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Biography of an Idea: The Founding Principles of Public Relations by Edward L. Bernays

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chapter 31

BREAD ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE

William B. Ward applied to the manufacture of man’s most essential food—bread—the same kind of mechanization Henry Ford applied to automobile manufacture. Ward was the largest baker in America, operating eighteen bakeries in thirteen cities. Approximately 400 million loaves of bread were baked each year in his huge plants. The operation was completely mechanized, from weighing, mixing and baking to automated wrapping and moving on endless belts to salesmen waiting to load their motor trucks.

Ward, a pioneer in scientific baking, was first to adopt this automation. His grandfather had started the business. Ward himself had been graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and then had managed the Ward plant ...

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