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Bioinformatics with R Cookbook by Paurush Praveen Sinha

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Appendix A. Useful Operators and Functions in R

The commonly used operators in R are tabularized as follows:

Operator

Purpose

Example

=

Assignment

> sum(a = 5, b = 6)
[1] 11

<-

Assignment

> a <- 5

+

Addition

> 10 + 1
[1] 11

-

Subtraction

> 10 - 1
[1] 9

*

Multiplication

> 10 * 2
[1] 20

/

Division

> 10 / 2
[1] 5

^ or **

Exponentiation

> 10 ^ 2
[1] 100

x %% y

Modulus (x mod y)

> 11 %% 2
[1] 1

x %/% y

Integer division

> 10 %/% 3
[1] 3

<

Less than

> 3 > 5
[1] FALSE

<=

Less than or equal to

> 3 <= 5
[1] TRUE

>

Greater than

> 3 < 5
[1] TRUE

>=

Greater than or equal to

> 3 >= 5
[1] FALSE

==

Check equality

> 3 == 5
[1] FALSE

!=

Not equal to

> 3 != 5
[1] TRUE

!

NOT

> !a

|

OR

> x | y

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