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Building the Agile Enterprise

Book Description

In the last ten years IT has brought fundamental changes to the way the world works. Not only has it increased the speed of operations and communications, but it has also undermined basic assumptions of traditional business models and increased the number of variables. Today, the survival of major corporations is challenged by a world-wide marketplace, international operations, outsourcing, global communities, a changing workforce, security threats, business continuity, web visibility, and customer expectations. Enterprises must constantly adapt or they will be unable to compete.

Fred Cummins, an EDS Fellow, presents IT as a key enabler of the agile enterprise. He demonstrates how the convergence of key technologies—including SOA, BPM and emerging enterprise and data models—can be harnessed to transform the enterprise. Cummins mines his 25 years experience to provide IT leaders, as well as enterprise architects and management consultants, with the critical information, skills, and insights they need to partner with management and redesign the enterprise for continuous change. No other book puts IT at the center of this transformation, nor integrates these technologies for this purpose.



  • Shows how to integrate and deploy critical technologies to foster agility
  • Details how to design an enterprise architecture that takes full advantage of SOA, BPM, business rules, enterprise information management, business models, and governance
  • Outlines IT's critical mission in providing an integration infrastructure and key services, while optimizing technology adoption throughout the enterprise
  • Illustrates concepts with examples and cases from large and small commercial enterprises
  • Shows how to create systems that recognize and respond to the need for change
  • Identifies the unique security issues that arise with SOA and shows how to deploy a framework of technologies and processes that address them

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. Target Audience
    2. Book Organization
      1. The Agile Enterprise (Chapter 1)
      2. Service-Oriented Architecture (Chapter 2)
      3. Business Process Management (Chapter 3)
      4. Business Rules (Chapter 4)
      5. Enterprise Information Management (Chapter 5)
      6. SOA Security (Chapter 6)
      7. The Agile Organization Structure (Chapter 7)
      8. Event-Driven Agility (Chapter 8)
      9. Agile Governance (Chapter 9)
      10. Model-Based Management (MBM) (Chapter 10)
    3. The Vision
  5. 1. The Agile Enterprise
    1. When Agility Pays off
      1. Consolidations
      2. New Product or Line of Business
      3. Outsourcing
      4. Government Regulation
      5. Governance
      6. Technology Modernization
    2. How We Got Here
      1. Task Automation
      2. Enterprise Application Integration
      3. The Internet
      4. Web Services and SOA
    3. A New Way of Thinking
      1. Service
      2. Service Units
      3. Service-Oriented Enterprises
      4. Agile Enterprise
      5. Process-Driven Services
      6. Model-Based Management
      7. Value Chain
      8. Disruptive Event
      9. Governance
      10. Information Technology Management
    4. SOA Maturity Model
      1. Maturity Levels
      2. Business Dimensions
      3. Technology Dimensions
    5. Critical Success Factors on the Journey to Agility
      1. Governance for Enterprise Optimization and Control
      2. Enterprise Models
      3. Technical Infrastructure
      4. Service-Based Management
  6. 2. Service-Oriented Architecture
    1. Business Services
      1. Service Units
      2. SOA for the Enterprise
      3. Service Unit Template
      4. Service Ownership
      5. Service Groups
        1. Services in Electronic Commerce
      6. Services in a Value Chain
        1. The Organizational Dimension
    2. Service Unit Management
      1. Management Controls
      2. Service Implementation Management
    3. SOA Electronic Infrastructure
      1. Reliable Messaging
      2. Security
      3. Message Transformation
      4. Registry Services
      5. Business Process Management System
      6. Portal Support
      7. Service Performance Monitoring
      8. Billing for Services
    4. Defining Service Units
      1. Service-Oriented Analysis
        1. Value Chain Analysis
        2. Roles
        3. Service Unit Consolidation
        4. Work Management Service Units
        5. Service Unit Interfaces
      2. Service Unit Specifications
      3. Outsourcing
      4. Role of Industry Frameworks
        1. Service Units
        2. Data Models
        3. Processes
        4. Rules
        5. A Framework Example
    5. Robust Value Chain Analysis
      1. Dependency Network
      2. Abstract Activities
      3. Hierarchy of Value Chains
    6. Enterprise Transformation Perspectives
      1. Business Perspective
        1. Departmental Scope
        2. Address an Identified Business Need
        3. Identify an Opportunity for Economy of Scale
      2. Information Systems Transformations
        1. New Application
        2. COTS Application
        3. Outsourcing
        4. Adapted Legacy Application
        5. Batch Process Legacy
        6. Rearchitecting
  7. 3. Business Process Management
    1. Business Process Concepts
      1. Process Context
      2. Roles
      3. Collaboration
      4. Organizational Context
    2. Process Modeling
      1. Modeling Languages
      2. Process Modeling Notation
        1. Event
        2. Activity
        3. Gateway
        4. Sequence Flow
        5. Message Flow
        6. Association
        7. Pool
        8. Lane
        9. Data Object
        10. Group
        11. Text Annotation
        12. Attributes
        13. Business Process Management Systems
      3. Design Objectives
    3. Operating Modes
      1. Workflow
      2. Case Management
      3. Job-Shop Mode
      4. Production-Line Mode
      5. Relay Mode
      6. Rule-Driven Mode
      7. Development Projects
      8. Product Configuration
    4. Processes in SOA
      1. Process-Driven Services
      2. Multiple Services of a Service Unit
      3. Loose Coupling
      4. Transfer of Value
      5. Security
    5. Choreography
      1. Sequence of Exchange
      2. Complementary Internal Process
      3. Extended Choreography
  8. 4. Business Rules
    1. Types of Rules
      1. Regulations
      2. Enterprise Rules
      3. Production Rules
      4. Diagnostic Rules
      5. Event Rules
      6. Qualification Rules
      7. Data Integrity Rules
    2. Implications of SOA
      1. Regulations and Enterprise Rules
      2. Production and Diagnostic Rules
      3. Event Rules
      4. Qualification Rules
        1. People Qualifications
        2. Service Policies
        3. Access Control Rules
      5. Data Integrity Rules
    3. Rules Management
  9. 5. Enterprise Information Management
    1. Information Management Issues
      1. Consistent Data Representation
      2. Multiple Links Between Service Units
      3. Cross-Enterprise Views
      4. Distributed Databases
      5. Shared Knowledge
      6. Business Models
    2. Logical Data Model
      1. Metadata
      2. Enterprise Logical Data Model
      3. Data Modeling
      4. Semantics
    3. Data Exchange
    4. Business Intelligence Services
      1. Operational Data Stores
      2. Enterprise Information Integration
      3. Business Activity Monitoring
      4. Data Warehouses
      5. Business Metadata
    5. Master Data Management
      1. Primary Source
      2. Data Hiding
      3. Service Unit Granularity
        1. Clustering
        2. Data Replication
      4. Life-Cycle-Based Ownership
      5. Outsourced Services
    6. Knowledge Management
      1. Expertise of People
      2. Unstructured Documents
  10. 6. SOA Security
    1. Encryption and Signatures
      1. Public Key Encryption
      2. Electronic Signatures
    2. Accountability and Nonrepudiation
      1. Electronic Documents as Evidence
      2. Compound Documents
      3. Preservation of Authenticity
    3. Identification and Authentication
      1. Digital Certificates
      2. Two-Way Authentication
      3. Single Sign-On
    4. Authorization
    5. Role-Based Access Control, Extended
      1. Definitions of Roles
      2. Role Authorization Requirements
        1. Attributes of the Subject
          1. The Subject's Organizational Relationships
        2. The Subject's Relationship to a Process
        3. The Subject's Relationship to Data Being Accessed
        4. Grant of Authorization by Another Subject
    6. Runtime Authorization
    7. XACML Policies
    8. Access Control Administration
    9. Federation of Trust Domains
    10. Perimeter security
    11. Vulnerability Scanning and Intrusion Detection
    12. Monitoring, Logging, Alerts, and Audits
  11. 7. The Agile Organization Structure
    1. Design Principles
      1. Centralization for Enterprise Optimization
      2. Management Hierarchy
      3. Service Units as Building Blocks
      4. Service Unit Autonomy
      5. Accountability
      6. Collaborative Relationships
    2. Service Unit Types
      1. Line-of-business Service Units
      2. Production Value Chain Service Units
      3. Support Service Units
      4. Product Development Service Units
      5. Master Data Service Units
      6. Work Management Service Units
      7. Transformation Service Units
      8. Portal Service Units
      9. Executive Staff Service Units
    3. Hierarchy Design Factors
      1. Aggregation Factors
        1. Functional Similarity
        2. Measures of Performance
        3. Degree of Coupling
        4. Outsourcing
      2. Separation Factors
        1. Independence from Users
        2. Separation of Duties
        3. Differences in Service Request Life Cycle
        4. Service Delivery Locations
    4. Organization Modeling
    5. Organizational Transformation
  12. 8. Event-Driven Agility
    1. Event Resolution Business Framework
      1. Service Unit Manager
      2. Line-of-Business Manager
      3. Executive Staff
    2. Origins of Events
      1. Business Environment Events
      2. Operational Events
      3. Innovation Events
      4. Enterprise Change Events
    3. Identification of Events of Interest
      1. Relevant Events
      2. Risk Threshold
    4. Sources of Event Notices
      1. External Events
      2. Internal Events
      3. Complex Event Processing
      4. Look-Back
      5. Verification and Consolidation of Event Notices
    5. Event Notification Infrastructure
      1. Surrogate Publishers
      2. Publish-and-Subscribe Facility
    6. Event Resolution Processes
  13. 9. Agile Governance
    1. Benefits
      1. Adaptation to New Business Pursuits
      2. Improved Response to Change
      3. Continuous Strategic Planning
      4. Enterprise Intelligence
      5. Empowerment
      6. Accountability
      7. Regulatory Compliance
      8. Risk Management
      9. Economies of Scale
      10. Disciplined Enterprise Design
      11. Orderly, Incremental Transformation
      12. Optimization of Performance
      13. Optimization of Information Technology
    2. Agile Governance Framework
    3. Strategic Planning
      1. Conventional Strategic Planning
      2. Adaptations for the Agile Enterprise
    4. Enterprise Intelligence
      1. Data
      2. Information
      3. Knowledge
      4. Wisdom
    5. Business Architecture
      1. Current Architecture
      2. Strategic Architecture
      3. Gap Analysis
      4. Transformation Priorities
      5. Next-Generation Architecture
      6. Service Unit and Organization Design
      7. Role Authorization Specifications
      8. Enterprise Rules and Assignments
      9. Transformation Oversight
      10. Performance Assessment
      11. Service Unit Improvements
      12. Risk Mitigation
      13. Future Value Network
    6. Audit and Risk Assessment
    7. Enterprise Transformation
    8. Standards and Technology
    9. Information Technology Service Units
      1. Executive Staff Support
      2. Service Unit Automation
      3. Infrastructure Management
    10. Finance and Accounting Service Units
    11. Purchasing Service Units
    12. Human Resource Management Service Units
      1. Service Unit Autonomy
      2. Continuous Change
      3. Incentives
    13. Value Network Services
  14. 10. Model-Based Management
    1. Business-Modeling Viewpoints
      1. Management Dashboards
      2. Service Unit Performance
      3. Service Unit Specifications
      4. Organization Structure
      5. Role-Based Access Control
      6. Enterprise Logical Data Model
      7. Business Rules and Regulations
      8. Strategic Planning
      9. Electronic Documents
      10. Business Processes
      11. Choreographies
      12. Service Unit Cost Models
      13. Value Chains
      14. Disruptive Event Notices
      15. Applications Portfolio
      16. Business Dynamics
    2. Modeling Technology Standards
    3. Enhanced Modeling Capabilities
      1. Simulation
      2. Multiple Vocabularies
      3. Semantics
    4. Tactical Solutions
  15. Bibliography
    1. References
  16. Glossary
    1. Glossary