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Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement

Book Description

This third edition of the classic resource, Building Expertise draws on the most recent evidence on how to build innovative forms of expertise and translates that evidence into guidelines for instructional designers, course developers and facilitators, technical communicators, and other human performance professionals. Ruth Colvin Clark summarizes psychological theories concerning ways instructional methods support human learning processes. Filled with updated research and new illustrative examples, this new edition offers trainers evidence-based guidelines to help them accelerate genuine expertise within their organizations.

Examples link provided by the publisher.Errata link provided by the publisher.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Introduction to the Third Edition: GETTING THE MOST FROM THIS RESOURCE
    1. Purpose
    2. Audience
    3. Package Components
    4. Glossary
  3. One. Foundations of Building Expertise
    1. 1. Expertise in the Global Economy
      1. 1.1. The Value of Expertise
      2. 1.2. The Challenge of Global Expertise
      3. 1.3. What Is an Expert?
      4. 1.4. Seven Lessons Learned About Experts
        1. 1.4.1. 1. Expertise Requires Extensive Practice
        2. 1.4.2. 2. Expertise Is Domain Specific
        3. 1.4.3. 3. Expertise Requires Deliberate Practice
        4. 1.4.4. 4. Experts See with Different Eyes
        5. 1.4.5. 5. Experts Can Get Stuck
        6. 1.4.6. 6. Expertise Grows from Two Intelligences
        7. 1.4.7. 7. Challenging Problems Require Diverse Expertise
      5. 1.5. Four Ingredients of Instruction
        1. 1.5.1. Suggested Readings
    2. 2. Four Ingredients of Instruction
      1. 2.1. Which Media Are Best for Learning?
      2. 2.2. Four Components of Learning
        1. 2.2.1. What Are Communication Modes?
        2. 2.2.2. What Are Instructional Methods?
        3. 2.2.3. Instructional Architectures: The DNA of Learning
      3. 2.3. Three Views of Learning
        1. 2.3.1. The Absorption View
        2. 2.3.2. The Behavioral View
        3. 2.3.3. The Constructive View
      4. 2.4. Four Instructional Architectures
        1. 2.4.1. Receptive Architectures
        2. 2.4.2. Directive Architectures
        3. 2.4.3. Guided Discovery Architectures
        4. 2.4.4. Exploratory Architectures
        5. 2.4.5. Architectural Blends
      5. 2.5. No Yellow Brick Road
        1. 2.5.1. Suggested Readings
    3. 3. No Yellow Brick Road
      1. 3.1. Instructional Components and Learning: No Yellow Brick Road
      2. 3.2. Graphics and Learning: A Journey Down the Yellow Brick Road
        1. 3.2.1. Learning Benefits of Adding a Visual to Text
        2. 3.2.2. Who Benefits from Visuals?
        3. 3.2.3. What Kinds of Visuals Improve Learning?
      3. 3.3. Factors That Influence Learning
        1. 3.3.1. Learner Differences: Prior Knowledge
        2. 3.3.2. Routine vs. Non-Routine Tasks: Near and Far Transfer
        3. 3.3.3. Matching Architectures to Learners and Tasks
      4. 3.4. Toward an Evidence-Based Training Profession
      5. 3.5. About the Numbers
        1. 3.5.1. Statistical Significance
        2. 3.5.2. Effect Sizes and Practical Significance
        3. 3.5.3. Meta-Analysis: Drawing Conclusions from Multiple Experiments
      6. 3.6. The Psychology of Building Expertise
        1. 3.6.1. Suggested Readings
    4. 4. The Psychology of Building Expertise
      1. 4.1. Two Memories for Learning
        1. 4.1.1. Working Memory: A Powerful Bottleneck
        2. 4.1.2. Long-Term Memory: A Large Capacity Repository
        3. 4.1.3. Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Work Together
      2. 4.2. The Transformation of Content into Knowledge and Skills
        1. 4.2.1. Supporting Attention
        2. 4.2.2. Activation of Prior Knowledge
        3. 4.2.3. Management of Load in Working Memory
        4. 4.2.4. Rehearsal in Working Memory Leading to Encoding into Long-Term Memory
        5. 4.2.5. Retrieval from Long-Term Memory
        6. 4.2.6. How Long-Term Memory Influences Learning
        7. 4.2.7. Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learners
        8. 4.2.8. Motivation and Learning
      3. 4.3. Eight Principles for Instruction
        1. 4.3.1. 1. Optimize Motivational Beliefs
        2. 4.3.2. 2. Activate Prior Knowledge Early in Instruction
        3. 4.3.3. 3. Direct Attention to Important Elements in the Lesson
        4. 4.3.4. 4. Manage Irrelevant Cognitive Load
        5. 4.3.5. 5. Promote Encoding into Long-Term Memory
        6. 4.3.6. 6. Use Job-Context to Promote Retrieval and Transfer of Near-Transfer Skills
        7. 4.3.7. 7. Build Robust Mental Models to Support Far-Transfer Learning
        8. 4.3.8. 8. Adapt Instruction to Your Learners' Metacognitive Skills and Your Instructional Goals
      4. 4.4. How Working Memory Works
        1. 4.4.1. Suggested Readings
  4. Two. Basic Learning Events Proven to Build Expertise
    1. 5. How Working Memory Works
      1. 5.1. Working Memory: The Center of Learning
      2. 5.2. New Content Has a Short Shelf Life in Working Memory
      3. 5.3. Chess, Chunking, and Capacity Limits of Working Memory
        1. 5.3.1. Recalling a Scrambled Chess Board
        2. 5.3.2. Working Memory Capacity Is Limited
        3. 5.3.3. Seven Plus or Minus Two Revised
        4. 5.3.4. Are Experts Smarter?
        5. 5.3.5. Experts Often Overload Learners
      4. 5.4. What Happens When Working Memory is Overloaded?
      5. 5.5. Automaticity: A Working Memory Bypass
        1. 5.5.1. Automaticity and Expertise
      6. 5.6. Visual and Auditory Components in Working Memory
        1. 5.6.1. Multiple Components of Working Memory
      7. 5.7. Why Is Working Memory So Limited?
      8. 5.8. Working Memory and Performance
      9. 5.9. Managing Cognitive Load
        1. 5.9.1. Recommended Readings
    2. 6. Managing Cognitive Load
      1. 6.1. The Cognitive Load Management Principle
        1. 6.1.1. What Is Cognitive Load?
        2. 6.1.2. Factors That Affect Cognitive Load
        3. 6.1.3. Productive vs. Irrelevant Cognitive Load
      2. 6.2. Methods That Bypass Working Memory
        1. 6.2.1. External Memory Support
        2. 6.2.2. Internal Memory Support: Building Automaticity
      3. 6.3. Methods That Minimize Content
        1. 6.3.1. Write Concisely
        2. 6.3.2. Omit Unnecessary Technical Details
        3. 6.3.3. Omit Unnecessary Audio, Including Music
        4. 6.3.4. Omit Tangential Stories and Visuals
        5. 6.3.5. Avoid Redundant Modes
        6. 6.3.6. Minimize Animations
      4. 6.4. Methods to Impose Content Gradually
        1. 6.4.1. Teach Relevant Concepts First
        2. 6.4.2. Segment Lessons
        3. 6.4.3. Let Learners Pace Themselves
      5. 6.5. Methods to Minimize Unproductive Mental Work
        1. 6.5.1. Replace Some Practice with Worked Examples
        2. 6.5.2. Represent Spatial Content with Visuals
      6. 6.6. Methods to Maximize Working Memory Capacity
        1. 6.6.1. Describe Visuals with Audio Narration
      7. 6.7. Managing Attention
        1. 6.7.1. Recommended Resources
    3. 7. Managing Attention
      1. 7.1. The High Price of Attention Failure
      2. 7.2. The Attention Principle
        1. 7.2.1. What Is Attention?
        2. 7.2.2. Strengthen and Focus the Beam: A Flashlight Analogy
      3. 7.3. Instructional Methods to Support Attention
        1. 7.3.1. Attention During Learning
      4. 7.4. Optimizing Attentional Capacity in the Classroom
        1. 7.4.1. Manage the Physical Environment
        2. 7.4.2. Manage Fatigue
        3. 7.4.3. Promote Accountability and Engagement
        4. 7.4.4. Competency-Based Instructional Models
        5. 7.4.5. Questions
        6. 7.4.6. Instructor Contact
        7. 7.4.7. Pacing
      5. 7.5. Methods to Focus Attention
        1. 7.5.1. Research on Selective Attention
      6. 7.6. Methods to Support Selective Attention
        1. 7.6.1. Incorporate Cues in Visuals and Text
        2. 7.6.2. Use Signaling Techniques in the Classroom
        3. 7.6.3. Focus Goals to Direct Attention
        4. 7.6.4. Insert Questions During Learning Events
        5. 7.6.5. Include Learning Objectives with Achievement Criteria
      7. 7.7. What Is Divided Attention?
        1. 7.7.1. Research on Divided Attention
      8. 7.8. Methods to Minimize Divided Attention
        1. 7.8.1. Integrate Related Visuals and Words on Pages and Screens
        2. 7.8.2. Integrate Instruction in the Same Medium
      9. 7.9. Leveraging Prior Knowledge
        1. 7.9.1. Recommended Readings
    4. 8. Leveraging Prior Knowledge
      1. 8.1. The Prior Knowledge Principle
      2. 8.2. Methods to Activate Prior Knowledge
        1. 8.2.1. Problem-Based Learning
        2. 8.2.2. Asking and Answering Pre-Questions
        3. 8.2.3. Comparative Advance Organizers
        4. 8.2.4. What Are the Features of an Effective Advance Organizer?
      3. 8.3. Methods to Compensate for Limited Prior Knowledge
        1. 8.3.1. Pre-Lesson Case Analysis
        2. 8.3.2. When to Use Pre-Lesson Case Assignments
        3. 8.3.3. Expository Advance Organizers
      4. 8.4. Avoid Activating Inappropriate Prior Knowledge
        1. 8.4.1. The Psychological Effects of Seductive Details
      5. 8.5. When to Use Prior Knowledge Methods
      6. 8.6. Helping Learners Build Mental Models: Implicit Methods
        1. 8.6.1. Recommended Readings
    5. 9. Helping Learners Build Mental Models: Implicit Methods
      1. 9.1. The Building Mental Models Principle
        1. 9.1.1. What Are Mental Models?
        2. 9.1.2. How Learners Construct Mental Models
      2. 9.2. Explicit and Implicit Encoding Methods
      3. 9.3. Implicit Methods to Build Mental Models
      4. 9.4. Use Graphics to Build Mental Models
        1. 9.4.1. What Kinds of Graphics Are Most Effective?
        2. 9.4.2. How Graphics Build Mental Models
      5. 9.5. Personalize Your Learning Environment
        1. 9.5.1. Use Conversational Language to Personalize Learning
        2. 9.5.2. Evidence for Conversational Language
        3. 9.5.3. Use On-Screen Agents in Multimedia to Personalize Learning
        4. 9.5.4. Features of Agents That Matter
      6. 9.6. Include Deep-Level Learning Agent Dialogs
        1. 9.6.1. Can Interactive Environments Be Replaced with Dialogs?
      7. 9.7. Provide Examples and Encourage Their Processing
        1. 9.7.1. Maximizing Learning from Examples
      8. 9.8. Provide Effective Analogies
        1. 9.8.1. What Makes Analogies Effective?
      9. 9.9. Include Process Content in Your Instruction
      10. 9.10. Offer Cognitive Support for Novice Learners
        1. 9.10.1. Evidence That Graphics Benefit Novices
        2. 9.10.2. The Expertise Reversal Effect
      11. 9.11. Helping Leaners Build Mental Models: Explicit Methods
        1. 9.11.1. Recommended Readings
    6. 10. Helping Learners Build Mental Models: Explicit Methods
      1. 10.1. Is Active Learning Better? A Tale of Six Lessons
        1. 10.1.1. Case 1: Lecture vs. Problem-Based Discussions
        2. 10.1.2. Case 2: Text Reading vs. Computer Simulation
        3. 10.1.3. Case 3: Author-Provided vs. Learner-Generated Graphic Organizers
        4. 10.1.4. Practice vs. Deliberate Practice
      2. 10.2. Building Mental Models Principle
        1. 10.2.1. What Are Mental Models?
      3. 10.3. Explicit vs. Implicit Methods for Building Mental Models
      4. 10.4. Maintenance vs. Elaborative Rehearsal
        1. 10.4.1. Maintenance Rehearsal
        2. 10.4.2. Elaborative Rehearsal
      5. 10.5. Incorporate Frequent Elaborative Practice Exercises
        1. 10.5.1. Design and Assign Elaborative Practice Exercises
        2. 10.5.2. Assign Argumentation
      6. 10.6. The Law of Diminishing Returns
        1. 10.6.1. Consider Cost-Benefit When Planning Practice Exercises
      7. 10.7. Distribute Practice Assignments
      8. 10.8. Provide Explanatory Feedback
        1. 10.8.1. Evidence for Explanatory Feedback
        2. 10.8.2. Intrinsic vs. Instructional Feedback
      9. 10.9. Use Effective Questioning Techniques in the Classroom
      10. 10.10. Promote Psychological Engagement with Graphics
      11. 10.11. Promote Explicit Self-Explanations of Content
        1. 10.11.1. Self-Explanations of Chess Move Examples
        2. 10.11.2. Self-Explanations of Correct Responses in Guided Discovery Learning
        3. 10.11.3. Self-Explanations of Worked-Out Steps in Math Examples
      12. 10.12. Incorporate Collaborative Learning Opportunities
        1. 10.12.1. Conditions for Collaborative Learning Success
        2. 10.12.2. Structured Controversy
        3. 10.12.3. The Collaborative Learning Principle
      13. 10.13. Minimize Note-Taking in Instructor-Led Presentations
      14. 10.14. Who Benefits from Practice?
      15. 10.15. Learning vs. Performance: The Psychology of Transfer
        1. 10.15.1. Recommended Readings
    7. 11. Learning vs. Performance: The Psychology of Transfer
      1. 11.1. Transfer: The Bridge from Training to Performance
      2. 11.2. Four Tales of Transfer Failure
        1. 11.2.1. Case 1: Poor Organizational Support
        2. 11.2.2. Case 2: Failure of Creativity Training
        3. 11.2.3. Case 3: Training How But Not Why
        4. 11.2.4. Case 4. Transfer and Context
      3. 11.3. Causes of Transfer Failure
        1. 11.3.1. A Culture of Transfer
        2. 11.3.2. Transfer of General Skills to Specific Situations
        3. 11.3.3. Learning How It Works
        4. 11.3.4. Learning Is Context Bound
      4. 11.4. The Transfer Challenge
      5. 11.5. Specific Versus General Theories of Transfer
        1. 11.5.1. Brain Builders: A General Transfer Theory
        2. 11.5.2. Context Is King: A Specific Transfer Theory
        3. 11.5.3. Transfer of Mental Models
      6. 11.6. The Transfer Continuum
        1. 11.6.1. Zero Transfer
        2. 11.6.2. Near Transfer
        3. 11.6.3. Moderate Transfer
        4. 11.6.4. Far Transfer
      7. 11.7. Surface Versus Deep Structure and Transfer
      8. 11.8. Transfer and Intelligence
      9. 11.9. Teaching for Transfer
        1. 11.9.1. Recommended Readings
    8. 12. Teaching for Transfer
      1. 12.1. Transfer: It's All About Context
      2. 12.2. Teaching for Near-Transfer Performance
        1. 12.2.1. Mimic Job Context for Procedural Training
        2. 12.2.2. Use Operational Simulations
      3. 12.3. Learning Aids for Near-Transfer Learning
        1. 12.3.1. Training Wheels
        2. 12.3.2. Hints
        3. 12.3.3. Part Task Drill and Practice
        4. 12.3.4. Use Audio Narration or Integrated Text for Demonstrations
      4. 12.4. Teaching for Moderate Transfer
        1. 12.4.1. Move from Specific to General Steps
        2. 12.4.2. Teach How It Works
      5. 12.5. Teaching for Far-Transfer Performance
        1. 12.5.1. Use Varied Context Examples and Practice Exercises
        2. 12.5.2. Engage Learners in Comparisons of Examples
        3. 12.5.3. Incorporate the Why's and How's
        4. 12.5.4. Use Inductive Techniques
      6. 12.6. Learning Aids for Guided-Discovery Simulations
        1. 12.6.1. Start with Simple Simulation Goals
        2. 12.6.2. Include Explanatory Feedback
        3. 12.6.3. Optimize Simulation Pacing
        4. 12.6.4. Keep Simulation Interfaces Simple
      7. 12.7. Problem-Centered Instruction
        1. 12.7.1. Recommended Reading
  5. Three. Promoting Adaptive Expertise and Motivation
    1. 13. Problem-Centered Instruction
      1. 13.1. The Revival of Problem-Centered Learning
        1. 13.1.1. What Is Problem-Centered Design?
      2. 13.2. The Benefits of Problem-Centered Design
        1. 13.2.1. Problems Promote Transfer
        2. 13.2.2. Learners Like Problem-Based Learning
        3. 13.2.3. Problems Promote Engagement
        4. 13.2.4. Problems Lead to "Teachable Moments"
        5. 13.2.5. Problems Provide Vehicles for Integrated Learning
        6. 13.2.6. Problems Focus on Thinking and Learning Processes
      3. 13.3. Three Problem-Centered Design Models
      4. 13.4. Model 1: Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
        1. 13.4.1. What Have Medical Educators Learned About PBL?
        2. 13.4.2. What Features Lead to PBL Success?
      5. 13.5. Model 2: 4C/ID
        1. 13.5.1. A Course on Preparing a Legal Plea Designed with 4C/ID
        2. 13.5.2. Managing Cognitive Load in 4C/ID
      6. 13.6. Model 3: Sherlock and Cognitive Apprenticeship
      7. 13.7. Applying Problem-Centered Design
        1. 13.7.1. Low-Complexity Designs
        2. 13.7.2. High-Complexity Designs
        3. 13.7.3. When to Use Complex Problem-Centered Designs
      8. 13.8. Issues in Problem-Centered Instruction
        1. 13.8.1. Problem Quality
        2. 13.8.2. Problem-Solving Support
        3. 13.8.3. Reflection on Solutions
        4. 13.8.4. Use of Collaboration
        5. 13.8.5. Use of Media to Present Problems
      9. 13.9. Reservations About Problem-Centered Instruction
      10. 13.10. Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Adaptive Expertise
        1. 13.10.1. Recommended Readings
    2. 14. Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Adaptive Expertise
      1. 14.1. Cognition, Metacognition, and Adaptive Expertise
        1. 14.1.1. What Is Metacognition?
        2. 14.1.2. Routine Expertise vs. Adaptive Expertise
      2. 14.2. Metacognition and Self-Regulation
        1. 14.2.1. What Is Self-Regulation?
      3. 14.3. Are Learners Self-Regulated?
        1. 14.3.1. Do Learners Know What They Know?
        2. 14.3.2. Do Students Select Instructional Methods That Promote Learning?
        3. 14.3.3. Do Practicing Professionals Accurately Assess Their Competence?
        4. 14.3.4. Can Learners Monitor Understanding as They Study?
        5. 14.3.5. The Bottom Line: Don't Rely on Learner Judgment!
      4. 14.4. Supporting Self-Regulation During Learning
        1. 14.4.1. Assess Self-Regulated Learning Skills of Your Audience
        2. 14.4.2. Build in Support Structures to Guide Selection and Completion of Learning Events
        3. 14.4.3. Design Instruction to Accommodate Metacognitive Learning Skills
      5. 14.5. Domain-Specific Metacognitive Skills
      6. 14.6. Building Domain-Specific Metacognitive Skills
        1. 14.6.1. Include Worked Examples of Metacognitive Skills
        2. 14.6.2. Build Learner Awareness of Problem-Solving Strategies
        3. 14.6.3. Use Guided-Discovery Architectures to Build Metacognitive Skills
        4. 14.6.4. Promote Deliberate Practice by Teaching Self-Regulation Skills
        5. 14.6.5. Recommended Readings
    3. 15. Motivation and Expertise
      1. 15.1. Motivation for Learning
        1. 15.1.1. Motivation, Self-Regulation, and Beliefs
      2. 15.2. What Is Motivation?
      3. 15.3. External vs. Internal Views of Motivation
        1. 15.3.1. Beyond Carrots and Sticks
      4. 15.4. Beliefs and Learning Choices
        1. 15.4.1. Is the Outcome Important?
        2. 15.4.2. Am I Capable and in Control?
        3. 15.4.3. Is It Interesting?
        4. 15.4.4. Emotional and Cognitive Situational Interest
        5. 15.4.5. Motivational Theories and Choices
      5. 15.5. Beliefs About Learning Outcomes and Persistence
        1. 15.5.1. Attribution Theory
      6. 15.6. Goal Setting and Motivation
        1. 15.6.1. 1. Challenging Specific Goals Lead to Better Performance and Persistence
        2. 15.6.2. 2. Goals That Focus on Task Techniques Lead to Expertise
        3. 15.6.3. 3. Mastery Goal Orientations Lead to Deeper Learning Strategies
        4. 15.6.4. 4. Intrinsic Goals Lead to Greater Voluntary Commitment
      7. 15.7. Motivating Your Learners
        1. 15.7.1. Recommended Readings
    4. 16. Motivating Your Learners
      1. 16.1. Instructional Environments That Motivate
      2. 16.2. Evidence for Managing Learner Beliefs
      3. 16.3. Promote Self-Confidence by Structuring for Success
        1. 16.3.1. Construct Tasks of Optimal Challenge
        2. 16.3.2. Match Learning Architectures to Learner Background
        3. 16.3.3. Incorporate Guidance and Explanatory Feedback with Frequent Practice
        4. 16.3.4. Incorporate Social Models of Success
        5. 16.3.5. Help Learners Assess Prerequisites
      4. 16.4. Encourage Mastery (Progress) Goal Orientations
        1. 16.4.1. Establish a Criterion-Referenced Learning Environment
        2. 16.4.2. Encourage Attributions to Controllable Causes
        3. 16.4.3. Establish Technique Goals As Well As Outcome Goals
      5. 16.5. Exploit Personal and Situational Interest
      6. 16.6. Techniques to Promote Cognitive Situational Interest
        1. 16.6.1. Write Understandable and Coherent Lessons
        2. 16.6.2. Use Language and Examples That Are Concrete and Vivid
        3. 16.6.3. Engage Readers Through Personalization
        4. 16.6.4. Present New Content in Familiar Terms
      7. 16.7. Leverage Personal Interest
        1. 16.7.1. Situational Interest Can Compensate for Lack of Personal Interest
      8. 16.8. Make Values Salient
      9. 16.9. Practical Applications in Building Expertise
        1. 16.9.1. Recommended Readings
  6. Four. Building Expertise in Action
    1. 17. Practical Applications in Building Expertise
      1. 17.1. Adopting Evidence-Based Practice
        1. 17.1.1. Guidelines for Lesson Introductions
        2. 17.1.2. Guidelines for Presenting Content
        3. 17.1.3. Guidelines for Practice
      2. 17.2. What Is an Excellent Lesson?
        1. 17.2.1. Tailor for Prior Knowledge
        2. 17.2.2. Tailor for Outcome Goals
      3. 17.3. Sample 1: A Receptive Presentation
        1. 17.3.1. How It Works
        2. 17.3.2. Learning Tradeoffs
      4. 17.4. Sample 2: A Directive e-Lesson
        1. 17.4.1. How It Works
        2. 17.4.2. Learning Tradeoffs
      5. 17.5. Sample 3: A Guided-Discovery Classroom Workshop
        1. 17.5.1. How It Works
        2. 17.5.2. Learning Tradeoffs
        3. 17.5.3. Problem-Based Learning Benefits
      6. 17.6. Exploratory Architectures for Far-Transfer Learning
      7. 17.7. A Final Word
  7. REFERENCES
  8. A. Glossary
  9. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
  10. ABOUT ISPI