Learning Organization
        3. 32.5.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      6. 32.6 - C. K. Prahalad: Core Competency to Bottom of the Pyramid
        1. 32.6.1 - Change
        2. 32.6.2 - Management Concepts: Strategic Intent and Core Competency
        3. 32.6.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      7. 32.7 - Michael Hammer: Quality, Business Process Reengineering
        1. 32.7.1 - Change
        2. 32.7.2 - Management Concepts: Business Process Reengineering
        3. 32.7.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      8. 32.8 - Thomas J. Peters: Management by Chaos; Excellent Companies
        1. 32.8.1 - Change
        2. 32.8.2 - Management Concepts
        3. 32.8.3 - Ethics and Social Responsibility
      9. Summary
      10. Questions
    2. 33. Strategic Change: Managing Change and Renewal
      1. 33.1 - Introduction
      2. 33.2 - Strategic change
        1. 33.2.1 - Defining Changes
        2. 33.2.2 - Nature of Strategic Change
        3. 33.2.3 - Need for Strategic Change
      3. 33.3 - Management of Strategic Change
        1. 33.3.1 - Factors Influencing Change
        2. 33.3.2 - Planning and Preparation for Change
        3. 33.3.3 - Anticipating Resistance to Change
        4. 33.3.4 - Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change
      4. 33.4 - Implementing Changes
        1. 33.4.1 - Technology-based Methods
        2. 33.4.2 - Organizational Redesign Methods
        3. 33.4.3 - Task-based Methods
        4. 33.4.4 - People-oriented Methods
      5. 33.5 - Social Change and the Entrepreneur
      6. Summary
      7. Questions
    3. 34. Knowledge Management and Learning Organizations
      1. 34.1 - Introduction
      2. 34.2 - Learning, Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management
      3. 34.3 - Knowledge Management
        1. 34.3.1 - Knowledge
        2. 34.3.2 - The Importance of Knowledge
        3. 34.3.3 - Process of Knowledge Management
        4. 34.3.4 - Knowledge Creation
      4. 34.4 - Learning Organization
        1. 34.4.1 - Peter Senge's Learning Organization
        2. 34.4.2 - Features of a Learning Organization
      5. Summary
      6. Questions
    4. 35. Managing Diversity
      1. 35.1 - Introduction
      2. 35.2 - Diversity
        1. 35.2.1 - Defining Diversity
        2. 35.2.2 - Diversity: National Context and Legal Frameworks
        3. 35.2.3 - Advantages of Diversity in Organizations
      3. 35.3 - Managing Diversity
        1. 35.3.1 - Challenges that Managers Face When Working with a Diverse Population
        2. 35.3.2 - Strategies for Promoting Diversity in Organization
      4. 35.4 - Implementing Diversity Programmes
        1. 35.4.1 - Elements of a Successful Diversity Programme
        2. 35.4.2 - The Diversity Officer
      5. Summary
      6. Questions
    5. 36. Corporate Governance
      1. 36.1 - Introduction
      2. 36.2 - Corporate Governance: Need and Significance
        1. 36.2.1 - Defining Corporate Governance
        2. 36.2.2 - Driving Forces for CG
        3. 36.2.3 - Significance of CG
      3. 36.3 - Problems of CG In India
      4. 36.4 - Fundamental Principles of CG
      5. 36.5 - Development of CG
        1. 36.5.1 - Companies Act, 1956
        2. 36.5.2 - Other Acts and Regulations
        3. 36.5.3 - Development of Best Practices
      6. 36.6 - The Mechanism for CG
        1. 36.6.1 - Main Issues
        2. 36.6.2 - SEBI Code on CG
      7. 36.7 - CG and Emerging Issues
      8. Summary
      9. Questions
  16. Notes
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 16
    15. Chapter 17
    16. Chapter 18
    17. Chapter 19
    18. Chapter 20
    19. Chapter 21
    20. Chapter 22
    21. Chapter 23
    22. Chapter 24
    23. Chapter 25
    24. Chapter 26
    25. Chapter 27
    26. Chapter 28
    27. Chapter 29
    28. Chapter 30
    29. Chapter 32
    30. Chapter 33
    31. Chapter 34
    32. Chapter 35
    33. Chapter 36
  17. Acknowledgement
  18. Copyright