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Broadcast Journalism, 6th Edition

Book Description

This newest edition of Broadcast Journalism continues its long tradition of covering the basics of broadcasting from gathering news sources, interviewing, putting together a programme, news writing, reporting, editing, working in the studio, conducting live reports, and more. Two new authors have joined forces in this new edition to present behind the scenes perspectives on multimedia broadcast news, where it is heading, and how you get there.

Technology is meshing global and local news. Constant interactivity between on-the-scene reporting and nearly instantaneous broadcasting to the world has changed the very nature of how broadcast journalists must think, act, write and report on a 24/7 basis. This new edition takes up this digital workflow and convergence. Students of broadcast journalism and professors alike will find that the sixth edition of Broadcast Journalism is completely up-to-date.

Includes new photos, quotations, and coverage of convergent journalism, podcasting, multimedia journalism, citizen journalism, and more!

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. About the Authors
  8. PART 1. Principles of Broadcast Journalism
    1. 1. A career in broadcast journalism
      1. Why bother?
      2. Writing skills
      3. Qualities in the broadcast journalist
      4. Getting a foot into the door
      5. The interview
      6. Multi-tasking
      7. Surviving editorial meetings
      8. Formal and practical training for broadcast journalism
    2. 2. What makes news?
      1. Audience: What matters to me?
      2. News you can use
      3. Where did it happen?
      4. Relevance
      5. Immediacy
      6. Interest
      7. Drama and impact
      8. Entertainment and celebs
      9. New, true and interesting
      10. Different types of news
      11. Emergencies
      12. Crime
      13. Government
      14. Planning and developments
      15. Conflict and controversy
      16. Pressure and lobby groups
      17. Industry and business
      18. Health and medicine
      19. Human interest
      20. Sport
      21. Seasonal news
      22. Special local interest
      23. Weather
      24. Traffic
      25. Animals
      26. The final checklist
    3. 3. Ethics and responsibility
      1. Regulation
      2. The law
      3. Email
      4. Sexuality
      5. Talking is publishing
      6. Websites
      7. Being web wise
      8. The myth of objectivity
      9. Children
      10. Ethics in citizen journalism
      11. Reporting civil disorder
      12. Camera bias
      13. Sensationalism
      14. Privacy and voyeurism
    4. 4. News sources
      1. Reporters
      2. Stories from consumers
      3. Hoaxes
      4. Contacts and sources
      5. Newsroom diary
      6. Files
      7. Check calls
      8. Emergency services radio
      9. The 10 code
      10. Politicians
      11. Pressure groups
      12. Staged events
      13. The protest
      14. The announcement
      15. The set-piece
      16. News releases
      17. Syndicated recordings
      18. Freelances
      19. Advantages and disadvantages of using stringers
      20. Advantages
      21. disadvantages
      22. Wire services and news agencies
      23. The network
      24. Other news media
      25. Get the father ...’
      26. Cross-platform material
    5. 5. Getting the story
      1. Newsroom conference
      2. Copy tasting
      3. Balance of news
      4. Visuals and actuality
      5. The brief
      6. The angle
      7. Chasing the contact
      8. Staged news conferences
      9. Beating the clock
      10. Work to sequence
      11. Don’t panic
    6. 6. Conversational writing
      1. Telling the story
      2. Writing for a mass audience
      3. No second chance
      4. Confusing clauses
      5. Inverted sentences
      6. Plain English
      7. Familiar words
      8. Easy listening
      9. Accurate English
      10. Keep it concrete
      11. Make it interesting
      12. Contractions
      13. Rhytham
    7. 7. Newswriting
      1. The news angle
      2. Multi-angled stories
      3. Hard news formula
      4. The intro
      5. Placing key words
      6. Features openers
      7. Developing the story
      8. The WHAT formula
      9. Signposting
      10. Last line
      11. Last words
      12. Accuracy
    8. 8. Broadcast style book
      1. Clichés
      2. Journalese
      3. Hyperbole
      4. Adjectives
      5. Quotations
      6. Attribution
      7. Contentious statements
      8. Immediacy
      9. Active
      10. Positive
      11. Redundancies
      12. Repetition
      13. Homonyms
      14. Singular or plural?
      15. Pronouns
      16. Punctuation
      17. Spelling
      18. Abbreviations
      19. Figures
      20. Proof reading
      21. Ambiguity
    9. 9. The interview
      1. The interviewer’s skill
      2. Different types of interview
      3. A disaster story?
      4. Hard news
      5. Informational
      6. Investigative
      7. Adversarial
      8. Interpretative
      9. personal
      10. Emotional
      11. Entertainment
      12. Actuality only
      13. Telephone or remote
      14. Vox pop and multiple
      15. Grabbed
      16. The disaster story continues
    10. 10. Setting up the interview
      1. Background
      2. A plan of campaign – the questions
      3. Get your facts right
      4. Fit the brief
      5. Check arrangements
      6. Approach
      7. Body language
      8. Discussing the questions
      9. The questions
      10. Ask the questions that will get answers
      11. Yes/no questions
      12. Avoid questions that call for monologues
      13. Short, single idea questions
      14. Progress from point to point
      15. Building bridges
      16. Avoid double questions
      17. Keep the questions relevant
      18. Avoid leading questions
      19. Mixing statements with questions
      20. Beware of questions that would be out of date
      21. Avoid sounding ignorant
      22. Winding up the interview
      23. Finish strongly
      24. Being interviewed yourself: the Q & A
      25. Introducing actuality
    11. 11. From 2-minute headlines to 24-hour news
      1. The bulletin
      2. News programmes
      3. Documentary
      4. Vérite
      5. 24-hour news
      6. Who does what?
      7. Local radio news
      8. The future
    12. 12. Item selection and order
      1. ‘A fair picture …’
      2. Second thoughts
      3. Item order
      4. 1 The significance of the story
      5. 2 The material impact of the story
      6. 3 Audience reaction (the human interest factor)
      7. 4 The topicality of the story
      8. 5 The immediacy factor (the yawn factor)
      9. 6 Sport/specialisms
      10. 7 Linking items
      11. 8 Actuality/pictures
      12. 9 ‘And finally …’
      13. Local considerations
      14. Foreign coverage
      15. Producing a running order
    13. 13. Putting the show together
      1. Winning an audience – the openers
      2. Keeping an audience – headlines and promotions
      3. Actuality
      4. Pictures
      5. Graphics
      6. Programme balance – being all things to all people
      7. Groupings and variety
      8. Rhythm and pace
      9. And now the good news?
    14. 14. Making the programme fit
      1. Cutting
      2. Filling
      3. Backtiming
    15. 15. News anchors and presenters
      1. The talent
      2. Qualities of a newscaster
      3. More than just a newsreader ...
      4. Professionalism
      5. Voice
    16. 16. ‘On air!’
      1. Performance
      2. Presence
      3. Getting through to the audience – rapport
      4. Know your material
      5. Ad-libs
      6. The gate
      7. Making a swift recovery
      8. Corpsing
      9. Relaxation
    17. 17. Newsreading mechanics
      1. Speed
      2. Breathing
      3. Projection
      4. Emphasis
      5. Pitch
      6. Microphone technique
      7. Using the prompter
      8. Noise, noise, noise
      9. Bringing the story to life
  9. PART 2. Radio
    1. 18. Story treatment
      1. Breaking news (bulletin US)
      2. Headline
      3. Copy story
      4. Voicer or voice report
      5. Teaser or taster
      6. Voice report from the scene
      7. Interview
      8. Newsclip
      9. Package
      10. Mini-wrap or bulletin wrap
    2. 19. Recording
      1. Principles of recording
      2. Sound
      3. How recordings are made
      4. Types of microphones
      5. Using portable sound recorders
      6. Digital recorders
      7. Before the interview
      8. Setting up the room
      9. Dealing with distractions
      10. Lining up the victim
      11. Mike handling
      12. The level check
      13. Automatic level control versus manual
      14. Maintain eye contact
      15. And finally ...
    3. 20. Editing
      1. ‘You can’t see the join’
      2. Editing a 30-second bulletin clip
      3. Unethical editing
      4. Basic production
      5. Cut and paste
      6. Multi-tracking
      7. Bells and whistles
      8. Studio mixing
      9. Setting levels
      10. Types of fade
      11. Pre-fade
      12. Cross-fade
      13. Fading down and fading up
      14. Pot-cut
      15. Fading in and out
    4. 21. The studio
      1. On-air studio
      2. Talks studio
      3. The contributions studio
      4. Remote studios
      5. Radio car
      6. Outside broadcast vehicle
      7. Mobile phones
      8. Phone levels
      9. Obscenity button
  10. PART 3. Television
    1. 22. The never ending story – the sharing television newsroom
      1. Television newsrooms and the news story
      2. Advantages and disadvantages
      3. In and out
      4. A newsroom core server
      5. Order from chaos – the journalist’s most basic need-to-know
      6. TV script types
      7. Headlines
      8. Out of vision live script or underlay
      9. Link or intro
      10. Presenter plus stills or graphics
      11. Live breaking news – 24/7 newsroom
      12. The role of User Generated Content (UGC) for pictures
      13. Types of citizen journalism
    2. 23. Scripting journalism
      1. The intro (cue or link)
      2. Complement the pictures with the narrative
      3. Writing to sound
      4. Keep detail to a minimum
      5. The television news package
      6. Balancing words with pictures
      7. Using archive pictures
      8. The bottom line
    3. 24. Gathering news
      1. Filming for TV journalism
      2. Cameraman/Camerawoman/Cameraperson!
      3. Sound recordist
      4. Lighting technician
      5. The video journalist (VJ)
      6. The video journalist checklist
      7. Pocket news and hidden filming
      8. The Journalist as advance guard – a Recce
      9. So here’s what is absolutely vital for large OBs and events
      10. Getting the story back
    4. 25. Camera shots
      1. Hold the shots
      2. Grab action shots first
      3. Shoot for impact
      4. Shoot in sequences
      5. Context
      6. Sound
      7. Sound-bites and interviewee clips
      8. Cutaways and bridge shots
      9. Reverses
      10. The line
      11. Continuity
      12. Piece to Camera (PTC) also known as stand uppers
      13. Special film equipment
      14. Tripod and tall legs
      15. Wheels
      16. Minicams
      17. Vehicle mounts
      18. Splash bag
      19. Steadicam®
      20. Basic lighting
    5. 26. Editing the sound and pictures
      1. Sequence of shots
      2. Shot length
      3. Telescoping the action
      4. Desktop editing
      5. The craft editor
      6. The timer (time code)
      7. The edit controller
      8. Video mixing
      9. Recording the commentary
      10. Audio mixing
      11. Editing shots for interviews
      12. Two shot
      13. Reverse two shot
      14. Wide two shot and wide reverse two shot
      15. Set up shots
      16. Vox pops
      17. Using music
    6. 27. Going live – live TV reporting in vision
      1. What works well?
      2. What works less well?
      3. Top Tips
    7. 28. Graphics and digital display visuals
      1. Stills and frame grabs
      2. Writing to still pictures and screen insets
      3. Overlays and chromakey (CSO)
      4. Big screen video wall
      5. Acronyms in visuals
    8. 29. Television news presenters
      1. The Best Style for Television
      2. Men and their ties
      3. Colours and fabrics
      4. Women
      5. Men
      6. Live and kicking
      7. ‘Fill For Ten Seconds!’
      8. Nerves
      9. Make-up and perception
      10. Doing a TV presentation showreel
      11. ‘Coming up ...’
    9. 30. The news studio
      1. Standby for transmission
      2. The set
      3. Lighting
      4. Cameras
      5. Sound
      6. The floor manager
      7. Control room
      8. The director
      9. Running order and the studio
  11. Glossary of terms used in digital and multi-media broadcasting
  12. Index