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Business Law and Ethics

Book Description

In modern business environments, ethical behavior plays a crucial role in success. Managers and business leaders must pay close attention to the ethics of their policies and behaviors to avoid a reputation-crushing scandal. Business Law and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores best practices business leaders need to navigate the complex landscape of legal and ethical issues on a day-to-day basis. Utilizing both current research and established conventions, this multi-volume reference is a valuable tool for business leaders, managers, students, and professionals in a globalized marketplace.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: The Impact of Corruption on Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Assessing the Political and Socio-Economic Impact of Corruption among Nations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. OBSERVATIONS AND HYPOTHESES
      5. 4. DATA
      6. 5. EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
      7. 6. EMPERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      8. 7. A COMPARISON OF HIERARCHICAL VERSUS NONHIERARCHICAL RELIGIOUSLY CLASSIFIED COUNTRIES
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 3: Planning Ethics in the Age of Wicked Problems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: ASSESSING THE STATE OF WICKED PROBLEMS TODAY
      3. THE ETHICAL GAP OF WICKED PROBLEMS IN PLANNING
      4. THE ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF E-PLANNING: E-PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES AMID WICKED PROBLEMS
      5. AIMS, METHOD AND STRUCTURE OF THE ARTICLE
      6. A CONTEMPORARY RECAPITULATION: COMPARING WACHS’S AND HENDLER’S FRAMEWORK ON PLANNING ETHICS
      7. THE CONVERGENCES: (I) THE ETHICS OF EVERYDAY BEHAVIOR
      8. THE CONVERGENCES: (II) THE ETHICS OF ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION
      9. THE CONVERGENCES: (III) THE ETHICS OF PLANNING TECHNIQUES
      10. THE (APPARENT) DIFFERENCES: THE ETHICS OF PLANS AND POLICIES, PLAN MAKING AND NORMATIVE PLANNING THEORY
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Sowing the Seeds for Ethical Business Leadership through Business Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE BENEFITS OF AN ETHICS-BASED BUSINESS EDUCATION APPROACH
      5. FRAMEWORK FOR AN ETHICS-BASED BUSINESS EDUCATION
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Windows on Corporate Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE AND FOCUS
      4. ‘WINDOWS’ ON CORPORATE ETHICS: THE QUAKER-SNAPPLE ACQUISITION
      5. ‘WINDOWS’ ON CORPORATE ETHICS: APPLYING ETHICS HEURISTICS TO THE CASE
      6. IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT AND ‘CHANGE MANAGEMENT’
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 6: Teaching Business and Cyber Ethics to University Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM: IS EDUCATION THE BRIDGE?
      4. TEACHING BUSINESS AND CYBER ETHICS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS
      5. A COURSE ON BUSINESS AND CYBER ETHICS FOR BUSINESS AND IT STUDENTS
      6. EVALUATION OF THE ETHICS SUBJECTS
      7. FINAL THOUGHTS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Ethics in Business and Human Flourishing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Bribery and Corruption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IS BRIBERY LOCAL OR INTERNATIONAL?
      5. ACTUAL RESOLUTION
      6. PROPOSED RESOLUTION
      7. HOW TO AVOID THE NEGATIVE AND PROMOTE THE POSITIVE
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    9. Chapter 9: Developing Organizational Renewal Capability in the Municipal (City) Organization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL RENEWAL CAPABILITY
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL RENEWAL CAPABILITY
      6. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL RENEWAL CAPABILITY IN THE MUNICIPAL (CITY) ORGANIZATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Globally Responsible Management Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ‘DOING GOOD’ ETHICAL CHALLENGE OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
      4. RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
      5. PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF THE PRME
      6. MEANINGS AND VALUES OF PRME
      7. ADOPTION AND RECOGNITION OF PRME
      8. THE PRINCIPLED AND PRACTICAL CONTEXTS FOR PRME
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: The Leadership Role of the Ethicist
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ‘ETHICIST AS DESIGNER’ APPROACH: TASKS OF THE ETHICIST
      4. THE ROLE OF THE ETHICIST
      5. DISCUSSION: WHAT SHOULD THE ETHICIST DO?
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 12: Ethical Healthiness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
      4. EXPLICIT CONSIDERATION OF ETHICS AND ETHICAL LEARNING
      5. THE ETHICAL HEALTHINESS OF THE ORGANIZATION
      6. THE ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICAL HEALTHINESS IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 13: Trust Deficit in Public Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      4. DISTRUST IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: CAUSES FOR DECLINE
      5. ENHANCING TRUST: WHAT IS IT?
      6. DEVELOPMENT OF TRUST AND CO-EVOLUTION OF TRUST ACROSS LEVELS
      7. WHY INSTITUTIONS OF PUBLIC SECTOR SUFFER FROM TRUST DEFICIT?
      8. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGING LEVELS OF DISTRUST: WHAT INDIVIDUALS CAN DO
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH AND EMERGING TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 14: Strategic Management Overview and SME in Globalized World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. QUESTIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: We-Transparency
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND DEMOCRATIC VALUES
      4. 3. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND TRANSPARENCY
      5. 4. TOWARDS NEW TRANSPARENCY POLICIES: THE CASE OF WIKILEAKS
      6. 5. RESHAPING THE “TRANSPARENCY PARADIGM”
      7. 6. RESHAPING PARTICIPATION
      8. 7. THE CASE OF ICELAND: REBUILDING POLITICAL TRUST
      9. 8. A NEW ICELANDIC CONSTITUTION
      10. 9. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS
      11. 10. THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR A TRANSPARENT PROCESS OF CONSTITUTION-MAKING
      12. 11. THE FINAL DOCUMENT
      13. 12. A FEW CONCLUSIVE THOUGHTS ON THE ICELANDIC CASE
      14. 13. THE MANY USES AND BENEFITS OF CROWDSOURCING
      15. 14. THE USHAHIDI CASE
      16. 15. THE TWITTER VOTER REPORT CASE
      17. 16. CROWDSOURCING IN BULGARIA
      18. 17. ANALYSIS (FROM THE FINAL REPORT)
      19. 18. A BETTER ACCOUNTABILITY: OPENPOLIS
      20. 19. THE DIALOGUE WITH CITIZENS: A NEW SEASON FOR ITALY?
      21. 20. CONCLUSION
      22. REFERENCES
      23. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 16: Ethics in Behavioural Targeting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEMPORARY FOCUS ON BEHAVIOURAL TARGETING
      4. STUDY RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES
      5. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      6. GROUPING OF SIMILAR VARIABLES HIGHLIGHTED IN CONSTRUCT DEFINITIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX
    17. Chapter 17: Business Ethics Perceptions of Working Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THAI BACKGROUND
      4. THAI CULTURE
      5. MORAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS
      7. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 18: The Potential for ICT Tools to Promote Public Participation in Fighting Corruption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF ICT TOOLS
      4. INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FACTORS OF CORRUPTION AND ANTI-CORRUPTION CAPABILITY OF ICT TOOLS
      7. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 19: Anti-Corruption Capabilities of Public E-Procurement Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. TYPES OF E-PROCUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES
      4. OVERVIEW OF THEORIES LINKING ANTI-CORRUPTION TO TECHN OLOGIES
      5. FACTORS OF ANTI-CORRUPTION CAPABILITY OF PUBLIC E-PROCUREMENT
      6. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 20: Value-Oriented Specification of Service Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATION THEORY AND STATE OF THE ART
      4. THE PROBLEM AT HAND: WHERE IS THE VALUE?
      5. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      6. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
      7. SOLUTION PROPOSAL: A VALUE-ORIENTED SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      8. VALUE (RE) DEFINITION AND ALIGNMENT EXAMPLE
      9. CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 21: Are Persuasive Technologies Really Able to Communicate?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ELEMENTS OF DISCOURSE ETHICS
      4. DO MACHINES ARGUE?
      5. PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY AND THE SPEECH-ACT THEORY
      6. THE LEGITIMACY OF PERSUASION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 22: Mixed Methods Research Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: METHODS IN BUSINESS ETHICS RESEARCH
      4. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH ONLINE SURVEYS
      5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. Chapter 23: Ethical E-Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: PLANNING, GEOGRAPHY, GIS, AND ETHICS
      3. FOUR CORNERSTONES
      4. TOWARDS PPGIS: A ‘QUALITATIVE TURN’
      5. EXPERIMENTING WITH QUALITATIVE PPGIS AND ETHICAL E-PARTICIPATION IN PALERMO
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 24: Business Ethics in the Information Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE TRANSFORMATIVE NATURE OF E-BUSINESS
      5. STAKEHOLDER RELATIONS IN CYBERSPACE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 25: Technological Mediation in Odissi Dance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LOCATING PATTERNS IN RESEARCH FINDINGS
      5. MEDIATION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN NETWORKED LEARNING COMMUNITIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 26: Assessing Knowledge Management Processes and Competitive Advantage in Local Authorities using Knowledge Management Assessment Instrument (KMAI)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. DISCUSSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 27: Applying a New Sub-Systems Model to Analyze Economic Policy and the Question of Systemic Persistence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SYSTEMS THEORY IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
      3. CRITIQUES OF EASTON
      4. A MODIFIED ‘SUBSYSTEMIC’ APPROACH TO POLITICS
      5. DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES OF THE SUBSYSTEM
      6. INPUTS INTO THE SUBSYSTEM
      7. OUTPUTS FROM THE SUBSYSTEM
      8. APPLYING THE SUBSYSTEMIC MODEL TO THE KOREAN CASE
      9. VARIATION IN THE SIZE OF THE INPUT GENERATING GROUP
      10. KOREA'S DEMOCRATIZATION
      11. VARIATION IN POLICY OUTPUT
      12. DIRECTLY MEASURING CHANGES IN POLICY OUTPUT
      13. PRIVATE GOODS WITH A SMALL RULING COALITION
      14. PUBLIC GOODS WITH A LARGER RULING COALITION
      15. THE NEXT STEP: EXPLORING THE COLLAPSE OF DOMESTIC POLITICAL SYSTEMS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 28: Privacy, Trust, and Business Ethics for Mobile Business Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONLINE (BUSINESS) SOCIAL NETWORKS
      4. ROLE OF PRIVACY AND TRUST IN ONLINE (BUSINESS) SOCIAL NETWORKS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 29: Electronic Voting System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ELECTORAL REFORM
      5. ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Frameworks and Methodologies
    1. Chapter 30: Corruption, Economic Development, and Insecurity in Colombia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW ON VIOLENCE AND CORRUPTION
      4. DATA
      5. MODEL SPECIFICATION AND EMPIRICAL STRATEGY
      6. RESULTS OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS AND THE DEA MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. POLICY IMPLICATION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 31: The Future of the European Union in the Framework of Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GLOBALIZATION
      5. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF GLOBALIZATION
      6. GLOBALIZATION OF THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM
      7. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE MANAGEMENT ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
      8. GLOBALIZATION OF CULTURE
      9. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION
      10. ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION OF GLOBALIZATION
      11. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALIZATION
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 32: Ethics for Students Means Knowing and Experiencing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEACHING ETHICS
      4. OUR TEACHING EXPERIENCE
      5. FROM CLASSROOM TO REALITY
      6. KEYS FOR EFFECTIVE ETHICS INSTRUCTION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 33: Integrating Ethics into Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. CONCEPT OF ETHICS
      4. 2. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ETHICS AND MORALITY
      5. 3. MORAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. 4. PROTESTANT WORK ETHICS AND WEBER
      7. 5. ETHICAL DECISION MAKING MODELS
      8. 6. MANAGEMENT
      9. 7. MANAGEMENT THEORIES
      10. 8. BUSINESS ETHICS
      11. INTEGRATING ETHICS INTO MANAGEMENT, CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 34: Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics in Management in Light of Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CONCEPT OF CSR
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RELATED TERMS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 35: Designing Multichannel Value Propositions to Enhance Value-Cocreation Phenomenon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. COPRODUCTION AND COCREATION
      5. SERVICE DESIGN METHOD
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 36: The Basic Principles of Competitive Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A GENERAL OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIC TOOLS AND KEY CONCEPTS
      4. THE EXTERNAL DIAGNOSIS (ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS AND INDUSTRY ANALYSIS): THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIES AND POSITIONING WITHIN INDUSTRIES
      5. THE INTERNAL DIAGNOSIS
      6. THE VALUE CHAIN APPROACH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 37: Natural Resources and Welfare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. 2. DATA AND EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. ESTIMATION RESULTS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
      8. APPENDIX 1
      9. APPENDIX 2
    9. Chapter 38: Risk-Based Selection of Portfolio
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE MOTIVATION OF THE WORK
      4. 3. THE APPROACH AND DESIGN OF THE WORK
      5. 4. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 39: Business Ethics, Strategy, and Organizational Integrity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM ETHICS TO INTEGRITY: PAINE’S CONCEPT OF STRATEGY “ETHICAL INTEGRITY”
      4. FROM STRATEGY TO INTEGRITY: MICHAEL JENSEN’S ECONOMIC CONCEPT OF INTEGRITY
      5. THE ETHICAL VIEW CONTRA THE ECONOMIC VIEW OF INTEGRITY: A VIRTUE OR A WORKABILITY CONCEPT OF INTEGRITY
      6. CONCLUSION: TOWARDS INTEGRITY AS GOOD CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 40: Education and Literature for Development in Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
      8. APPENDIX 1
    12. Chapter 41: A Platform for Analyzing Behaviors of Service-Oriented Application Based on the Probabilistic Model Checking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE PRELIMINARIES
      4. 3. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
      5. 4. THE PLATFORM
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 42: Research of Strategic Global Development Trends and Competitiveness in the World Pharmaceutical Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. GLOBALIZATION
      3. 2. GLOBALIZATION IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
      4. 3. WORLD PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET
      5. 4. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
      6. 5. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
      7. 6. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 43: Knowledge Management Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      4. BALANCED SCORECARD
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE MANGAGENT STRATEGIES BALANCED SYSTEMS (KMSBS)
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  9. Section 4: Cases and Applications
    1. Chapter 44: Business Risk from Governmental Corruption in East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries, and Russia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CORRUPTION IN THE REGION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 45: Severing Corruption from Everyday Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA: ITS GROWTH AND SPREAD
      4. ACTIVITIES EMBARKED UPON BY THE COUNTRY TO ADDRESS CORRUPTION
      5. CORRUPTION AND DEMOCRACY: SOME IMPLICATIONS
      6. MANAGEMENT OF CORRUPTION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 46: The India against Corruption Movement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE BACKDROP: A CASCADE OF CORRUPTION CASES
      4. RISE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ACTIVISM
      5. THE INDIA AGAINST CORRUPTION MOVEMENT
      6. ROLE OF PRINT AND TELEVISION MEDIA IN THE IAC CAMPAIGN
      7. ONLINE AND SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 47: Foreign Land Acquisitions, Corruption, and Sustainable Livelihood in Sub-Saharan Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODS
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. CONCEPTUALIZING SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD AND CORRUPTION
      6. CORRUPTION
      7. ANALYTICAL EVIDENCES
      8. UNRAVELING POSSIBLE REMEDY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 48: Ethics in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ‘EDUCATION’, THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS GAINING KNOWLEDGE
      4. AN OVERVIEW: EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION IN THE MENA REGION
      5. NECESSITY TO INVEST IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. PROSPECTS OF GROWTH OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE MENA REGION
      7. MEANING OF THE TERM ‘ETHICS’
      8. ETHICS AND HIGHER EDUCATION
      9. THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      10. ‘FACULTY ETHICS’ SURVEY
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 49: Sustainability, Ethics and Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 50: Globalization and its Challenges for Teacher Education in Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBALIZATION
      4. GOALS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
      5. TEACHER EDUCATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION IN NIGERIA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 51: Ethical Challenges and Adaptive Solutions Regarding Support of Online Graduate Student Research in Regions with Limited Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ONLINE GRADUATE EDUCATION IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT
      3. NUTS AND BOLTS OF SUPPORTING INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN COMPLETING AN AMERICAN RESEARCH-ORIENTED GRADUATE PROGRAM
      4. ETHICAL CHALLENGES WALDEN UNIVERSITY HAS ENCOUNTERED WHILE SUPPORTING RESEARCH IN REGIONS WITH LIMITED INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTIONS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FINAL REFLECTIONS ON LESSONS LEARNED
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 52: Globalization and Transformation of Care in Japan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL POLICY
      4. 3. CHANGING STRUCTURES OF EMPLOYMENT AND FAMILY
      5. 4. LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE
      6. 5. ENTRY OF MIGRANTS INTO THE CARE WORKFORCE
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 53: A Matter of Justice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF ALLOCATING FINANCIAL RESOURCES IN HOSPITAL
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 54: Knowledge Management Initiatives in Indian Public Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      5. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
      6. SIGNIFICANCE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO PUBLIC SECTOR
      7. CHALLENGES FACED BY PUBLIC SECTOR IN MANAGING KNOWLEDGE
      8. CASE STUDIES
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 55: Global Education in the Russian Federation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONAL ELEMENTS IN RUSSIAN EDUCATION FROM PETER THE GREAT TO THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
      4. GLOBALIZATION IN THE SOVIET UNION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 56: Identifying Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Curricula of Leading U.S. Executive MBA Programs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THIS CHAPTER
      5. RESEARCH DESIGN
      6. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 57: Corporate Social Responsibility in the West (U.S. and West Europe) vs. East (China)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS ACT ACCORDING TO CSR
      4. CSR AND SUSTAINABILITY
      5. HOW TO INCREASE CSR ACTIVITIES
      6. WHY DOES CSR NOT WORK AS WELL IN CHINA AS IT DOES IN THE WEST?
      7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TRADE UNIONS TO CSR
      8. THE INFLUENCE OF EMPLOYEES ON CSR MOTIVATION
      9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC INTEGRITY IN CHINA ENCOURAGES CSR ACTIVITIES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 58: Corruption, Business Climate, and Economic Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
      4. MEASURES OF CORRUPTION
      5. CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX (CPI)
      6. CORRUPTION AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM INDEX
      7. CORRUPTION AND “DOING BUSINESS INDICATOR”
      8. CORRUPTION AND “BEEPS”
      9. CORRUPTION AND WORLD BANK INSTITUTE GOVERNANCE INDEX
      10. IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON FOREIGN DOMESTIC INVESTMENT (FDI)
      11. IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH
      12. IMPACT OF LEGAL AND REGULATORY INSTITUTIONS ON CORRUPTION
      13. IMPACT OF GOVERNANCE ON CORRUPTION
      14. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR CORRUPTION
      15. IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP ON CORRUPTION
      16. IMPACT OF BUSINESS ETHICS TRAINING ON REDUCING CORRUPTION
      17. SUMMARY
      18. REFERENCES
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 59: Bridging the Foundational Gap between Theory and Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: BACKGROUND AND HISTORY
      4. BUSINESS ETHICS
      5. BUSINESS (CORPORATE) LAW
      6. THE EVOLUTION OF BUSINESS ETHICS AND LAW IN THE UNITED STATES
      7. RECOMMENDATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 60: The Bhagavad-Gita and Business Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE OF THIS CHAPTER
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. ETHICS
      5. 4. BUSINESS ETHICS
      6. 5. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN BUSINESS ETHICS
      7. 6. INDIAN CULTURE AND BUSINESS ETHICS
      8. 7. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA
      9. 8. BUSINESS ETHICS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA
      10. 9. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 61: Corruption in the Public Eye
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM TRANSPARENCY TO PUBLICITY, AND BACK?
      4. RECONSTRUCTING CONCEPTUALLY TRANSPARENCY AND PUBLICITY
      5. PIONEERING A MORE TRANSPARENT INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM: THE ROLE OF PUBLICITY IN THE NEGOTIATION OF THE OECD ANTI-BRIBERY CONVENTION
      6. PIONEERING A MORE TRANSPARENT SYSTEM AT THE LEVEL OF THE NATION STATE: THE DYNAMICS OF IDENTIFICATION AND THE LIMITS OF RATIONAL DEBATE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 62: Using ERG Theory as a Lens to Understand the Sharing of Academic Tacit Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAME
      5. RESEARCH METHOD
      6. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. FINDINGS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 63: Exploring Ethics in Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRODUCT INNOVATION: PROCESSED FOOD
      5. ARGUMENTS SUPPORTING THE INNOVATION
      6. ARGUMENTS REFUTING THE INNOVATION
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 64: Critical Instruction, Student Achievement, and the Nurturing of Global Citizens
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 65: Entrepreneurial Ethical Decision Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOR
      4. ORGANISATION AND THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
      5. LIMITATIONS OF ETHICAL DECISION MAKING
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 66: Why Do Good People Do Bad Things in Business?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ASSUMPTIONS OF BEHAVIOR
      5. EXPLANATIONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 67: Business Ethics Competencies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUSINESS ETHICS TRAINING: ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: BUSINESS ETHICS TRAINING
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. DEDICATION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 68: The Moral Limitations of the Rational-Monistic Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 69: The Ethical Implications of Personal Health Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 70: Leading Ethically in a Culturally Diverse Global Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 71: Ethics in the Age of Technological Change and its Impact on the Professional Identity of Librarians
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ETHICS OF LIS
      4. CORE VALUES OF LIBRARIANSHIP
      5. HOW DO LIBRARIANS UNDERSTAND TECHNOLOGY?
      6. RFIDs AND ETHICAL DILEMMAS
      7. PRIVACY AS A SERVICE TO PATRONS
      8. AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 72: In Case You Didn't Know
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CASE DESIGN AND PRESENTATION
      5. SUMMARIES OF RECENT CASE-BASED STUDIES
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRAINING INTERVENTIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX: BIG PHARMA CASE
    3. Chapter 73: The Role of Religion and National Culture in Economic Growth of Emerging Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ECONOMIC GROWTH RATE AND AN EMERGING ECONOMIY
      4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON ROLE OF RELIGION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH
      5. PREDICTED GROWTH RATES OF EMERGING ECONOMIES AND THEIR MAJORITY RELIGION
      6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR RELIGION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      7. RELIGION, CULTURE, VALUES, WORK ETHIC, SOCIAL ETHIC AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      8. RELIGION AND HOFSTEDE’S (2010) DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE
      9. ECONOMIC GROWTH, WORK ETHICS, AND SOCIAL ETHICS OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS
      10. CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT WORK ETHICS, SOCIAL ETHICS, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      11. JEWISH WORK ETHICS, SOCIAL ETHIC, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      12. ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS, SOCIAL ETHICS, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      13. CONFUCIAN AND DAOIST WORK ETHICS, SOCIAL ETHICS, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      14. BUDDHIST WORK ETHICS, SOCIAL ETHICS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      15. HINDU WORK AND SOCIAL ETHICS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      16. SUMMARY
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 74: Super Soldiers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONAL LAW
      4. DOMESTIC LAW
      5. OPERATIONS
      6. ETHICS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 75: The Potential of Political Changes in the Information Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEW MEDIA AND NEW POLITICS
      4. CIVIL SOCIETY IN SAUDI ARABIA
      5. POLITICAL ACTIVISM IN THE CYBERSPACE
      6. CASE STUDY
      7. SAUDI WOMEN SPRING
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 76: Examining Trust in Collaborative Research Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROVENANCE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 77: Techniques for Preparing Business Students to Contribute to Ethical Organizational Cultures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES AND CHARACTER
      4. ELEMENTS OF A CULTURE OF CHARACTER
      5. BUILDING A CULTURE OF CHARACTER
      6. ESTABLISHING AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING CONTEXT FOR BUSINESS ETHICS
      7. STIMULATING ACTIVE LEARNING IN BUSINESS ETHICS COURSES
      8. DEBRIEFING THE EXPERIENCE
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 78: Reducing Corruption and Protecting Privacy in Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON EMERGING ECONOMIES
      4. IMPLICATIONS FOR WESTERN SURVEILLANCE POLICY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      5. THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE COMPUTING IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      6. TOWARDS “VOISSAFE”
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 79: “Home Base” and the Brand Globalization Strategies of Emerging Market Multinationals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRAND GLOBALIZATION
      4. EMMNES AND EMERGING MARKETS
      5. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      6. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 80: Game-Theoretic Insights Concerning Key Business Ethics Issues Occurring in Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS ETHICS
      4. FOUR KEY ISSUES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INSIGHTS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS