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Blended Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Traditional classroom learning environments are quickly becoming a thing of the past as research continues to support the integration of learning outside of a structured school environment. Blended learning, in particular, offers the best of both worlds, combining classroom learning with mobile and web-based learning environments. Blended Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores emerging trends, case studies, and digital tools for hybrid learning in modern educational settings. Focusing on the latest technological innovations as well as effective pedagogical practice, this critical multi-volume set is a comprehensive resource for instructional designers, educators, administrators, and graduate-level students in the field of education.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editor-in-Chief
  5. Associate Editors
  6. Editorial Advisory Board
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Hybrid Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE PURPOSE AND THE RESEARCH QUESTION
      5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
      6. METHOD
      7. RESULTS
      8. WHO DECIDES?
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH
      13. REFERENCES
      14. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 2: Flipping Learning!
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CHALLENGES TO FLIPPED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: A Three-Dimensional Environment of Personalized Recommendation of Learning Objects to Support Ubiquitous Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT (VLE)
      4. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS
      5. RECOMMENDATION SYSTEMS
      6. GENETIC ALGORITHMS
      7. UBIQUITOUS LEARNING
      8. LEARNING OBJECTS
      9. RELATED WORK
      10. 3D ENVIRONMENT SENSITIVE TO THE CONTEXT BASED ON RECOMMENDATION OF LEARNING OBJECTS BY AGENTS
      11. VALIDATION AND RESULTS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Flipping First-Year English
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Fostering Collaborative Learning with Mobile Web 2.0 in Semi-Formal Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: ACTIVITY THEORY
      4. RESEARCH CONTEXT
      5. STUDY DESIGN
      6. RESEARCH METHODS
      7. STUDY FINDINGS
      8. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 6: i2Flex and the Community of Inquiry Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ACS ATHENS AND 21 CENTURY EDUCATION
      3. BLENDED LEARNING, iFLEX, AND CoI
      4. iFLEX IN THE IB FRENCH CLASS
      5. REFLECTION ON THE EVALUATION OF THE iFlex THROUGH THE CoI
      6. FINAL THOUGHTS AND A FEW CHALLENGES
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 7: The i2Flex Methodology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLENDED LEARNING
      4. BLENDED LEARNING IN THE K-12 EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT
      5. BLENDED LEARNING: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS AND MODELS
      6. BLENDED LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM
      7. THE iFLEX METHODOLOGY
      8. THE PRAXIS OF THE iFLEX METHODOLOGY
      9. CONDITIONS FOR THE SUCCESS OF THE iFLEX METHODOLOGY
      10. SUMMARY
      11. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 8: Innovative Instruction in STEM Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A FLIPPED CLASSROOM APPROACH TO STEM INSTRUCTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTE
    9. Chapter 9: Seamless Learning Environments in Higher Education with Mobile Devices and Examples
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. SEAMLESS LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND MOBILE DEVICES
      5. METHOD
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY, AND FUTURE RESEARCH AGENDA
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Teaching Spanish in the Digital Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A FLIPPED CLASSROOM OR JUST HYBRID?
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Teaching Strategies and Tactics in K-12 Blended Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEETING CHALLENGES IN EDUCATION USING THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL
      4. DEFINITION OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM (FC) MODEL
      5. PEDAGOGICAL RATIONALE FOR THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM (FC) MODEL
      6. BEST PRACTICES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM (FC) MODEL: THREE CASE STUDIES
      7. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN IMPLEMENTING FLIPPED CLASSROOM (FC) MODEL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: The Blended Learning Environment in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLENDED LEARNING
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHING PRACTICE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: The Flipped K-12 Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TEACHER PREPARATION METHODS
      5. TEACHER KNOWLEDGE NEEDS
      6. LEADERSHIP, PARENTAL SUPPORT, AND CULTURAL FACTORS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 14: The Peer Instruction Flipped Learning Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ESTABLISHING THE PEER INSTRUCTION FLIPPED LEARNING CLASSROOM
      5. PEER INSTRUCTION FLIPPED LEARNING IN ACTION
      6. PEER INSTRUCTION FLIPPED LEARNING WORKS
      7. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS OF PEER INSTRUCTION FLIPPED LEARNING CLASSROOM
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. APPENDIX: USEFUL TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES
    15. Chapter 15: Transforming Learning with Mobile Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE GAMING
      3. OVERVIEW OF LEARNING THEORIES: MOBILE GAMES
      4. BACKGROUND: GAMES FOR SOCIAL GOOD
      5. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 16: The View from a Flipped Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS OF THE FLIPPED CLASS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    17. Chapter 17: A Kaleidoscope of Variables
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 18: Design and Development of Educational Multimedia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. DEVELOPMENT
      5. ISSUES, PROBLEMS, AND CONTROVERSIES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 19: Applying the Polysynchronous Learning to Foster the Student-Centered Learning in the Higher Education Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES FRAMEWORK FOR THE POLYSYNCHRONOUS LEARNING
      5. THE POLYSYNCHRONOUS LEARNING COURSE DESIGN
      6. POTENTIALS, CHALLENGES, AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 20: Flipping the Composition Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 21: Framework to Develop a Learning Analytics System for Smartphone Blended Learning Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF SMARTPHONE LEARNING ANALYTICS FRAMEWORK
      6. PROPOSED SMART LEARNING ANALYTICS FRAMEWORK (SLAF) LIFE CYCLE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 22: Guidelines for Design and Implementation of Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING MOBILE LEARNING
      5. LEARNING THEORIES TO GUIDE DEVELOPMENT
      6. TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR MOBILE LEARNING
      7. INTERFACE DESIGN FOR MOBILE LEARNING
      8. EVALUATION IN MOBILE LEARNING
      9. MANAGING THE DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY OF MOBILE LEARNING
      10. PROVIDING SUPPORT TO LEARNERS IN MOBILE LEARNING
      11. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MOBILE LEARNING
      12. INSTITUTIONAL ROLE IN MOBILE LEARNING
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      15. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 23: Instructional Re-design for an Active Flipped Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING HYBRID, BLENDED, AND FLIPPED
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID): TWO FRAMEWORKS
      5. ACTIVE LEARNING CONSIDERATIONS
      6. RE-DESIGNING FOR A FLIPPED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      7. FLIPPING DISCUSSIONS
      8. RE-DESIGN QUESTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS
      9. FINAL THOUGHTS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 24: Master in Innovative Tourism Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. INTERVENTION PLAN
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. CLOSING REMARKS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 25: Mobile Learning for Sales Force Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT
      4. CHALLENGE
      5. PROGRAM’S EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS
      6. EBVENDAS’ MOBILE SALES TRAINING PROGRAM
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 26: Practical Guidelines for Creating Online Courses in K-12 Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
      4. SYNCHRONOUS OR ASYNCHRONOUS?
      5. CHOOSING A LEARNING MANANGEMENT SYSTEM
      6. COURSE DEVELOPMENT
      7. CREATING ENGAGING ASSIGNMENTS
      8. ASSESSING STUDENT PARTICIPATION AND LEARNING
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 27: Like It
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FRAMING THEORY
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION: LEARNING WITH FACEBOOK IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. RESULTS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COURSE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      8. OBSERVED TRENDS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 28: Principles of Instructional Design for E-Learning and Online Learning Practices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEACHING AT UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE LEVEL
      4. PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN IN VIRTUAL SETTINGS
      5. ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ELEMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 29: Preparing Online Learning Readiness with Learner-Content Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOL AND AOL CAPABILITIES FOR ONLINE LEARNING
      4. STUDENT SUPPORT AND SUCCESSFUL ONLNE LEARNING
      5. LEARNER-CONTENT INTERACTION AND SCAFFOLDING SRL IN ONLINE COURSES
      6. CASE STUDY: PREPARING ONLINE LEARNING READINESS WITH LEARNER-CONTENT INTERACTION
      7. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 30: Presence and Perceived Learning in Different Higher Education Blended Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 31: Create, Transform, and Share
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 32: Learning Goes Mobile
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. 4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. 6. APPLICABILITY OF RESULTS TO THE ARCHITECTURE FIELD
      8. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 33: Collaborative Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. OBJECTIVES
      5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
      6. RESEARCH DESIGN
      7. DATA COLLECTION
      8. DISCUSSION OF AREAS IN COLLABORATIVE MOBILE LEARNING SLR (2010-2014)
      9. LIMITATIONS
      10. CONTRIBUTION
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 34: Deceptive Promises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MOOC FERVOUR: GENEROUS IDEALS AND PROSAIC REALITIES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 35: Flipped Instructional Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF SELECTED LEARNING IN THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM
      4. AN OVERVIEW OF PEDAGOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
      5. THE CENTRICITY OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM
      6. EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES
      7. THE IMPACT OF COMMUNICATIONS
      8. THE WAY FORWARD
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 36: Language Learners and Mobile Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. HUMAN-MOBILE INTERACTION: HISTORICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW
      5. HUMAN-MOBILE INTERACTION: EDUCATIONAL OVERVIEW
      6. MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE ARABIC CONTEXT
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. KEY FINDINGS
      9. PRIOR AND CURRENT PRACTICES OF MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA AND INTERACTION
      10. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 37: Learning Maths with Mobiles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES IN HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION DESIGN
      4. LEARNING MATHS WITH MOBILES IN SOUTH AFRICA AND IN FINLAND: TWO EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTS
      5. OUTCOMES OF USING THE MOBILE LEARNING SYSTEMS IN TWO COUNTRIES: TOWARDS CROSS-CULTURAL DESIGN
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 38: Learning through Web-Based Authoring Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROLES OF WEB-BASED AUTHORING TOOLS IN LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      4. GENERATIONAL LEARNING STYLES
      5. IMPACTS OF WEB-BASED AUTHORING TOOLS IN ONLINE LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 39: Mobile First E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      4. DIGITAL TOOLS FOR MOBILE FIRST DESIGN
      5. GLIMPSES OF MOBILE FIRST LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX: LIST OF MOBILE LEARNING SOFTWARE
    9. Chapter 40: Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY FOR MOBILE LEARNING WITH FLIPPED INSTRUCTIONS
      5. RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 41: Mobile Technologies for Student Centered Learning in a Distance Higher Education Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. THEORETICAL APPROACH AND ANALYSIS
      6. IMPLEMENTATION
      7. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 42: Mobile-Assisted Language Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLYING MALL IN THE CLASSROOM
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 43: Support for Cloud-Based Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING VS. M-LEARNING
      4. THE EVOLUTION OF M-LEARNING
      5. CURRENT SCENARIO OF M-LEARNING UTILIZING CLOUD
      6. ARCHITECTURE OF M-LEARNING SYSTEM USING CLOUD
      7. CLOUD LEARNING MANAGEMENT (CLM)
      8. FUNCTIONAL DESIGNS OF CLOUD LEARNING MANAGEMENT (CLM) SYSTEM
      9. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD BASED M-LEARNING
      10. BENEFITS OF CLOUD BASED M-LEARNING
      11. CHALLENGES IN CLOUD BASED M-LEARNING SYSTEM
      12. CONVERTING EXISTING M-LEARNING APPLICATIONS TO CLOUD
      13. TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR CLOUD BASED M-LEARNING
      14. SOME CLOUD BASED M-LEARNING CONTENT TOOLS
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 44: Teaching and Learning Physics with Smartphones
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING APPS
      4. USING SMARTPHONES AS MEASUREMENT DEVICES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 45: The Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) on Phrasal Verbs of Iranian Intermediate EFL Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      4. PROBLEM ADDRESSED
      5. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
      6. RESEARCH METHOD
      7. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. IMPLICATIONS
      11. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 46: Web-Based Technologies for Ensuring Interaction in Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WEB-BASED TECHNOLOGIES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FACULTY RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. STUDENT RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. MAIN FINDINGS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
      12. IMPLICATIONS
      13. RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 47: A Mixed Methods Examination of Instructor Social Presence in Accelerated Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 48: Assessing Foreign Language Learning Through Mobile Game-Based Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      5. DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
      6. EXPERIMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 49: Identifying the Contributors to Improve Mobile-Based TPACK Competency of Elementary School Teachers in China
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
      5. TPACK
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND LIMITATIONS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 50: Applying Augmented Reality to a Mobile-Assisted Learning System for Martial Arts Using Kinect Motion Capture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. RESEARCH PROCEDURES AND STRUCTURE
      5. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION
      6. DATA PROCESSING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 51: Assessing Online Courses in Health Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION AND HISTORY
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      5. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: WORLDWIDE CONDITION OF HEALTH EDUCATION USING TECHNOLOGY
      6. RATIONALE FOR ADVANCING HEALTH EDUCATION USING TECHNOLOGY
      7. CHALLENGES POSED BY HEALTH EDUCATION USING TECHNOLOGY
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 52: Assessing the Effectiveness of Interactive and Collaborative Resources to Improve Reading and Writing in English
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 53: Evaluation of Mobile Learning with The Eight-Dimensional E-Learning Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KHAN’S FRAMEWORK FOR MOBILE LEARNING
      4. COURSERA AS AN EXAMPLE OF A MOBILE MOOC, ANALYSED USING KHAN’S E-LEARNING FRAMEWORK
      5. FURTHER RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 54: Investigating Mobile Assisted English Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in China
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 55: Investigating the Daily Use of Mobile Phones as Tools to Enhance mLearning for Local Cultural Subjects in the Context of Malaysian Universities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 56: Learner Assessment in Blended and Online Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEARNER ASSESSMENT
      5. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS
      6. CHALLENGES
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 57: Library and Information Services for Open and Distance Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING: OVERVIEW AND FEATURES
      4. OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING IN NIGERIA AND ITS CHALLENGES
      5. USE OF ICT IN THE PROVISION OF INFORMATION SERVICES FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNERS
      6. RELEVANCE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF DISTANCE LEARNING
      7. WHAT ARE LIBRARIES DOING IN THE ASPECT OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AND SERVICES?
      8. BENEFITS OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES TO DISTANCE LEARNING AND LIBRARY SERVICES
      9. CHALLENGES OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES TO LIBRARY SERVICES
      10. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 58: Teaching and Learning Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORY OF DISTANCE LEARNING
      4. WHAT IS ONLINE LEARNING?
      5. LEARNING THEORIES
      6. INTERACTIONS IN AN ONLINE COURSE
      7. CHALLENGES TO ONLINE TEACHING AND LEARNING
      8. CREATING EFFECTIVE ONLINE COURSES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 59: Teaching and Learning Requirements Engineering Based on Mobile Devices and Cloud
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. PRACTICAL APPLICATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 60: The Commuter's Learning Journey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. DATA COLLECTION METHODS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 61: The Continuous and Systematic Study of the College Algebra Flipped Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COLLEGE ALGEBRA: AN EDUCATIONAL MATH PROBLEM
      3. THE FLIPPED COLLEGE CLASSROOM AS A PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE
      4. THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM TEACHING MODEL
      5. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF A COLLEGE ALGEBRA FLIPPED CLASSROOM
      6. FINDINGS
      7. GUIDELINES FOR ALGEBRA TEACHING
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 62: The Effects of Flipped Classrooms on English Composition Writing in an EFL Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. THE STUDY
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
  12. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 63: Through the Eyes of Students and Faculty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF ONLINE LEARNING
      4. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      5. SUCCESS FACTORS OF E-LEARNING PROGRAMS
      6. PURPOSE
      7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: ADAPTED MODEL FOR ONLINE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      8. RESEARCH DESIGN
      9. METHOD
      10. RESULTS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. APPENDIX A
      15. APPENDIX B
    2. Chapter 64: Urban Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE CASE OF MOBIGEO
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 65: Encouraging and Increasing Student Engagement and Participation in an Online Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENCOURAGING AND INCREASING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND PARTICIPATION IN AN ONLINE CLASSROOM
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 66: Engaging Students to Learn Physics and Mathematics through Short High Quality M-Learning Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING EDUCATIONAL VIDEO-CAPSULES
      5. PRODUCTION OF VIDEO-CAPSULES
      6. EXPERIMENT DESIGN
      7. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 67: Examining Social Presence Influence on Students' Satisfaction with Online Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 68: How Students in a First-Year Composition Course Respond to the Flipped Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPLEMENTING VIDEO TECHNOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 69: I Have a Story to Tell You
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISTANCE LEARNING AT YAŞAR UNIVERSITY
      5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER SUGGESTIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 70: Increasing Learner Interaction in Large-Scale Lectures by Using a Mobile Learning Application
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. REQUIREMENTS FROM THEORY OF INTERACTION
      6. REQUIREMENTS FROM A FOCUS GROUP WORKSHOP
      7. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOBILE-LEARNING APPLICATION
      8. EVALUATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      9. LIMITATIONS, FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 71: Maintaining Motivation in Online Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ARCS-V MOTIVATIONAL DESIGN MODEL
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 72: Preparing University Students for Flipped Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FLIPPED LEARNING IN THE UNDERGRADUATE CLASSROOM
      5. PREPARATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FOR FLIPPED LEARNING
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 73: Students' Perceptions of Teaching and Social Presence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 74: The Value of Social Presence in Developing Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in Online Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE DICHOTOMY THAT IS HIGHER EDUCATION
      3. DEFINING DISTANCE EDUCATION: MOORE'S THEORY OF TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCE
      4. MINIMIZING TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCE: SOCIAL PRESENCE
      5. THE VARIATION OF SOCIAL PRESENCE ACTIVITIES: NOT MERELY ACTS OF INTERACTION
      6. THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL PRESENCE IN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      7. CULTIVATING STUDENT SATISFACTION
      8. THE FACILITATION OF POSITIVE LEARNING OUTCOMES
      9. CONCLUSION: RE-DEFINING ONLINE LEARNING AS A SOCIAL LEARNING PROCESS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 75: University Teachers' Interactions with Their Online Students at an Australian University
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW
      4. THE ISSUE
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
      7. THEORETICAL DISCUSSION
      8. AFFORDANCE THEORY
      9. CAPABILITY THEORY
      10. LITERATURE REVIEW
      11. RESEARCH APPROACH AND DATA COLLECTION
      12. SAMPLING AND DATA COLLECTION
      13. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS STRATEGY
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 76: Understanding Strategies of Teacher-Student Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR UNIVERSITY ONLINE EDUCATION
      5. THE CASE STUDY
      6. SOLUTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  13. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 77: The Perception of Faculty Members on Hybrid Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
      6. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH QUESTION
      7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
      8. METHODOLOGY
      9. RESULTS
      10. WHO DECIDES?
      11. HYBRID VS. FACE-TO-FACE AND ONLINE LEARNINGS
      12. PERCEPTIONS OF ONLINE AND FACE-TO-FACE LEARNING
      13. DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID AS PERCEIVED BY THE PARTICIPANTS
      14. CHALLENGES OF USING HYBRID LEARNING
      15. TECHNICAL PROBLEMS
      16. THE LACK OF KNOWLEDGE
      17. CONCLUSION
      18. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
      19. FUTURE RESEARCH
      20. REFERENCES
      21. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      22. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 78: Internationalising Social Work Education Using Massive Open Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
      4. INTERNATIONALISING THE CURRICULUM
      5. INTERNATIONALISING SOCIAL WORK
      6. CASE STUDY: COMMUNITY WORK
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 79: Barriers and Challenges Facing Pre-Service Teachers Use of Mobile Technologies for Teaching and Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. CONTEXT OF STUDY
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 80: Leveraging Teaching Presence in Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEVERAGING TEACHING PRESENCE: THE CASE OF AN ONLINE COURSE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 81: Online Instructors as Distance Education Experts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
      5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 82: The Human Element MOOC
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 83: Mobile Learning in Workforce Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A CASE FOR LEVERAGING MOBILE LEARNING IN ACTION LEARNING TEAMS
      3. LOWER AND HIGHER-LEVEL WORKPLACE ACTION LEARNING
      4. ACTION LEARNING TEAMS GO MOBILE
      5. MOBILE SUPPORT FOR SOCIAL FLOW
      6. CRITICAL THINKING IN ACTION LEARNING TEAMS
      7. USING UBIQUITOUS MOBILE TECHNOLOGY FOR WORKPLACE LEARNING
      8. WHY ENTER A MOBILE WONDERLAND?
      9. THROUGH THE MOBILE LOOKING GLASS
      10. REFERENCES
  14. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 84: A Blended Approach to Teacher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDY CONTEXT
      4. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 85: A Challenge for the Flipped Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 86: A Method Based on Self-Study Log Information for Improving Effectiveness of Classroom Component in Flipped Classroom Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COLLECTION OF LOGS AT TIME OF E-LEARNING
      5. PROPOSED METHOD
      6. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX A: DATA FOR STATISTICAL TESTS
      13. APPENDIX B: RESULTS OF FISHER’S EXACT TEST
      14. APPENDIX C: RESULTS OF SHAPIRO-WILK TEST
      15. APPENDIX D: RESULTS OF WILCOXON RANK SUM TEST
    4. Chapter 87: Challenges in Implementing the Flipped Classroom Model in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL
      5. A CASE STUDY FROM ONE UNIVERSITY THAT ADRESSES SOME PEDAGOGICAL CHALLENGES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 88: Complex Mobile Learning that Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MOBILE LEARNING INTERFACES
      5. EXPERIMENT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN COGNITIVE LOADS
      6. RELATED EXPERIMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 89: Flipping the Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 90: Implementing a Flipped Classroom in Teaching Second Language Pronunciation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 91: Learning Outcomes and Affective Factors of Blended Learning of English for Library Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 92: Students' Sense of Belonging in Online Classes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE STUDY RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 93: The Effects of Mobile Collaborative Activities in a Second Language Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 94: To Be or Not to Be Successful?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 95: Understanding Flipped Instructions and How They Work In the Real World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS A FLIPPED CLASSROOM?
      4. WHAT DOES THE LITERATURE SAY ABOUT FLIPPED CLASSES?
      5. HOW TO FLIP: THE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL RESOURCES NEEDED TO SUCCEED
      6. CHALLENGES TO FLIPPED CLASS SESSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 96: Unbounded Reading
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 97: Past, Future and Presents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEWING WHAT WORKS IN CONSUMER MARKETING
      4. CAN SEMIOTICS BE HELPFUL IN EDUCATION
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 98: Flying SOLO for Student Success
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF ONLINE EDUCATION
      4. GOING SOLO AT TSTC HARLINGEN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 99: The Role of Mobile Learning in Promoting Literacy and Human Rights for Women and Girls
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OVERVIEW OF CURRENT RESEARCH
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 100: Combating Terrorism through Peace Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 101: Research Trends in the Use of Mobile Learning in Mathematics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PURPOSE
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IDENTIFIED GAPS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. LIMITATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 102: The MOOCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EVOLUTION OF MOOCs
      4. REVIEW METHODS
      5. BENEFITS OF MOOCS
      6. CORPORATE COLLABORATION
      7. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      8. CHALLENGES WITH MOOCS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 103: Enhancing Active Learning Pedagogy through Online Collaborative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
      4. ONLINE COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
      5. FLIPPED CLASSROOM
      6. ONLINE COLLABORATIVE LEARNING AND THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 104: Is Flipped Classroom a Tendency or a Fad?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION
    9. Chapter 105: Net Generation Features that Enhance Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. MOBILE DEVICES
      5. MOBILE LEARNING AND TEACHING RESOURCES
      6. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF MOBILE LEARNING RESOURCES
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. RESULTS
      9. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 106: Toward an Open Empowered Learning Model of Pedagogy in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMERGING THINKING AND OPPORTUNITIES
      4. POSSIBILITIES OF OEP
      5. THE POTENTIAL OF OPEN LEARNING
      6. STRATEGIES FOR INSTITUTIONAL READINESS
      7. AN OPEN EMPOWERED LEARNING PEDAGOGY
      8. OEP IN THE WIDER EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
      9. OPENNESS, CREDENTIALING, AND THE INSTITUTION
      10. RECOGNITION OF OPEN LEARNING EXPERIENCES: THE HYBRID MODEL
      11. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 107: Visualizing the Evolution of Mobile Learning Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 108: Virtually Sound
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE NGLS EXPERIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FLIPPED MODE AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING DEVICE
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX