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Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics

Book Description

Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, 3rd Edition paves an easier and more efficient way for people seeking basic knowledge about this discipline. This book's focus is on systems with galvanic contact with tissue, with specific detail on the geometry of the measuring system. Both authors are internationally recognized experts in the field. The highly effective, easily followed organization of the second edition has been retained, with a new discussion of state-of-the-art advances in data analysis, modelling, endogenic sources, tissue electrical properties, electrodes, instrumentation and measurements. This book provides the basic knowledge of electrochemistry, electronic engineering, physics, physiology, mathematics, and model thinking that is needed to understand this key area in biomedicine and biophysics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface to the Third Edition
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Tips to the Reader
  8. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1. What Is Bioimpedance and Biopermittivity?
    2. 1.2. What Is Bioelectricity?
    3. 1.3. How Are the Quantities of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Measured and Controlled?
    4. 1.4. Models
    5. 1.5. What Are the Applications of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity?
    6. 1.6. Some Unsolved Basic Problems
    7. 1.7. Who Is Working with Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity?
  9. Chapter 2. Electrolytics
    1. 2.1. Ionic and Electronic DC Conduction
    2. 2.2. Basic Electrolytic DC Experiment
    3. 2.3. Bulk Electrolytic DC Conductance
    4. 2.4. Particle Migration and Diffusion
    5. 2.5. Electrokinetics
    6. 2.6. Problems
  10. Chapter 3. Dielectrics
    1. 3.1. Polarization in a Uniform Dielectric
    2. 3.2. Basic Capacitor Experiment
    3. 3.3. Complex Variables and Material Constants
    4. 3.4. AC Polarization and Relaxation in a Uniform Dielectric
    5. 3.5. Interfacial Polarization
    6. 3.6. Basic Membrane Experiment
    7. 3.7. Basic Suspension Experiment
    8. 3.8. Dispersion and Dielectric Spectroscopy
    9. 3.9. Problems
  11. Chapter 4. Passive Tissue Electrical Properties
    1. 4.1. Basic Biomaterials
    2. 4.2. Tissue and Organs
    3. 4.3. Special Electrical Properties
    4. 4.4. Problems
  12. Chapter 5. Excitable Tissue and Bioelectric Signals
    1. 5.1. Cell Polarization
    2. 5.2. Action Potential
    3. 5.3. The Neuron
    4. 5.4. Axon Transmission
    5. 5.5. Receptors
    6. 5.6. Problems
  13. Chapter 6. Geometrical Analysis
    1. 6.1. Volume Conductors
    2. 6.2. Sphere Sources, Ideal Three-Dimensional Models
    3. 6.3. Line Sources, Ideal Two-Dimensional Models
    4. 6.4. Signal Transfer
    5. 6.5. Finite Element Method
    6. 6.6. Imaging, Electrical Impedance Tomography
    7. 6.7. Duality of Dielectric and Conductor Theory
    8. 6.8. Problems
  14. Chapter 7. Electrodes
    1. 7.1. Electrode Pair
    2. 7.2. Single Electrode
    3. 7.3. Electrode Metals
    4. 7.4. Contact Electrolytes
    5. 7.5. Electrode Double Layer
    6. 7.6. DC Potentials, No Current Flow
    7. 7.7. Basic Experiment with DC Current Flow
    8. 7.8. Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
    9. 7.9. Electrode Polarization
    10. 7.10. Multiple Electrode Systems
    11. 7.11. Electrode Terminology
    12. 7.12. Electrode Designs
    13. 7.13. Vulnerable Electrode Technology
    14. 7.14. Problems
  15. Chapter 8. Instrumentation and Measurements
    1. 8.1. General Network Theory, the Black-Box
    2. 8.2. Signals and Measurement, Noise
    3. 8.3. Amplifiers, Bridges, Analyzers
    4. 8.4. Nonlinear Phenomena
    5. 8.5. Problems
  16. Chapter 9. Data and Models
    1. 9.1. Models, Descriptive and Explanatory
    2. 9.2. Equations, Laws, and Equivalent Circuits
    3. 9.3. Data Calculation and Presentation
    4. 9.4. Statistical Methods for Bioimpedance Analysis<sup xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">1</sup>
    5. 9.5. More Data Analysis Methods
    6. 9.6. Problems
  17. Chapter 10. Selected Applications
    1. 10.1. Heart as a Bioelectric Source (ECG)
    2. 10.2. Other Organs as Bioelectric Sources
    3. 10.3. Electrodermal Activity, Psychophysiology
    4. 10.4. Other Skin Applications
    5. 10.5. Impedance Plethysmography
    6. 10.6. Impedance Cardiography
    7. 10.7. Imaging of Lungs
    8. 10.8. Body Composition
    9. 10.9. Defibrillation and Electroshock
    10. 10.10. Electrosurgery
    11. 10.11. Cell Suspensions
    12. 10.12. Implanted Active Thoracic Devices
    13. 10.13. Electrotherapy
    14. 10.14. Nonmedical Applications
    15. 10.15. Discoveries, Innovations
    16. 10.16. Electrical Safety
  18. Chapter 11. History of Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity
    1. 11.1. Electrocardiogram—Heart Muscle Activity
    2. 11.2. Electroencephalogram—Brain, Nervous Tissue
    3. 11.3. Electrodermal Activity—Skin, Sweat Activity
    4. 11.4. Kenneth S. Cole (1928a,b Papers)
    5. 11.5. Peter Debye (1929 Book)
    6. 11.6. Hugo Fricke (1932 Paper)
    7. 11.7. Kenneth S. Cole (1932 Paper)
    8. 11.8. Kenneth S. Cole (1940 Paper)
    9. 11.9. Kenneth S. Cole and Robert H. Cole (1941 Paper)
    10. 11.10. Herman Paul Schwan (1915–2005)
    11. 11.11. Surface Potentials Generated by a Bioelectric Source in a Volume Conductor
  19. Chapter 12. Appendix
    1. 12.1. Vectors and Scalars, Complex Numbers
    2. 12.2. Equivalent Circuit Equations
    3. 12.3. Global Symbols (Table 12.1)
  20. References
  21. Index