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Biomedical Imaging: Principles and Applications

Book Description

This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may mean fewer animal lab tests and clinical trials.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Contributors
  6. Chapter 1: Evaluation of Spectroscopic Images
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Data Analysis
    3. 1.3 Applications
    4. References
  7. Chapter 2: Evaluation of Tomographic Data
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Image Reconstruction
    3. 2.3 Image Data Representation: Pixel Size and Image Resolution
    4. 2.4 Consequences of Limited Spatial Resolution
    5. 2.5 Tomographic Data Evaluation: Tasks
    6. 2.6 Summary
    7. References
  8. Chapter 3: X-Ray Imaging
    1. 3.1 Basics
    2. 3.2 Instrumentation
    3. 3.3 Clinical Applications
    4. 3.4 Radiation Exposure to Patients and Employees
    5. References
  9. Chapter 4: Computed Tomography
    1. 4.1 Basics
    2. 4.2 Instrumentation
    3. 4.3 Measurement Techniques
    4. 4.4 Applications
    5. 4.5 Outlook
    6. References
  10. Chapter 5: Magnetic Resonance Technology
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Magnetic Nuclei Spin in a Magnetic Field
    3. 5.3 Image Creation
    4. 5.4 Image Reconstruction
    5. 5.5 Image Resolution
    6. 5.6 Noise in the Image—SNR
    7. 5.7 Image Weighting and Pulse Sequence Parameters TE and TR
    8. 5.8 A Menagerie of Pulse Sequences
    9. 5.9 Enhanced Diagnostic Capabilities of MRI—Contrast Agents
    10. 5.10 Molecular MRI
    11. 5.11 Reading the Mind—Functional MRI
    12. 5.12 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    13. 5.13 MR Hardware
    14. 5.14 MRI Safety
    15. 5.15 Imaging Artefacts in MRI
    16. 5.16 Advanced MR Technology and Its Possible Future
    17. 5.17 Acknowledgments
    18. References
  11. Chapter 6: Toward A 3D View of Cellular Architecture: Correlative Light Microscopy and Electron Tomography
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Historical Perspective
    3. 6.3 Stains for CLEM
    4. 6.4 Probes for CLEM
    5. 6.5 Clem Applications
    6. 6.6 Future Perspective
    7. References
  12. Chapter 7: Tracer Imaging
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Instrumentation
    3. 7.3 Measurement Techniques
    4. 7.4 Applications
    5. 7.5 Acknowledgements
    6. References
  13. Chapter 8: Fluorescence Imaging
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Contrast Mechanisms
    3. 8.3 Direct Methods: Fluorescent Probes
    4. 8.4 Indirect Methods: Fluorescent Proteins
    5. 8.5 Microscopy
    6. 8.6 Macroscopic Imaging/Tomography
    7. 8.7 Planar Imaging
    8. 8.8 Tomography
    9. 8.9 Conclusion
    10. 8.10 Acknowledgments
    11. References
  14. Chapter 9: Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Instrumentation
    3. 9.3 Raman Imaging
    4. 9.4 Sampling Techniques
    5. 9.5 Data Analysis and Image Evaluation
    6. 9.6 Applications
    7. References
  15. Chapter 10: Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy
    1. 10.1 Basics
    2. 10.2 Theory
    3. 10.3 CARS Microscopy in Practice
    4. 10.4 Instrumentation
    5. 10.5 Laser Sources
    6. 10.6 Data Acquisition
    7. 10.7 Measurement Techniques
    8. 10.8 Applications
    9. 10.9 Conclusions
    10. 10.10 Acknowledgements
    11. References
  16. Chapter 11: Biomedical Sonography
    1. 11.1 Basic Principles
    2. 11.2 Instrumentation of Real-Time Ultrasound Imaging
    3. 11.3 Measurement Techniques of Real-Time Ultrasound Imaging
    4. 11.4 Application Examples of Biomedical Sonography
    5. References
  17. Chapter 12: Acoustic Microscopy for Biomedical Applications
    1. 12.1 Sound Waves and Basics of Acoustic Microscopy
    2. 12.2 Types of Acoustic Microscopy
    3. 12.3 Biomedical Applications of Acoustic Microscopy
    4. 12.4 Examples of Tissue Investigations using SAM
    5. 12.5 Acknowledgements
    6. References
  18. Index