The ability to tailor the properties of silicon, by controlling its surface morphology in the form of black silicon, is anticipated to revolutionize silicon photonics. Black Silicon (BSi), one of the approaches to counter the inherent disadvantages of Si, is a surface modification of crystalline Si (c-Si). This book presents a discussion on manufacturing BSi by various methods for morphing the surface of the material, which are economical and easily applicable for mass production. Comparisons of the surfaces of BSi fabricated by various techniques are presented and thermal, electrical, electronic, and optical properties of black silicon are described. Some major applications of BSi have been given and possible future directions in the research and development of BSi and its applications are identified.