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Building Multiservice Transport Networks

Book Description

A comprehensive handbook for understanding, designing, and deploying multiservice network architecture and applications

  • Design, deploy, operate, and troubleshoot ONS 15454 applications and services

  • Learn SONET/SDH and DWDM fundamentals

  • Understand Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP) network architectures that support Ethernet, storage area networking, wavelength, and DWDM transport applications

  • Extend your MSPP with Cisco storage solutions 

  • A new generation of SONET and DWDM systems providing the functions of multiple network elements in a single platform has emerged. This new platform is called a Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP). MSPPs are a popular solution for building new networks and upgrading existing networks to take advantage of new services and integration of voice and data. Cisco Systems provides an MSPP product, the ONS 15454, for both service provider and enterprise networks. Cisco Systems is the market leader in MSPP technology in North America. More than 1,000 Cisco customers use the ONS 15454 MSPP in their networks and over 40,000 ONS 15454s have shipped, creating a need for accurate, comprehensive technical information for users to understand and maximize the potential of this MSPP product. Building Multiservice Transport Networks will become an indispensable reference for Cisco customers and constituents who are deploying MSPP solutions. Building Multiservice Transport Networks teaches all facets of MSPP networks in an easy-to-understand manner and from both the service provider and enterprise perspective. It provides the background material necessary for readers to learn key aspects of SONET, SDH, DWDM, Ethernet, and storage networking, and does so through network diagrams, application examples, design guidelines, and detailed configurations.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
      1. Command Syntax Conventions
    5. Introduction
      1. Goals and Methods
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    6. I. Building the Foundation for Understanding MSPP Networks
      1. 1. Market Drivers for Multiservice Provisioning Platforms
        1. Market Drivers
          1. Increased Demand for Bandwidth by LANs
          2. Rapid Delivery of Next-Generation Data and High-Bandwidth Services
            1. Ethernet Services
              1. Traditional Ethernet Service Offerings
              2. Resilient Packet Ring
            2. DWDM Wavelength Services
            3. SAN Services
            4. Voice and Video Applications
          3. TCO
            1. Legacy Optical Platforms
              1. OC-12 and Below-High-Speed Optics
              2. OC-12 High-Speed Optics Only
              3. OC-48 High-Speed Optics Only
            2. MSPP
              1. High-Speed Optical Cards
              2. Electrical Service Cards
              3. Optical Service Cards
              4. Data Service Cards
              5. SAN Service Cards
          4. OAM&P
            1. GUI
            2. End-to-End Provisioning
            3. Wizards
            4. Alarms
            5. Software Downloads
            6. Event Logging
          5. Capital Expense Reduction
        2. Summary
      2. 2. Technology Foundation for MSPP Networks
        1. What Is an MSPP Network?
        2. Fiber Optic Basics
          1. Optical Fiber
          2. Light Propagation in Fiber
            1. Reflection and Refraction
            2. Index of Refraction (Snell’s Law)
            3. Types of Optical Fiber: Multimode and Single Mode
        3. SONET/SDH Principles
          1. Digital Multiplexing and Framing
            1. DS1 Frame
            2. STS-1 Frame
            3. STS-1 Frame and the Synchronous Payload Envelope
          2. SONET/SDH Rates and Tributary Mapping
            1. SONET Rates
            2. SDH Rates
            3. Transporting Subrate Channels Using SONET
            4. Signals of Higher Rates
            5. Byte Interleaving to Create Higher-Rate Signals
            6. Concatenation
          3. SONET/SDH Equipment
        4. SONET Overhead
          1. SONET/SDH Transmission Segments
            1. Sections
            2. Lines
            3. Paths
        5. Synchronization and Timing
          1. Timing
          2. Global Positioning System
        6. Summary
      3. 3. Advanced Technologies over Multiservice Provisioning Platforms
        1. Storage
          1. A Brief History of Storage
          2. Direct Attached Storage
          3. Network Attached Storage
          4. Storage-Area Networking
            1. Business Drivers Creating a Demand for SAN
            2. Evolution of SAN
            3. Fibre Channel
            4. Enterprise Systems Connection
            5. Fiber Connection
            6. FCIP
            7. SAN over MSPP
              1. MSPP with Integrated Storage Card
              2. Storage Card Highlights
              3. SAN Management
        2. DWDM
          1. History of DWDM
            1. Fiber-Optic Cable
            2. Acceptance of Light onto Fiber
            3. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing: Course Wavelength-Division Multiplexing versus DWDM
          2. DWDM Integrated in MSPP
            1. Active and Passive DWDM
            2. Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
            3. DWDM Advantages
            4. Protection Options
            5. Market Drivers for MSPP-Based DWDM
        3. Ethernet
          1. A Brief History of Ethernet
            1. Fast Ethernet
            2. GigE
          2. Ethernet Emerges
          3. Ethernet over MSPP
            1. Why Ethernet over MSPP?
            2. Metro Ethernet Services
              1. Ethernet Private Line Service
              2. Ethernet Wire Service
              3. Ethernet Relay Service
              4. Ethernet Multipoint Service
              5. Ethernet Relay Multipoint Service
            3. Point-to-Point Ethernet over MSPP
              1. SONET Mapping
              2. Limitations of Point-to-Point Ethernet over SONET
              3. Ethernet over a Ring?
            4. Resilient Packet Ring
              1. RPR Characteristics
                1. Resiliency
                2. Sharing Bandwidth Equitably
                3. Easier Activation of Services
                4. Broadcast or Multicast Traffic Is Better Handled
                5. Layer 1 Flexibility
              2. RPR: A Multilayer Switched Ethernet Architecture over MSPP
              3. Q-in-Q
              4. Virtual Concatenation VCAT
              5. LCAS
              6. Generic Framing Procedure
              7. QoS
        4. Summary
    7. II. Designing MSPP Networks
      1. 4. Multiservice Provisioning Platform Architectures
        1. Traditional Service-Provider Network Architectures
          1. Public Switched Telephone Networks
          2. Frame Relay/ATM Networks
            1. Connection to the LAN
            2. Benefits of Frame Relay
            3. Asynchronous Transfer Mode
          3. Service Provider SONET Networks
          4. IP and MPLS Networks
          5. Transport Networks
            1. IOF Rings
            2. Access Rings
            3. Private Rings
          6. Heritage Operational Support System
            1. TIRKS
            2. TEMS
            3. NMA
        2. Traditional Customer Network Architectures
          1. ATM/Frame Relay Networks
          2. Customer Synchronous Optical Networks
          3. IP and MPLS Networks
        3. MSPP Positioning in Service-Provider Network Architectures
          1. How MSPP Fits into Existing Networks
            1. MSPP IOF Rings
              1. DWDM Transport
              2. SONET Transport
            2. MSPP Private Architectures
              1. Ethernet
              2. Storage-Area Networking
              3. TDM
              4. Wavelength Services
            3. MSPP Access Rings
              1. SONET Access Ring Architecture
              2. CWDM Access Ring Architecture
              3. DWDM Access Ring Architecture
              4. Point-to-Point MSPP-Based DWDM Service Provider Access Architecture
              5. MSPP-Based DWDM Service-Provider Access Ring Architecture
              6. Mesh Topologies
            4. Next-Generation Operational Support Systems
              1. OAM&P Functionality
              2. Craft Management System
                1. MSPP NGOSS Craft Interface Functionality
              3. SNMP and TL1 Interfaces
              4. OSMINE Certification
              5. EMS
          2. Multiservice Switching Platforms
        4. MSPP Positioning in Customer Network Architectures
        5. Summary
      2. 5. Multiservice Provisioning Platform Network Design
        1. MSPP Network Design Methodology
          1. Protection Design
            1. Redundant Power Feeds
            2. Common Control Redundancy
            3. Tributary Interface Protection
            4. Synchronization Source Redundancy
            5. Cable Route Diversity
            6. Multiple Shelves
            7. Protected Network Topologies (Rings)
          2. Network Timing Design
            1. Timing Sources
            2. Timing Reference Selection
            3. Synchronization Status Messaging
          3. Network Management Considerations
        2. MSPP Network Topologies
          1. Linear Networks
          2. UPSR Networks
            1. UPSR Operation
            2. UPSR Applications
          3. BLSR Networks
            1. 2-Fiber BLSR Operation
            2. 2-Fiber BLSR System Capacity
            3. Protection Channel Access
            4. 4-Fiber BLSR Operation
            5. 4-Fiber BLSR System Capacities
            6. BLSR Applications
          4. Subtending Rings
          5. Subtending Shelves
          6. Ring-to-Ring Interconnect Diversity
          7. Mesh Networks
        3. Summary
      3. 6. MSPP Network Design Example: Cisco ONS 15454
        1. ONS 15454 Shelf Assembly
          1. ONS 15454 Shelf Assembly Backplane Interfaces
        2. EIAs
        3. Timing, Communications, and Control Cards
        4. Cross-Connect Cards
          1. Cross-Connect Card Bandwidth
        5. Alarm Interface Controller Card
          1. Environmental Alarms
          2. Orderwires
          3. Power Supply Voltage Monitoring
          4. User Data Channels
        6. SONET/SDH Optical Interface Cards
        7. Ethernet Interface Cards
          1. Transport (Layer 1) Ethernet Service Interfaces
            1. G-Series Ethernet Interface Cards
            2. CE-Series Ethernet Interface Cards
            3. E-Series Ethernet Interface Cards
          2. Switching (Layer 2) and Routing (Layer 3)Ethernet Service Interfaces
            1. E-Series Ethernet Interface Cards
            2. ML-Series Ethernet Interface Cards
        8. Electrical Interface Cards
          1. DS1-14 and DS1N-14 Interface Cards
          2. DS1-56 Interface Card
          3. DS3-12, DS3N-12, DS3-12E, and DS3N-12E Interface Cards
          4. EC1-12 Interface Cards
          5. DS3/EC1-48 Interface Cards
          6. DS3XM-6 and DS3XM-12 Interface Card
        9. Storage Networking Cards
        10. MSPP Network Design Case Study
          1. MSPP Ring Network Design
          2. OC-192 Ring Transmission Design
          3. Network Map
          4. Shelf Card Slot Assignments, EIA Equipage, and Tributary Protection Group Configuration
            1. Magnolia Central Office (Node 1)
            2. UCHS Headquarters (Node 2)
            3. Brounsville Main Central Office (Node 3)
            4. University Medical Center (Node 4)
            5. University Hospital—East (Node 5)
            6. Samford Avenue Central Office (Node 6)
            7. University Hospital–South (Node 7)
            8. UCHS Data Center (Node 8)
            9. Jordan Memorial Hospital (Node 9)
          5. Cabling Terminations
        11. Summary
    8. III. Deploying Ethernet and Storage Services on ONS 15454 MSPP Networks
      1. 7. ONS 15454 Ethernet Applications and Provisioning
        1. ONS 15454 E-Series Interface Cards
          1. ONS 15454 E-Series Card Modes and Circuit Sizes
          2. ONS 15454 E-Series Example Application and Provisioning
        2. ONS 15454 G-Series Interface Cards
          1. ONS 15454 G-Series Card Example Application
          2. Important Features of the ONS 15454 G-Series Card
            1. Flow Control and Frame Buffering
            2. Link Aggregation
            3. Ethernet Link Integrity
        3. ONS 15454 CE-Series Interface Cards
          1. ONS 15454 CE-Series Queuing
          2. ONS 15454 CE-Series SONET/SDH Circuit Provisioning
          3. ONS 15454 CE-Series Card Example Application
        4. ONS 15454 ML-Series Interface Cards
          1. ML-Series Card Transport Architecture Examples
            1. Point-to-Point Transport Architecture
            2. RPR Transport Architecture
          2. RPR Operation in the ONS 15454 ML-Series Cards
            1. ONS 15454 ML-Series RPR Frame Format
            2. ML-Series Bridge Groups
            3. RPR Operation
            4. RPR Operation in Failure Scenarios
            5. RPR Spatial Reuse
          3. Provisioning RPR Using the ONS 15454 ML-Series Cards
            1. CTC RPR Circuit and Framing Mode Provisioning
            2. ML-Series IOS Configuration File Management
            3. RPR Provisioning and Verification in the IOS CLI
        5. Summary
      2. 8. ONS 15454 Storage-Area Networking
        1. SAN Review
          1. SAN Protocols
          2. SONET or DWDM?
          3. Data Storage Mirroring
            1. Synchronous Data Replication
            2. Asynchronous Data Replication
        2. A Single-Chassis SAN Extension Solution: ONS 15454
        3. Storage over Wavelength
        4. Storage over SONET
          1. Fibre Channel Multirate 4-Port (FC-MR-4) Card
          2. 1G and 2G FC
          3. Overcoming the Round-Trip Delay Limitation in SAN Networks
          4. Using VCAT and LCAS
        5. SAN Protection
        6. Summary
    9. IV. Building DWDM Networks Using the ONS 15454
      1. 9. Using the ONS 15454 Platform to Support DWDM Transport: MSTP
        1. ONS 15454 Shelf Assembly
          1. ONS 15454 Shelf Assembly Backplane Interfaces
        2. Timing, Communications, and Control Cards
        3. Optical Service Channel Module
        4. OSC-CSM
        5. Alarm Interface Controller Card
          1. Environmental Alarms
          2. Orderwires
          3. Power Supply Voltage Monitoring
          4. User Data Channels
        6. ONS 15454 MSTP DWDM ITU-T Channel Plan
        7. 32-Channel Multiplexer Cards
          1. 32 MUX-O Multiplexer Card
          2. 32 WSS Multiplexer Card
        8. 32-Channel Demultiplexer Cards
          1. 32 DMX-O Demultiplexer Card
          2. 32 DMX Demultiplexer Card
        9. Four-Channel Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Cards
        10. Four-Band OADM Filters
        11. One-Band OADM Filters
        12. Channel OADM Cards
        13. ONS 15454 MSTP ROADM
        14. ONS 15454 MSTP Transponder/Muxponder Interfaces
          1. 2.5G Multirate Transponder
          2. 10G Multirate Transponder
          3. 4x2.5G Enhanced Muxponder
          4. 2.5G Multiservice Aggregation Card
        15. ONS 15454 MSTP Optical Amplifiers
          1. OPT-PRE
          2. OPT-BST
        16. ONS 15454 MSTP Dispersion Compensation Unit
        17. ONS 15454 MSTP Supported Network Configurations
          1. Linear Topologies
          2. Ring Topologies
            1. Hubbed/Multihubbed Rings
            2. Meshed Rings
            3. Reconfigurable Rings
        18. Summary
      2. 10. Designing ONS 15454 MSTP Networks
        1. ONS 15454 MSTP DWDM Design Considerations
        2. ONS 15454 MSTP DWDM Design Rules Examples
        3. ONS 15454 MSTP Manual DWDM Design Example
          1. Attenuation
          2. Chromatic Dispersion
          3. OSNR
        4. ONS 15454 MSTP MetroPlanner Design Tool
          1. Simple/Flexible
          2. Comprehensive Analysis
          3. Installation/Turn-Up Assistance
        5. Summary
      3. 11. Using the ONS 15454 MSTP to Provide Wavelength Services
        1. Types of Wavelength Services
          1. SONET/SDH Services
          2. Storage-Area Networking Services
          3. Ethernet Services
          4. Variable Bit-Rate Services
        2. Wavelength Services Protection Options
          1. Y-Cable Protection
          2. Dual-Transponder Protection
          3. DWDM Trunk Split-Routing
        3. Implementing Wavelength Services on the ONS 15454 MSTP
          1. Fixed-Channel Optical Add/Drop
          2. ROADM
        4. Managing Wavelength Services on the ONS 15454 MSTP
          1. Fault Management
          2. Configuration
          3. Performance
          4. Security
        5. Summary
    10. V. Provisioning and Troubleshooting ONS 15454 Networks
      1. 12. Provisioning and Operating an ONS 15454 SONET/SDH Network
        1. Turning Up the ONS 15454
          1. Installing and Powering the Shelf
          2. Initial Configuration
            1. Installing Common Equipment Cards
              1. Timing Communications and Control Card
              2. Cross-Connect Card (XCVT/XC10G/XC-VXC-10G)
              3. Alarm Interface Controller-International (Optional)
              4. Optical and Electrical Interface Modules
            2. General Network Element Information
            3. IP Addressing
            4. Security and Users
            5. DCC
            6. Synchronization and Timing
          3. Connecting the Optics
          4. Final Configuration
        2. Operating and Supporting an MSPP Network
          1. Monitoring Alarms and Conditions
            1. Alarms
            2. Conditions
          2. Adding or Removing Interface Modules
          3. Provisioning Service
            1. Creating Circuits
              1. Automatically Routed Circuits
              2. Manually Routed Circuits
          4. Troubleshooting Alarms or Conditions
          5. Acceptance Testing
          6. Maintenance
            1. Performance Monitoring
            2. Database Backup
            3. Database Restoration
            4. Card Sparing
          7. Software Upgrades
            1. Software Activation
            2. Software Reversion
        3. Summary
      2. 13. Troubleshooting ONS 15454 Networks
        1. Resources to Troubleshoot the ONS 15454
          1. Documentation
          2. Cisco Transport Controller Online Help
            1. Installing Online Help
          3. Cisco Technical Assistance Center
        2. Locating the Problem and Gathering Details Using CTC
          1. Alarms Tab
          2. Conditions Tab
          3. History Tab
          4. Performance Tab
          5. Other Data and Items to Check
            1. Diagnostics File
            2. Database Backup
            3. Card Light Emitting Diodes
            4. Cabling
            5. Power
            6. Connectivity
          6. Data Gathering Checklist
          7. Troubleshooting Tools
            1. Loopbacks
            2. STS Around the Ring
            3. Monitor Circuit
            4. Test Access
        3. Possible Causes to Common Issues
          1. Poor or No Signal of an Electrical Circuit
          2. Errors or No Signal of an Optical Link
          3. Unable to Log into the ONS 15454
          4. Cannot Convert UPSR Ring to BLSR Ring
          5. Signal Degrade in Conditions Tab
          6. Ethernet Circuit Cannot Carry Traffic
        4. Summary
    11. VI. MSPP Network Management
      1. 14. Monitoring Multiple Services on a Multiservice Provisioning Platform Network
        1. MSPP Fault Management
          1. Using SNMP MIBs for Fault Management
            1. What Is an SNMP MIB?
            2. SNMP Traps
              1. ONS 15454 Traps
              2. Trap Example: Improper Removal
              3. Trap Example: Carrier Loss on G1K Port
              4. Trap Example: Protection Switch
              5. Trap Example: Audit Trail Full
            3. ONS 15454 MIBs
              1. MIB Object Example: Retrieving DS3 Port Name
              2. MIB Object Example: Retrieving Serial Numbers
            4. Setting Up SNMP on the ONS 15454
              1. Loading MIBs
          2. Using TL1 for Fault Management
            1. TL1 Versus SNMP
            2. Using TL1 for Ethernet Services
          3. Using CTC for Fault Management
        2. MSPP Performance Management
          1. Ethernet Performance Monitoring
            1. What Is RMON?
              1. Creating a Threshold in RMON
            2. Using the RMON to Monitor Ethernet Performance
            3. Multipoint Ethernet Monitoring
        3. Using Local Craft Interface Application Versus EMS
        4. Summary
      2. 15. Large-Scale Network Management
        1. Overview of Management Layers
        2. Why Use an EMS?
          1. Using the ONS 15454 Element Management System
            1. CTM Architecture
            2. System Management Capabilities
            3. Fault-Management Capabilities
            4. Configuration-Management Capabilities
            5. Performance-Management Capabilities
            6. Security-Management Capabilities
            7. High Availability
          2. Ethernet Management
            1. Layer 1 Provisioning
            2. Layer 2 Provisioning
          3. Integrating to an OSS Using the Northbound Interface
        3. Summary