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Biometrics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Security and authentication issues are surging to the forefront of the research realm in global society. As technology continues to evolve, individuals are finding it easier to infiltrate various forums and facilities where they can illegally obtain information and access. By implementing biometric authentications to these forums, users are able to prevent attacks on their privacy and security. Biometrics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a multi-volume publication highlighting critical topics related to access control, user identification, and surveillance technologies. Featuring emergent research on the issues and challenges in security and privacy, various forms of user authentication, biometric applications to image processing and computer vision, and security applications within the field, this publication is an ideal reference source for researchers, engineers, technology developers, students, and security specialists.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editor-in-Chief
  5. Associate Editors
  6. Editorial Advisory Board
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Biometric
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BIOMETRICS AND ITS WORK PROCESS
      3. WHY BIOMETRIC IS SECURE?
      4. COLLABORATION AND COMBINATION OF CLOUD AND BIOMETRICS
      5. BIOMETRIC AS AN AUTHENTICATION TO CLOUD SECURITY
      6. TONGUE AS BIOMETRIC VISUALIZES
      7. VOICEPRINT BIOMETRIC
      8. BIOMETRIC INFRASTRUCTURE IN CLOUD
      9. CHALLENGES AND OBSTACLE
      10. STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMETRIC IN CLOUD
      12. DEPLOYMENT POSSIBILITIES AND EXISTING SOLUTIONS
      13. CASE STUDIES
      14. CREDIT CARD ENDORSEMENT USING BIOMETRICS IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      15. BIOMETRIC ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: IMPLEMENTATION ON CLOUD ENVIRONMENT
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ADDITIONAL READING
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Impulse Noise Filtering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. VARIANTS OF IMPULSE NOISE
      4. 3. MEDIAN FILTER AS A TOOL OF IMPULSE NOISE REMOVAL
      5. 4. RECENT TRENDS TOWARDS THE ELIMINATION OF IMPULSE NOISE
      6. 5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONGST DIFFERENT APPROACHES
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: ECG-Based Biometrics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS WORKS
      4. THE ECG WAVE
      5. BIOMETRICS
      6. ECG BIOMETRIC
      7. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR ECG BIOMETRIC
      8. ECG BIOMETRIC FOR CLOUD
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Antimicrobial Consumption and Multidrug Resistant Organisms in Intensive Care Units
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MECHANISMS OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE AND GENE DISSEMINATION
      5. MECHANISMS OF GENE DISSEMINATION
      6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIMICROBIAL CONSUMPTION AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
      7. THE ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION (ATC) SYSTEM AND DEFINED DAILY DOSE (DDD)
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. WAY FORWARD AND RECOMMENDATION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Biometrics and Data Protection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMETRICS
      4. BIOMETRICS AND DATA PROTECTION
      5. JURISPRUDENCE FROM THE ECJ
      6. BIOMETRIC DATA IN THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP: ARTICLE 18 OF THE PORTUGUESE LABOUR CODE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 6: Biomedical Image Processing and Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Watermark Embedding for Multiscale Error Diffused Halftone Images by Adopting Visual Cryptography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 8: Image Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMAGE MINING
      4. CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Swarm Intelligence for Automatic Video Image Contrast Adjustment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. CONTRAST ADJUSTMENT
      5. 4. ARTIFICAL BEE COLONY ALGORITHM
      6. 5. TEST FUNCTIONS FOR OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS
      7. 6. PROPOSED ALGORITHM FOR CONTRAST ADJUSTMENT
      8. 7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Biometric Authentication for Cloud Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. SECURITY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      3. 2. HANDLING LARGE SCALE BIOMETRIC DATA USING CLOUD COMPUTING
      4. 3. REMOTE AUTHENTICATION SCHEMES FOR ENHANCING CLOUD SECURITY
      5. 4. ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDING CLOUD BASED BIOMETRIC SERVICES
      6. 5. ISSUES IN INTEGRATING BIOMETRICS WITH CLOUD PLATFORM
      7. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Medical Image Mining Using Fuzzy Connectedness Image Segmentation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Computational Intelligence-Based Cell Nuclei Segmentation from Pap Smear Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW ON EXISTING SEGMENTATION METHODS FOR NUCLEI SEGMENTATION
      4. THRESHOLD BASED SEGMENTATION
      5. PAP SMEAR IMAGE SEGMENTATION
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 13: Learning Algorithms for Anomaly Detection from Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND AND BENCHMARK ALGORITHMS
      4. 3. PROPOSED ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
      6. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: A Computational Model for Texture Analysis in Images with Fractional Differential Filter for Texture Detection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. THE MODEL PROPOSED FOR TEXTURE ANALYSIS IN IMAGES
      5. 4. EFFICACY MEASUREMENT BY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 15: Biometrics in Cloud Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMETRIC SERVICE
      4. BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES
      5. OPERATION IN BIOMERIC SYSTEM
      6. CLOUD ARCHITECTURE
      7. BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM IN CLOUD
      8. INTEGRATING BIOMETRIC IN CLOUD
      9. CASE STUDY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 16: Theoretical Methods of Images Processing in Optoelectronic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. PURPOSE AND METHODS OF IMPROVING OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
      3. 2. FORMATION OF IMAGES IN OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
      4. 3. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS IN OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
      5. 4. IMAGE PROCESSING IN OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    17. Chapter 17: Cellular Automata Algorithms for Digital Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TESTING AND RESULTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 18: Image Data Mining Based on Wavelet Transform for Visualization of the Unique Characteristics of Image Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. A RATIONALE OF IMAGE DATA MINING
      4. 3. WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED IMAGE DATA MINING
      5. 4. ANNOTATING THE IMAGE UNIQUE FEATURE MINING AND VISUALIZATION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 19: Online Spatial HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Monitoring System for Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DSMS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 20: Before Smart Phones and Social Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USER-GENERATED IMAGES
      4. CAMERA PHONES
      5. IMPLICATIONS OF CAMERA PHONES ON VISUAL DOCUMENTATION
      6. CAMERA PHONES, SURVEILLANCE, AND SOUSVEILLANCE
      7. SOUSVEILLANCE: EMPOWERING INDIVIDUALS?
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 21: Image and Video Restoration and Enhancement via Sparse Representation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMAGE/VIDEO DENOISING VIA SPARSE REPRESENTATION
      5. IMAGE/VIDEO SUPER-RESOLUTION VIA SPARSE REPRESENTATION
      6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND EVALUATION RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 22: Technology Studies and the Sociological Debate on Monitoring of Social Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TECHNOLOGY
      4. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF COMMUNICATION
      5. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND HUMAN-TECHNOLOGIES RELATIONS
      6. TECHNOLOGIES OF SURVEILLANCE AND SOCIETAL CONTROL
      7. FINAL REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    6. Chapter 23: Web and Mobile Phone Based Rabies Surveillance System for Humans and Animals in Kilosa District, Tanzania
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 24: Cloud-Based Infiltration Detection System for Military Purposes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY ON RELATED RESEARCH
      4. NECESSITY OF CLOUD-BASED INFILTRATION DETECTION SYSTEM
      5. TYPES OF CLOUD STORAGE SYSTEMS
      6. THE PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      7. PROCESS OF VIDEO CONTENT ANALYSIS
      8. OBJECT SEGMENTATION
      9. OBJECT CLASSIFICATION
      10. OBJECT TRACKING
      11. HUMAN ACTIVITY RECOGNITION
      12. NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ACTIVITY RECOGNITION
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 25: A Novel Fuzzy Logic Classifier for Classification and Quality Measurement of Apple Fruit
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. 3. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      5. 4. PROPOSED ALGORITHM OF SYSTEM
      6. 5. FUZZY AS A CLASSIFIER
      7. 6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 26: 3D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 3D USE FOR CROP CHARACTERIZATION
      4. 3D USE FOR ROOT PHENOTYPING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 27: Retrieval of Multimedia Information Using Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEWS
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FEATURE EXTRACTION OR VISUAL CONTENTS
      6. MULTIDIMENSIONAL INDEXING
      7. RETRIEVAL METHOD
      8. IMAGE RETRIEVAL (IR)
      9. SEMANTIC GAP
      10. SENSORY GAP
      11. QUERY TECHNIQUES FOR CBIR
      12. IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM
      13. APPLICATIONS OF CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL:
      14. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. CHALLENGES OF CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM
      17. CONCLUSION
      18. REFERENCES
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 28: SSIM-Based Distortion Estimation for Optimized Video Transmission over Inherently Noisy Channels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PROPOSED DISTORTION METRICS
      4. 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 29: On Visual Information Retrieval Using Multiresolution Techniques for Web Usage Mining Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 30: An Interactive Tool for Visualizing and Analyzing Spatio-Temporal Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 31: Mobile GPU Computing Based Filter Bank Convolution for Three-Dimensional Wavelet Transform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODS
      4. 3. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS
      5. 4. DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 32: Cell Phone Image-Based Plant Disease Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PATTERN RECOGNITION PIPELINE FOR PLANT DISEASE CLASSIFICATION
      5. CLASSIFICATION OF WHEAT DISEASE SYMPTOMS
      6. CLASSIFICATION OF SUGAR BEET DISEASE SYMPTOMS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 33: iCellFusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 34: Multiple Description Coding for Multipath Video Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION VIDEO CODING: A REVIEW
      4. MD ARCHITECTURES FOR VIDEO ENCODING
      5. MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION VIDEO STREAMING
      6. MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION FOR ADVANCED VIDEO CODING
      7. STREAMING PERFORMANCE OVER LOSSY NETWORKS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 35: Metamorphic Relations Based Test Oracles for Image Processing Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OVERVIEW
      4. 4. APPROACH
      5. 5. IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 36: Application of Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Optimization Techniques in Medical Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUZZY LOGIC AND OPTIMIZATION METHOD
      5. FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL (FOP)
      6. FUZZY OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
      7. FUZZY OPTIMAL SOLUTION ACHIEVED BY GENETIC ALGORITHM
      8. FUZZY LOGIC IN IMAGE PROCESSING
      9. FUZZY PENALTY BASED OPTIMIZATION
      10. CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF FUZZY LOGIC
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 37: 3D Image Acquisition and Analysis of Range Face Images for Registration and Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 3D IMAGE ACQUISITION TECHNIQUES
      4. FILE FORMATS OF 3D IMAGES
      5. VISUALIZATION 3D FACE IMAGE
      6. 3D MESH VIEWING TECHNIQUE
      7. ANALYSIS OF 3D FACE IMAGES FROM RANGE IMAGE
      8. HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION
      9. CONTRAST STRETCHING
      10. LITERATURE SURVEY AND DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES
      11. LANDMARK DETECTION AND REGISTRATION OF 3D FACE IMAGES
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 38: Wavelet Transform-Based Soft Computational Techniques and Applications in Medical Imaging
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. WAVELET TRANSFORM
      4. 3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
      5. 4. WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK
      6. 5. APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL IMAGING
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 39: Using Grid Computing and Satellite Remote Sensing in Evapotranspiration Estimation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A CASE STUDY
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 40: Fast Medical Image Segmentation Using Energy-Based Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF CHAPTER
      4. SUMMARY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 41: Wavelet-Based Recognition of Handwritten Characters Using Artificial Neural Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY OF THE PROPOSED HCR SYSTEM
      5. PREPROCESSING AND FEATURE EXTRACTION
      6. CLASSIFICATION AND RECOGNITION
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 42: Color Features and Color Spaces Applications to the Automatic Image Annotation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COLOR FEATURES
      5. COLOR SPACES
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      9. NOMENCLATURE
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 43: Wavelets with Application in Image Compression
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRELIMINARIES
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. SCALING AND WAVELET FUNCTIONS
      6. WAVELET TRANSFORM ALGORITHM FOR DIGITAL IMAGE
      7. IMAGE COMPRESSION
      8. APPLICATION OF WAVELETS IN IMAGE COMPRESSION
      9. SOME MATLAB COMMANDS AND USER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 44: Study of Noise Removal Techniques for Digital Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF IMAGE
      4. IMAGE FILE FORMATS
      5. TYPES OF NOISE
      6. IMAGE DENOISING SCHEMES
      7. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
      8. IMPLEMENTATION OF VARIOUS DENOISING ALGORITHMS
      9. RELATED WORKS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 45: Dynamical Analysis of Drug Efficacy and Mechanism of Action Using GFP Reporters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 46: Application of Biomedical Image Processing in Blood Cell Counting Using Hough Transform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK AND MOTIVATION
      4. BLOOD CELLS
      5. HOUGH TRANSFORM
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. SEGMENTATION OF BLOOD CELL IMAGES USING HOUGH TRANSFORM
      8. COUNTING
      9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 47: A Hybrid Scheme for Breast Cancer Detection Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Rough Set Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. FOUNDATION OF ROUGH SET
      4. 3. INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY SET
      5. 4. PROPOSED DESIGN OF HYBRID SCHEME
      6. 5. RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  11. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 48: Comparative Analysis of Efficient Platforms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. ANALYSIS OF PLATFORMS AND COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES
      5. 4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND LIBRARIES
      6. 5. COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES AND ALGORITHMS FOR DATA PARALLELISM
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 49: Image Quality Assessment and Outliers Filtering in an Image-Based Animal Supervision System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MATERIAL AND METHOD
      4. 3. PREPROCESSING
      5. 4. COMMON-CAUSE CLUSTERING AND R.V. DEFINITION
      6. 5. FFR AND RTQS BY NAIVE STRUCTURE
      7. 6. RESULTS
      8. 7. DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 50: Analyzing the Security Susceptibilities of Biometrics Integrated with Cloud Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY
      4. COMBINING BIOMETRICS AND CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. VULNERABILITIES IN BIOMETRIC SECURITY SYSTEMS
      6. NEW DEVELOPMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 51: E-Government, E-Surveillance, and Ethical Issues from Malaysian Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPT OF SURVEILLANCE
      4. E-GOVERNMENT AND E-SURVEILLANCE IN MALAYSIA
      5. ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO E-SURVEILLANCE
      6. MALAYSIAN LAWS AND POLICIES THAT GOVERN E-GOVERNMENT AND DIGITAL PRIVACY
      7. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 52: A Survey and Surveillance Issues in Smart Homes Environment for Assistive Living
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A LIGHT COMPARISON ON SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
      4. 3. DATASETS
      5. BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION
      6. TRACKING
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 53: Reconciling the Needs for National Security and Citizen Privacy in an Age of Surveillance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF SURVEILLANCE IN THE U.S.
      5. THE SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
      6. FRAMEWORKS FOR INTERPRETATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 54: Video Surveillance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRIVACY AND LEGISLATION
      5. MODEL AND TAXONOMY OF VIDEO SURVEILLANCE
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 55: The E-Government Surveillance in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVOLUTION OF WIRETAPPING LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES
      4. PUBLIC OPINION OF U.S. GOVERNMENT SURVEILLANCE
      5. RIGHT WING AUTHORITARIANISM
      6. PERSONAL INFORMATION PRIVACY
      7. EMPIRICAL MODEL: DATA AND METHODS
      8. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 56: Dataveillance in the Workplace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A SHIFTING CONTEXT
      4. PRIVACY AND SURVEILLANCE
      5. THE EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVE
      6. SURVEILLANCE: MANAGEMENTS MOTIVATION
      7. AN ETHICAL PARADOX: ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE, TRUST, AND RISK
      8. A CODE OF ETHICS FOR WORKPLACE SURVEILLANCE
      9. LEGAL PROTECTIONS: THE ROLE OF PRIVACY LEGISLATION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 5: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 57: Biometric Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF BIOMETRIC SECURITY
      4. FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 58: Who “Screens” Security?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PART 1 – UNREAL PLACES/REAL FEARS: SCIENCE FICTION DYSTOPIAS AND SURVEILLANCE
      4. PART II – “BIG BROTHER WATCHING”: PARANOID POLITICS IN A REAL SURVEILLANCE CULTURE
      5. CODA – “I LIKE TO WATCH”: SURVEILLANCE IN A CULTURE OF VIEWERS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 59: YouTube
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUDIENCE THEORY AND AUDIENCE COMMODIFICATION
      4. SURVEILLANCE
      5. POWER
      6. POWER AND MICHEL FOUCAULT
      7. MONETIZING THE MESSAGE
      8. THE NEW YOUTUBE
      9. THE BROADCAST TELEVISION ADVERTISING MODEL IN YOUTUBE
      10. WHAT’S HAPPENING IN YOUTUBE MONETIZATION TODAY?
      11. FUTURE TRENDS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 60: On Piloting Web-Based Rabies Surveillance System for Humans and Animals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SITUATION ANALYSIS
      4. RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
      5. IMPORTANCE OF RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
      6. THE APPLICATION OF ICT IN RABIES SURVEILLANCE
      7. PILOTING WEB BASED RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM IN KILOSA DISTRICT
      8. REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ICT BASED RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
      9. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS
      10. SYSTEM DESIGN
      11. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
      12. DESCRIPTION OF USER INTERFACE AND THE SYSTEM IN GENERAL
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 61: Intelligence-Based Adaptive Digital Watermarking for Images in Wavelet Transform Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASICS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING
      4. DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEMES IN TRANSFORM DOMAIN
      5. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND WATERMARKING SCHEMES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 62: Cloud Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      4. CLOUD COMPUTING PARADIGM
      5. BIOMETRICS SECURITY ARCHITECTURES
      6. RESEARCH ISSUES
      7. NEW DEVELOPMENT
      8. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 63: Dataveillance and Information Privacy Concerns
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION PRIVACY
      4. SURVEILLANCE: AN EMPLOYEE PERSPECTIVE
      5. MONITORING EMPLOYEES’ HEALTH AND PRIVACY
      6. SURVEILLANCE: A MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE
      7. ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND WORKPLACE SURVEILLANCE
      8. WORKPLACE SURVEILLANCE ETHICS
      9. THE ROLE OF PRIVACY LEGISLATION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 64: Hybrid Data Mining Approach for Image Segmentation Based Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 65: Privacy vs. Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REFERENCES
      4. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      5. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 66: Veillance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: SURVEILLANCE
      3. SOUSVEILLANCE
      4. VEILLANCE INTEGRITY AND VEILLANCE HYPOCRISY
      5. THE VEILLANCE CONTRACT ANALOGY: RECIPROCAL RECORDING RIGHTS
      6. DEFINING SUR/SOUSVEILLANCE
      7. DATAVEILLANCE
      8. UBERVEILLANCE
      9. FROM CROWD VEILLANCE TO CLOUD VEILLANCE: GOOVERNANCE OF THE GOOLAG, OR GAOLBROKEN GOOGLASS?
      10. UNTERVEILLANCE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 67: Improving the Security of Digital Images in Hadamard Transform Domain Using Digital Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF VISIBLE WATERMARKING SCHEMES
      4. REVIEW OF INVISIBLE WATERMARKING SCHEMES
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. DISCRETE HADAMARD TRANSFORM BASED WATERMARKING SCHEMES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 68: Smart Surveillance Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. ASPECTS OF SENSOR AND OPERATOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
      5. CASE AIS-SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 69: Intuitionistic Fuzzy Filters for Noise Removal in Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY OPERATORS
      4. 3. IF FILTERS IN IMAGE PROCESSING
      5. 4. PROPOSED ALGORITHM
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 70: Adding Context Information to Video Analysis for Surveillance Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON CONTEXT-BASED REASONING FOR SURVEILLANCE VIDEO ANALYSIS
      4. CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION APPROACHES
      5. USE CASES FOR SCENE UNDERSTANDING
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 71: Medical Image Enhancement Using Edge Information-Based Methods
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIFFERENTIAL HYPERBOLIC TANGENT (DHBT) FILTER BASED ENHANCEMENT
      5. EDGE ENHANCEMENT OF X-RAY IMAGE BY HAAR FILTERS
      6. ENHANCEMENT OF VASCULATURE IN OPTIC DISC REGION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 72: Wheelchair Controlled by Hands Gestures Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STARTING POINT: NATURAL USER INTERFACES
      4. SMART WHEELCHAIRS: STATE OF THE ART
      5. COLOR SPACES
      6. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 73: Improving Multimodality Image Fusion through Integrate AFL and Wavelet Transform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUZZY SET THEORY AND FUZZY LOGIC
      7. SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 74: Digital Forensics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DIGITAL CONTENT PROTECTION AND DIGITAL FORENSICS
      4. 3. DIGITAL IMAGE FORGERY AND FORENSICS
      5. 4. IMAGE SOURCE IDENTIFICATION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 75: Improving the Efficiency of Color Image Segmentation Using an Enhanced Clustering Methodology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
      4. 3. RELATED WORKS
      5. 4. IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING DIFFERENT CLUSTERING METHODS
      6. 5. PROPOSED CLUSTERING METHOD FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION
      7. 6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 76: A New Swarm Intelligence Technique of Artificial Haemostasis System for Suspicious Person Detection with Visual Result Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      4. ARTIFICIAL HAEMOSTASIS SYSTEM (AHS) FOR SUSPICIOUS PERSON DETECTION
      5. EXPERIMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE WORKS
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 77: Advances in Biometrics for Secure Human Authentication System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS