After providing a rapid summary of good ways to manage, the text identified and discussed numerous examples of management failings. Most of these were attributed to individual staff or managers but many to the companies or various organizations—national or international—in which they worked. The analysis was generally based on one of the five managerial processes or the relevant skills associated with it (e.g., leadership process and communication skills).
Some of the examples were relatively trivial but others were very significant in terms of eventual consequences, be they financial or human.
As a rough guide, one can say that planning errors ...