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Body Area Networks

Book Description

Body area networks (BANs) are networks of wireless sensors and medical devices embedded in clothing, worn on or implanted in the body, and have the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling pervasive healthcare. However, due to their critical applications affecting human health, challenges arise when designing them to ensure they are safe for the user, sustainable without requiring frequent battery replacements and secure from interference and malicious attacks. This book lays the foundations of how BANs can be redesigned from a cyber-physical systems perspective (CPS) to overcome these issues. Introducing cutting-edge theoretical and practical techniques and taking into account the unique environment-coupled characteristics of BANs, the book examines how we can re-imagine the design of safe, secure and sustainable BANs. It features real-world case studies, suggestions for further investigation and project ideas, making it invaluable for anyone involved in pervasive and mobile healthcare, telemedicine, medical apps and other cyber-physical systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1. Pervasive healthcare
    2. 1.2. Monitoring technologies
    3. 1.3. Overview of the book
    4. 1.4. Questions
  11. 2. Body area networks
    1. 2.1. Architecture
      1. 2.1.1. Hardware
      2. 2.1.2. Network topology
      3. 2.1.3. Communication technology
      4. 2.1.4. Software
      5. 2.1.5. Deployment
      6. 2.1.6. The physical environment
      7. 2.1.7. Energy source
    2. 2.2. Applications
      1. 2.2.1. Physiological monitoring
      2. 2.2.2. The infusion-pump control system
    3. 2.3. Middleware for a BAN-based pervasive health-monitoring system
    4. 2.4. Questions
  12. 3. BAN models and requirements
    1. 3.1. Principal requirements
      1. 3.1.1. Safety
      2. 3.1.2. Security
      3. 3.1.3. Sustainability
    2. 3.2. The cyber-physical nature of BANs
    3. 3.3. Regulatory issues
      1. 3.3.1. Medical-device regulation in the USA
      2. 3.3.2. Medical-device regulation in the EU
      3. 3.3.3. Medical-device regulation in Asia
  13. 4. Safety
    1. 4.1. Safety approaches
      1. 4.1.1. Perspectives of BAN safety
      2. 4.1.2. Ensuring BAN safety
    2. 4.2. Model-based engineering of BANs
      1. 4.2.1. Safety-requirements analysis
      2. 4.2.2. Model generation
      3. 4.2.3. Analysis of safety
    3. 4.3. Modeling cyber-physical systems
    4. 4.4. Example: BAND-AiDe – BAN Design and Analysis Tool
      1. 4.4.1. The BAND-AiDe modeling framework
      2. 4.4.2. The BAND-AiDe analyzer
      3. 4.4.3. Implementation
    5. 4.5. Demonstrating design and analysis with BAND-AiDe
      1. 4.5.1. Safety verification of a single wearable medical device
      2. 4.5.2. Safety verification of a network of devices
    6. 4.6. Formal models for BAN safety
    7. 4.7. Future research problems
    8. 4.8. Questions
  14. 5. Security
    1. 5.1. The need for information security in BANs
    2. 5.2. Securing a BAN as a cyber-physical system
      1. 5.2.1. Securing BAN components
      2. 5.2.2. Challenges for CPS-Sec solutions
      3. 5.2.3. CPS-Sec solutions for BANs
    3. 5.3. Traditional security solutions for BANs
      1. 5.3.1. Application of traditional approaches to key distribution
    4. 5.4. Physiological-signal-based key agreement (PSKA)
      1. 5.4.1. Physiological signals: issues and properties
      2. 5.4.2. PSKA protocol execution
      3. 5.4.3. Security of PSKA
      4. 5.4.4. PSKA prototype implementation
    5. 5.5. Summary and future research problems
    6. 5.6. Questions
  15. 6. Sustainability
    1. 6.1. The energy perspective
      1. 6.1.1. Energy storage
      2. 6.1.2. Reducing the energy requirement
      3. 6.1.3. Scavenging energy from different sources
    2. 6.2. The equipment-recycling perspective
    3. 6.3. Ensuring sustainability
    4. 6.4. Sustainable BAN software-design methodology
      1. 6.4.1. The physical plane
      2. 6.4.2. BAN application
      3. 6.4.3. The management plane
    5. 6.5. Power profiling
    6. 6.6. Architectural modeling
    7. 6.7. Analysis and design for sustainability
      1. 6.7.1. Sustainability analysis
      2. 6.7.2. Case-study design
    8. 6.8. Future research problems
    9. 6.9. Questions
  16. 7. Implementation of BANs
    1. 7.1. Implementation
      1. 7.1.1. The computation model of a sensor node
      2. 7.1.2. The computation model of a base station
    2. 7.2. Programming paradigms
      1. 7.2.1. Programming a sensor
      2. 7.2.2. Programming a base station
    3. 7.3. Common implementation issues
      1. 7.3.1. Avoid floating-point operations
      2. 7.3.2. Variable reuse and concurrency conflicts
      3. 7.3.3. Storage management
      4. 7.3.4. Distinction between tasks and event handlers
      5. 7.3.5. Real-time considerations
      6. 7.3.6. Debugging strategies
    4. 7.4. Diverse sensor platforms
    5. 7.5. Choosing the best platform
    6. 7.6. Automatic code generation
    7. 7.7. Data repositories
    8. 7.8. Questions
  17. 8. Epilogue
  18. Glossary
  19. Appendix: Publication venues, academic research groups, and funding agencies
  20. References
  21. Index