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Biosensors Nanotechnology by Anthony P. F. Turner, Ashutosh Tiwari

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Chapter 11

Application of Bioconjugated Nanoporous Gold Films in Electrochemical Biosensors

Leila Kashefi-Kheyrabadi1, Abolhassan Noori2 and Masoud Ayatollahi Mehrgardi*,1

1Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: m.mehrgardi@gmail.com

Abstract

The conjugation of biomolecules and nanostructured materials in the last decade has opened a promising horizon to many aspects of modern science. Considerable attention has been paid to the development of new nanomaterials with suitable hydrophilicity, high porosity, and large surface area for various biomolecule immobilizations. Nanostructured materials, in particular a nanoporous structure, could provide large surface area for high loading capacities for the biomolecules. A wide variety of biomolecules including proteins and nucleic acids have been employed in this field. Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs), Ribonucleic acids (RNAs), aptamers and aptazymes, whose functions are beyond the conventional genetic roles of nucleic acids, are collectively located in the nucleic acids (NAs) category. Also, various proteins including antibodies, enzymes, redox proteins, etc., have been applied as the recognition layer in nanoporous-based biosensors. Many approaches have been adopted for the surface functionalization of porous membranes, in which chemisorption of thiol compounds onto the surfaces of nanoporous gold (NPG) films takes place with ...

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