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Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, Third Edition

Book Description

BUILD, CONVERT, OR BUY A STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRIC VEHICLEThoroughly revised and expanded, Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, Third Edition, is your go-to guide for converting an internal combustion engine vehicle to electric or building an EV from the ground up. You’ll also find out about the wide variety of EVs available for purchase and how they’re being built.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. About the Authors
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 1 Why Electric Vehicles Are for Today!
    1. Build That Car!
    2. What Is an Electric Vehicle?
      1. Electric Motors
      2. Batteries
      3. Controllers
    3. Have You Driven an EV Lately?
      1. Electric Vehicles Offer a “Total Experience”
      2. Electric Vehicles Are Fun to Drive
      3. Electric Vehicles Make a Difference by Standing Out
      4. Electric Vehicles Save Money
      5. Electric Vehicles Are Customizable
      6. Safety First
      7. Electric Vehicles Save the Environment
    4. Electric Vehicle Myths (Dispelling the Rumors)
      1. Myth #1: Electric Vehicles Can’t Go Fast Enough
      2. Myth #2: Electric Vehicles Have Limited Range
      3. Myth #3: Electric Vehicles Are Not Convenient
      4. Myth #4: Electric Vehicles Are Expensive
    5. The Disadvantages of Electric Cars Have Been Reduced or Eliminated
    6. Time to Purchase/Build Your Own Brand-New Electric Car!
    7. Get Your EV Built!
  9. 2 Electric Vehicles Save the Environment and Energy
    1. Why Do Electric Vehicles Save the Environment?
    2. Save the Environment and Save Some Money Too!
    3. Petroleum Will Not Last Forever
    4. Clean Energy Is the Future
    5. Fuel-Efficient Vehicles
    6. Time Is Running Out!
    7. U.S. Transportation Depends on Oil
      1. Increasing Long-Term Oil Costs
      2. What’s Better for the Environment: Raising the Gas Tax or Fuel Efficiency Standards?
      3. Summary
  10. 3 Electric Vehicle History
    1. 1900s
    2. Timeline of Vehicle History
    3. The Timeline of Electric Cars
      1. Up to 1915
      2. Huff and Puff—Steam First, Then Electric, Then Oil, and Then Electric Again
    4. The Golden Age of Internal Combustion Engines
    5. A World Awash in Oil After World War II
    6. Twilight of the Oil Gods
    7. Electric Vehicles
      1. Forget Oil! Electric Cars Have the Need for Speed!
      2. National Electric Drag Racing Association
      3. The Need for Distance
      4. Casey Mynott Builds for Speed
    8. The Need for an Association
      1. Worldwide
      2. North America
      3. Europe
    9. Lithium Ion Just Starts the EV Market
    10. The Need for Events, Cars, Books, and Movies
      1. The 1990s Until Today
      2. Regulation in California
      3. 9/11, Oil, and Our New Understanding of EVs
      4. GM’s Awakening—The Volt
      5. EVs for the Twenty-First Century
      6. Near-Future Trends for Electric Drives
    11. Electric Mobility Still Is an Academic and International Move
      1. TurnE
      2. EVE (Italy)
      3. Tesla Is Building Model X Electric Cars and They Are Selling Like Hot Cakes
    12. Summary
  11. 4 The Best Electric Vehicle for You
    1. EV Purchase Decisions
      1. Conversions Can Save You Money and Time
      2. Buying or Leasing a Ready-to-Run EV Saves You a Lot of Time
      3. EVs Have Some Big-Name Backers
      4. Other Cool Electric Cars
      5. The Netherlands Is Building Its Own EV
      6. Mitsubishi i-MiEV
      7. REVA Is Loved in the United Kingdom and India. It’s Selling!
    2. EV Conversion Shops
      1. Buying a Ready-to-Run EV from an Independent Manufacturer
        1. Converting a Vehicle
      2. Converting Existing Vehicles
        1. Converting Existing SUVs and Van-Type Cars
        2. EV Conversion Decisions
      3. The Procedure
      4. Electric Car Motors II: The AC Versus DC Debate Ill
        1. Where AC Electric Motors Aren’t the Best Fit
        2. How Much Is This Going to Cost?
        3. Analysis
      5. Conclusion
  12. 5 Chassis and Design
    1. Comprehensive Testing Under Way—and There’s More on the Way
    2. Choose the Best Chassis for Your EV
      1. Know Your Options!
    3. Optimize Your EV
      1. Conventions and Formulas
    4. It Ain’t Heavy, It’s My EV
      1. Remove All Unessential Weight
      2. Weight and Acceleration
      3. Weight and Climbing
      4. Weight Affects Speed
      5. Weight Affects Range
      6. Remove the Weight but Keep Your Balance
      7. Remember the 30 Percent Rule
    5. Streamline Your EV Thinking
      1. Aerodynamic Drag Force Defined
      2. Choose the Lowest Coefficient of Drag
      3. Relative Wind Contributes to Aerodynamic Drag
      4. Aerodynamic Drag Force Data You Can Use
      5. Shape Rear Airflow
      6. Shape Wheel Well and Underbody Airflow
      7. Block and/or Shape Front Airflow
    6. Roll with the Road
      1. Rolling Resistance Defined
      2. Pay Attention to Your Tires
      3. Rolling Resistance Force Data You Can Use
    7. Less Is More with Drive Trains
      1. Drive Trains
    8. Difference in Motor Versus Engine Specifications
    9. Going Through the Gears
      1. Automatic Versus Manual Transmission
      2. Use a Used Transmission
      3. Heavy Versus Light Drive Trains and Fluids
    10. Design Your EV
      1. Horsepower, Torque, and Current
      2. Calculation Overview
      3. Torque-Required Worksheet
      4. Torque-Available Worksheet
      5. Torque-Required and Torque-Available Graph
    11. Buy Your EV Chassis
      1. EV Conversions
      2. The Other Side of Conversion
      3. How to Get the Best Deal
    12. All-Over Aerodynamic Aesthetics
  13. 6 Electric Motors
    1. Why an Electric Motor?
    2. Horsepower
    3. DC Electric Motors
      1. Magnetism and Electricity
      2. Conductors and Magnetic Fields
      3. Ampere’s Law or the Motor Rule
    4. Electromagnets and Motors
    5. DC Motors in General
    6. DC Motors in the Real World
      1. Armature
      2. Commutator
      3. Field Poles
      4. Series Motors
      5. Brushes
      6. Motor Case, Frame, or Yoke
    7. DC Motor Types
      1. Series DC Motors
      2. Shunt Motors
      3. Compound DC Motors
      4. Permanent-Magnet DC Motors
      5. Brushless DC Motors
      6. Universal DC Motors
    8. AC Electric Motors
      1. Transformers
      2. AC Induction Motors
      3. Single-Phase AC Induction Motors
      4. Polyphase or Split-Phase AC Induction Motors
      5. Wound-Rotor Induction Motors
    9. Tomorrow’s Best EV Motor Solution
      1. AC Motors: HiPer Drive by ElectroAutomotive
      2. Motor Ratings
      3. Tuning
      4. Keep It Simple
    10. Conclusion
  14. 7 The Controller
    1. Controller Overview
      1. Solid-State Controllers
      2. Electronic Controllers
      3. AC Controllers
    2. Controller Choice
      1. An Off-the-Shelf Curtis PWM DC Motor Controller
      2. AC Controllers
    3. Today’s Best Controller Solutions
      1. Zilla Controller (One of the Best DC Controllers for Conversions)
    4. EV Controllers Help to Dispel All Myths About EVs Today
    5. AC Propulsion, Inc., to the Rescue—Today
      1. AC-150 Gen 2 System: A Reliable Proven Performer for Passenger Car Needs
      2. AC-150 Gen 3 System: For Next-Generation EVs
    6. Tesla Controllers Use AC Propulsion Technologies
    7. Summary
  15. 8 Batteries
    1. Metals, Salts, and Ions: Nature’s Sad Love Story
    2. Building a Battery
    3. The Circuit
      1. Amperes Versus Volts
    4. Battery Anatomy
    5. Shapes and Sizes of Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. Battery Formats
    6. Ampere-Hours and Voltage
    7. Wiring in Series or Parallel
    8. C-Rate
    9. Flat Discharge Curve
    10. The Diamond in the Discard Pile: LiFePO4
      1. The Scandal
      2. That Beautiful LiFePO4 Cathode
      3. Molecular LiFePO4
    11. Tinkering with the LiFe4 Recipe
    12. Stumbling onto Something Good
    13. Going with the Grain
    14. Impedance and Fast Charging
    15. Energy Density Versus Power Density
      1. Power Density
    16. Mother Nature’s Battery Management System
    17. Thermal Runaway Explained
    18. Best Practices for Your LiFePO4 EV Batteries
      1. Balancing
      2. Battery Management
      3. Cooling
      4. Warm Enough?
      5. Charging
      6. Battery Box Placement
      7. Battery Wiring
    19. Safety Tip—First Startup
    20. Summary
  16. 9 The Charger and Electrical System
    1. Charger Overview
    2. Battery Discharging and Charging Cycle
      1. What You Can Learn from a Battery Cycle-Life Test
      2. Battery Discharging Cycle
      3. Battery Charging Cycle
    3. The Ideal Battery Charger
      1. Charging Between 0 and 20 Percent
    4. The Real-World Battery Charger
      1. ChargePoint America Program
      2. The Manzita Micro PFC-20
      3. The Zivan NG3
    5. Other Battery-Charging Solutions
      1. ECOtality Partners with Regency Centers at 19 Locations Nationwide
      2. The EV Project
    6. Rapid Charging
    7. Induction Charging
      1. Nissan and Nichicon Launched the Leaf to Home Power-Supply System with EV Power Station in Japan
      2. The EV Power Station: Specifications
    8. Replacement Battery Packs
    9. Beyond Tomorrow
    10. Your EV’s Electrical System
      1. High-Voltage, High-Current Power System
      2. Low-Voltage, Low-Current Instrumentation System
      3. DC-to-DC Converter
    11. Wiring It All Together
      1. Wire and Connectors
      2. Connections
      3. Routing
      4. Grounding
      5. Checking
    12. Summary of the Parts
  17. 10 Electric Vehicle Builds and Conversions
    1. Conversion Overview
    2. Before Building or Converting
      1. Arrange for Help
      2. Arrange for Space
      3. Arrange for Tools
      4. Arrange for Purchases and Deliveries
    3. Building or Converting
      1. Chassis
      2. Mechanical
      3. Mounting and Testing Your Electric Motor
      4. Fabricating Battery Mounts
      5. Additional Mechanical Components
      6. Cleanup from Mechanical to Electrical Stage
    4. Electrical
      1. High-Current System
      2. Low-Voltage System
      3. Junction Box
      4. Charger System
    5. Batteries
      1. Battery Installation
      2. Battery Wiring
      3. 12-V Accessory Battery
    6. After Conversion
      1. System Checkout on Blocks
      2. Further Improved Cooling
      3. Improving Heating Too
      4. Neighborhood Trial Run
      5. Paint, Polish, and Sign
    7. Onward and Upward
    8. Put Yourself in the Picture
    9. Summary
  18. 11 How We Can Maximize Our Electric Vehicle Enjoyment
    1. Registration and Insurance Overview
      1. Getting Registered
      2. Getting Insured
      3. Safety Footnote
    2. Driving and Maintenance Overview
      1. Driving Your EV
      2. Running Out of Power
      3. Regular Driving
    3. Caring for Your EV
      1. Battery Care
      2. Tire Care
      3. Lubricants
      4. Checking Connections
    4. Safety Information
      1. Before Working on Any Electric Motor
      2. Motors
      3. Emergency Kit
    5. Recommendations for EV Mass Deployment
    6. EV Update
    7. Conclusion
  19. Notes
  20. Index