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Building Scientific Apparatus, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Unrivalled in its coverage and unique in its hands-on approach, this guide to the design and construction of scientific apparatus is essential reading for every scientist and student of engineering, and physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Covering the physical principles governing the operation of the mechanical, optical and electronic parts of an instrument, new sections on detectors, low-temperature measurements, high-pressure apparatus, and updated engineering specifications, as well as 400 figures and tables, have been added to this edition. Data on the properties of materials and components used by manufacturers are included. Mechanical, optical, and electronic construction techniques carried out in the lab, as well as those let out to specialized shops, are also described. Step-by-step instruction supported by many detailed figures, is given for laboratory skills such as soldering electrical components, glassblowing, brazing, and polishing.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Half title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Dedication
  6. CONTENTS
  7. Preface
  8. 1 MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION
    1. 1.1 Tools and Shop Processes
      1. 1.1.1 Hand Tools
      2. 1.1.2 Machines for Making Holes
      3. 1.1.3 The Lathe
      4. 1.1.4 Milling Machines
      5. 1.1.5 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
      6. 1.1.6 Grinders
      7. 1.1.7 Tools for Working Sheet Metal
      8. 1.1.8 Casting
      9. 1.1.9 Tolerance and Surface Quality for Shop Processes
    2. 1.2 Properties of Materials
      1. 1.2.1 Parameters to Specify Properties of Materials
      2. 1.2.2 Heat Treating and Cold Working
      3. 1.2.3 Effect of Stress Concentration
    3. 1.3 Materials
      1. 1.3.1 Iron and Steel
      2. 1.3.2 Nickel Alloys
      3. 1.3.3 Copper and Copper Alloys
      4. 1.3.4 Aluminum Alloys
      5. 1.3.5 Other Metals
      6. 1.3.6 Plastics
      7. 1.3.7 Glasses and Ceramics
    4. 1.4 Joining Materials
      1. 1.4.1 Threaded Fasteners
      2. 1.4.2 Rivets
      3. 1.4.3 Pins
      4. 1.4.4 Retaining Rings
      5. 1.4.5 Soldering
      6. 1.4.6 Brazing
      7. 1.4.7 Welding
      8. 1.4.8 Adhesives
      9. 1.4.9 Design of Joints
      10. 1.4.10 Joints in Piping and Pressure Vessels
    5. 1.5 Mechanical Drawing
      1. 1.5.1 Drawing Tools
      2. 1.5.2 Basic Principles of Mechanical Drawing
      3. 1.5.3 Dimensions
      4. 1.5.4 Tolerances
      5. 1.5.5 From Design to Working Drawings
    6. 1.6 Physical Principles of Mechanical Design
      1. 1.6.1 Bending of a Beam or Shaft
      2. 1.6.2 Twisting of a Shaft
      3. 1.6.3 Internal Pressure
      4. 1.6.4 Vibration of Beams and Shafts
      5. 1.6.5 Shaft Whirl and Vibration
    7. 1.7 Constrained Motion
      1. 1.7.1 Kinematic Design
      2. 1.7.2 Plain Bearings
      3. 1.7.3 Ball Bearings
      4. 1.7.4 Linear-Motion Bearings
      5. 1.7.5 Springs
      6. 1.7.6 Flexures
    8. Cited References
    9. General References
    10. Chapter 1 Appendix
  9. 2 WORKING WITH GLASS
    1. 2.1 Properties of Glasses
      1. 2.1.1 Chemical Composition and Chemical Properties of Some Laboratory Glasses
      2. 2.1.2 Thermal Properties of Laboratory Glasses
      3. 2.1.3 Optical Properties of Laboratory Glassware
      4. 2.1.4 Mechanical Properties of Glass
    2. 2.2 Laboratory Components Available in Glass
      1. 2.2.1 Tubing and Rod
      2. 2.2.2 Demountable Joints
      3. 2.2.3 Valves and Stopcocks
      4. 2.2.4 Graded Glass Seals and Glass-to-Metal Seals
    3. 2.3 Laboratory Glassblowing Skills
      1. 2.3.1 The Glassblower's Tools
      2. 2.3.2 Cutting Glass Tubing
      3. 2.3.3 Pulling Points
      4. 2.3.4 Sealing Off a Tube: The Test-Tube End
      5. 2.3.5 Making a T-Seal
      6. 2.3.6 Making a Straight Seal
      7. 2.3.7 Making a Ring Seal
      8. 2.3.8 Bending Glass Tubing
      9. 2.3.9 Annealing
      10. 2.3.10 Sealing Glass to Metal
      11. 2.3.11 Grinding and Drilling Glass
    4. Cited References
    5. General References
  10. 3 VACUUM TECHNOLOGY
    1. 3.1 Gases
      1. 3.1.1 The Nature of the Residual Gases in a Vacuum System
      2. 3.1.2 Gas Kinetic Theory
      3. 3.1.3 Surface Collisions
      4. 3.1.4 Bulk Behavior versus Molecular Behavior
    2. 3.2 Gas Flow
      1. 3.2.1 Parameters for Specifying Gas Flow
      2. 3.2.2 Network Equations
      3. 3.2.3 The Master Equation
      4. 3.2.4 Conductance Formulae
      5. 3.2.5 Pumpdown Time
      6. 3.2.6 Outgassing
    3. 3.3 Pressure and Flow Measurement
      1. 3.3.1 Mechanical Gauges
      2. 3.3.2 Thermal-Conductivity Gauges
      3. 3.3.3 Viscous-Drag Gauges
      4. 3.3.4 Ionization Gauges
      5. 3.3.5 Mass Spectrometers
      6. 3.3.6 Flowmeters
    4. 3.4 Vacuum Pumps
      1. 3.4.1 Mechanical Pumps
      2. 3.4.2 Vapor Diffusion Pumps
      3. 3.4.3 Entrainment Pumps
    5. 3.5 Vacuum Hardware
      1. 3.5.1 Materials
      2. 3.5.2 Demountable Vacuum Connections
      3. 3.5.3 Valves
      4. 3.5.4 Mechanical Motion in the Vacuum System
      5. 3.5.5 Traps and Baffles
      6. 3.5.6 Molecular Beams and Gas Jets
      7. 3.5.7 Electronics and Electricity in Vacuo
    6. 3.6 Vacuum-System Design and Construction
      1. 3.6.1 Some Typical Vacuum Systems
      2. 3.6.2 Differential Pumping
      3. 3.6.3 The Construction of Metal Vacuum Apparatus
      4. 3.6.4 Surface Preparation
      5. 3.6.5 Leak Detection
      6. 3.6.6 Ultrahigh Vacuum
    7. Cited References
    8. General References
  11. 4 Optical Systems
    1. 4.1 Optical Terminology
    2. 4.2 Characterization and Analysis of Optical Systems
      1. 4.2.1 Simple Reflection and Refraction Analysis
      2. 4.2.2 Paraxial-Ray Analysis
      3. 4.2.3 Nonimaging Light Collectors
      4. 4.2.4 Imaging Systems
      5. 4.2.5 Exact Ray Tracing and Aberrations
      6. 4.2.6 The Use of Impedances in Optics
      7. 4.2.7 Gaussian Beams
    3. 4.3 Optical Components
      1. 4.3.1 Mirrors
      2. 4.3.2 Windows
      3. 4.3.3 Lenses and Lens Systems
      4. 4.3.4 Prisms
      5. 4.3.5 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.3.6 Polarizers
      7. 4.3.7 Optical Isolators
      8. 4.3.8 Filters
      9. 4.3.9 Fiber Optics
      10. 4.3.10 Precision Mechanical Movement Systems
      11. 4.3.11 Devices for Positional and Orientational Adjustment of Optical Components
      12. 4.3.12 Optical Tables and Vibration Isolation
      13. 4.3.13 Alignment of Optical Systems
      14. 4.3.14 Mounting Optical Components
      15. 4.3.15 Cleaning Optical Components
    4. 4.4 Optical Materials
      1. 4.4.1 Materials for Windows, Lenses, and Prisms
      2. 4.4.2 Materials for Mirrors and Diffraction Gratings
    5. 4.5 Optical Sources
      1. 4.5.1 Coherence
      2. 4.5.2 Radiometry: Units and Definitions
      3. 4.5.3 Photometry
      4. 4.5.4 Line Sources
      5. 4.5.5 Continuum Sources
    6. 4.6 Lasers
      1. 4.6.1 General Principles of Laser Operation
      2. 4.6.2 General Features of Laser Design
      3. 4.6.3 Specific Laser Systems
      4. 4.6.4 Laser Radiation
      5. 4.6.5 Coupling Light from a Source to an Aperture
      6. 4.6.6 Optical Modulators
      7. 4.6.7 How to Work Safely with Light Sources
    7. 4.7 Optical Dispersing Instruments
      1. 4.7.1 Comparison of Prism and Grating Spectrometers
      2. 4.7.2 Design of Spectrometers and Spectrographs
      3. 4.7.3 Calibration of Spectrometers and Spectrographs
      4. 4.7.4 Fabry–Perot Interferometers and Etalons
      5. 4.7.5 Design Considerations for Fabry–Perot Systems
      6. 4.7.6 Double-Beam Interferometers
    8. Endnotes
    9. Cited References
    10. General References
  12. 5 CHARGED-PARTICLE OPTICS
    1. 5.1 Basic Concepts of Charged-Particle Optics
      1. 5.1.1 Brightness
      2. 5.1.2 Snell's Law
      3. 5.1.3 The Helmholtz–Lagrange Law
      4. 5.1.4 Vignetting
    2. 5.2 Electrostatic Lenses
      1. 5.2.1 Geometrical Optics of Thick Lenses
      2. 5.2.2 Cylinder Lenses
      3. 5.2.3 Aperture Lenses
      4. 5.2.4 Matrix Methods
      5. 5.2.5 Aberrations
      6. 5.2.6 Lens Design Example
      7. 5.2.7 Computer Simulations
    3. 5.3 Charged-Particle Sources
      1. 5.3.1 Electron Guns
      2. 5.3.2 Electron-Gun Design Example
      3. 5.3.3 Ion Sources
    4. 5.4 Energy Analyzers
      1. 5.4.1 Parallel-Plate Analyzers
      2. 5.4.2 Cylindrical Analyzers
      3. 5.4.3 Spherical Analyzers
      4. 5.4.4 Preretardation
      5. 5.4.5 The Energy-Add Lens
      6. 5.4.6 Fringing-Field Correction
      7. 5.4.7 Magnetic Energy Analyzers
    5. 5.5 Mass Analyzers
      1. 5.5.1 Magnetic Sector Mass Analyzers
      2. 5.5.2 Wien Filter
      3. 5.5.3 Dynamic Mass Spectrometers
    6. 5.6 Electron- and Ion-Beam Devices: Construction
      1. 5.6.1 Vacuum Requirements
      2. 5.6.2 Materials
      3. 5.6.3 Lens and Lens-Mount Design
      4. 5.6.4 Charged-Particle Detection
      5. 5.6.5 Magnetic-Field Control
    7. Cited References
  13. 6 Electronics
    1. 6.1 Preliminaries
      1. 6.1.1 Circuit Theory
      2. 6.1.2 Circuit Analysis
      3. 6.1.3 High-Pass and Low-Pass Circuits
      4. 6.1.4 Resonant Circuits
      5. 6.1.5 The Laplace-Transform Method
      6. 6.1.6 RLC Circuits
      7. 6.1.7 Transient Response of Resonant Circuits
      8. 6.1.8 Transformers and Mutual Inductance
      9. 6.1.9 Compensation
      10. 6.1.10 Filters
      11. 6.1.11 Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis
    2. 6.2 Passive Components
      1. 6.2.1 Fixed Resistors and Capacitors
      2. 6.2.2 Variable Resistors
      3. 6.2.3 Transmission Lines
      4. 6.2.4 Coaxial Connectors
      5. 6.2.5 Relays
    3. 6.3 Active Components
      1. 6.3.1 Diodes
      2. 6.3.2 Transistors
      3. 6.3.3 Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
      4. 6.3.4 Unijunction Transistors
      5. 6.3.5 Thyratrons
    4. 6.4 Amplifiers and Pulse Electronics
      1. 6.4.1 Definition of Terms
      2. 6.4.2 General Transistor-Amplifier Operating Principles
      3. 6.4.3 Operational-Amplifier Circuit Analysis
      4. 6.4.4 Instrumentation and Isolation Amplifiers
      5. 6.4.5 Stability and Oscillators
      6. 6.4.6 Detecting and Processing Pulses
    5. 6.5 Power Supplies
      1. 6.5.1 Power-Supply Specifications
      2. 6.5.2 Regulator Circuits and Programmable Power Supplies
      3. 6.5.3 Bridges
    6. 6.6 Digital Electronics
      1. 6.6.1 Binary Counting
      2. 6.6.2 Elementary Functions
      3. 6.6.3 Boolean Algebra
      4. 6.6.4 Arithmetic Units
      5. 6.6.5 Data Units
      6. 6.6.6 Dynamic Systems
      7. 6.6.7 Digital-to-Analog Conversion
      8. 6.6.8 Memories
      9. 6.6.9 Logic and Function
      10. 6.6.10 Implementing Logic Functions
    7. 6.7 Data Acquisition
      1. 6.7.1 Data Rates
      2. 6.7.2 Voltage Levels and Timing
      3. 6.7.3 Format
      4. 6.7.4 System Overhead
      5. 6.7.5 Analog Input Signals
      6. 6.7.6 Multiple Signal Sources: Data Loggers
      7. 6.7.7 Standardized Data-Acquisition Systems
      8. 6.7.8 Control Systems
      9. 6.7.9 Personal Computer (PC) Control of Experiments
    8. 6.8 Extraction of Signal from Noise
      1. 6.8.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
      2. 6.8.2 Optimizing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio
      3. 6.8.3 The Lock-In Amplifier and Gated Integrator or Boxcar
      4. 6.8.4 Signal Averaging
      5. 6.8.5 Waveform Recovery
      6. 6.8.6 Coincidence and Time-Correlation Techniques
    9. 6.9 Grounds and Grounding
      1. 6.9.1 Electrical Grounds and Safety
      2. 6.9.2 Electrical Pickup: Capacitive Effects
      3. 6.9.3 Electrical Pickup: Inductive Effects
      4. 6.9.4 Electromagnetic Interference and r.f.i
      5. 6.9.5 Power-Line-Coupled Noise
      6. 6.9.6 Ground Loops
    10. 6.10 Hardware and Construction
      1. 6.10.1 Circuit Diagrams
      2. 6.10.2 Component Selection and Construction Techniques
      3. 6.10.3 Printed Circuit Boards
      4. 6.10.4 Wire Wrap™ Boards
      5. 6.10.5 Wires and Cables
      6. 6.10.6 Connectors
    11. 6.11 Troubleshooting
      1. 6.11.1 General Procedures
      2. 6.11.2 Identifying Parts
    12. Cited References
    13. General References
    14. Chapter 6 Appendix
  14. 7 DETECTORS
    1. 7.1 Optical Detectors
    2. 7.2 Noise in Optical Detection Process
      1. 7.2.1 Shot Noise
      2. 7.2.2 Johnson Noise
      3. 7.2.3 Generation-Recombination (gr) Noise
      4. 7.2.4 1/f Noise
    3. 7.3 Figures of Merit for Detectors
      1. 7.3.1 Noise-Equivalent Power
      2. 7.3.2 Detectivity
      3. 7.3.3 Responsivity
      4. 7.3.4 Quantum Efficiency
      5. 7.3.5 Frequency Response and Time Constant
      6. 7.3.6 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
    4. 7.4 Photoemissive Detectors
      1. 7.4.1 Vacuum Photodiodes
      2. 7.4.2 Photomultipliers
      3. 7.4.3 Photocathode and Dynode Materials
      4. 7.4.4 Practical Operating Considerations for Photomultiplier Tubes
    5. 7.5 Photoconductive Detectors
    6. 7.6 Photovoltaic Detectors (Photodiodes)
      1. 7.6.1 Avalanche Photodiodes
      2. 7.6.2 Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodetectors
    7. 7.7 Detector Arrays
      1. 7.7.1 Reticons
      2. 7.7.2 Quadrant Detectors
      3. 7.7.3 Lateral Effect Photodetectors
      4. 7.7.4 Imaging Arrays
      5. 7.7.5 Image Intensifiers
    8. 7.8 Signal-to-Noise Ratio Calculations
      1. 7.8.1 Photomultipliers
      2. 7.8.2 Direct Detection with p–i–n Photodiodes
      3. 7.8.3 Direct Detection with APDs
      4. 7.8.4 Photon Counting
    9. 7.9 Particle and Ionizing Radiation Detectors
      1. 7.9.1 Solid-State Detectors
      2. 7.9.2 Scintillation Counters
      3. 7.9.3 X-Ray Detectors
    10. 7.10 Thermal Detectors
      1. 7.10.1 Thermopiles
      2. 7.10.2 Pyroelectric Detectors
      3. 7.10.3 Bolometers
      4. 7.10.4 The Golay Cell
    11. 7.11 Electronics to be Used With Detectors
    12. 7.12 Detector Calibration
    13. Endnotes
    14. Cited References
    15. General References
  15. 8 MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE
    1. 8.1 The Measurement of Temperature
      1. 8.1.1 Expansion Thermometers
      2. 8.1.2 Thermocouples
      3. 8.1.3 Resistance Thermometers
      4. 8.1.4 Semiconductor Thermometers
      5. 8.1.5 Temperatures Very Low: Cryogenic Thermometry
      6. 8.1.6 Temperatures Very High
      7. 8.1.7 New, Evolving, and Specialized Thermometry
      8. 8.1.8 Comparison of Main Categories of Thermometers
      9. 8.1.9 Thermometer Calibration
    2. 8.2 The Control of Temperature
      1. 8.2.1 Temperature Control at Fixed Temperatures
      2. 8.2.2 Temperature Control at Variable Temperatures
    3. Cited References
    4. General References
  16. Index