“Are You Listening?”
—R.G. Nichols and L. A. Stevens
Picture yourself teaching a class on business research methods—not an equally interesting subject for all students. During the course of the lecture, you see that a girl in the last row is busy writing in her notebook, not even once looking towards you. Next to the wall, a student is reading silently from a book. In the middle row, a half-asleep boy struggles to keep his eyes open. Only in the front two rows do you find students paying attention to what you have been discussing. They have been looking towards you and have been also taking notes from time to time.
You have explained the causal relationship between two variables, A and B. You have given ...