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Building Successful Information Systems by Michael J. Savoie

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Chapter 2

The Information Ladder

When we talk about information systems, there are four levels or types of information that are involved. Each adds to the previous one, creating richer details and adding additional value to the information. The four levels of information are: data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. Each level builds on the previous ones, creating the Information Ladder.

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Let’s examine each step of the ladder in more detail.

Data

The first level of information is data. What is data?

Data consists of facts. Think about it. When you touch something, do you get data? If I take your hand and shove it on a hot stove, do I have to ...

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