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Bioenergy

Book Description

Gain a complete understanding of Biofuels, from ethanol to algae, from the farm to the refinery, with this practical technical guide.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. List of Contributors
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. How to Use this Book: Helpful Suggestions
  11. Part I. Bioenergy—Biomass to Biofuels: An overview
    1. Introduction
      1. Terms, definitions and fuel specifications in this book
      2. First, second, and third generations of biofuels
    2. Chapter 1. Introduction to Bioenergy
      1. Purpose
      2. Introduction
      3. Bioenergy defined
      4. Bioenergy development and drivers
      5. Feedstocks
      6. Biomass materials and sources
      7. Biomass supply and availability
      8. Overview of conversion technologies
      9. Co-products and byproducts
      10. Social, economic, and environmental impacts
      11. Sustainability challenges
      12. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 2. Introduction to Biodiesel and Glossary of Terms
      1. Biodiesel standards
      2. BQ-9000 fuel quality program
    4. Chapter 3. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels Glossary of Terms and Convertion Factors
      1. Quick Reference List of Conversion Factors Used for Bioenergy Feedstock
  12. Part II. Wood and Grass Biomass as Biofuels
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 4. Wood Bioenergy
      1. Introduction to wood bioenergy
      2. Wood energy sources: a vast and renewable resource
      3. Wood bioenergy uses in the United States and worldwide
      4. Values and benefits of wood bioenergy
      5. Wood energy sources
      6. Managing wood biomass for bioenergy
      7. Harvesting, transporting, and storing woody biomass for bioenergy
      8. Using woody biomass
      9. Direct combustion options
      10. Liquid and gaseous biofuel conversion options
      11. Biochemical technological processes
      12. Thermochemical processes
      13. Economics of woody bioenergy
      14. Economics of woody bioenergy production
      15. Sustainability of woody bioenergy
      16. Summary
    3. Chapter 5. Perennial Grass Biomass Production and Utilization
      1. Introduction
      2. Developing and evaluating a perennial grass biomass system
    4. Chapter 6. Wood and Grass Energy Service Learning Projects and Case Studies
      1. Subchapter 6A. The Vermont Biomass Energy Co-op
      2. Subchapter 6B. Assessment of 130 Acre Property for On-site Biomass Resources to Meet the Energy Needs of the Community
      3. Subchapter 6C. Exploration of the Jean Pain Composting Method for Greenhouse Heating
  13. Part III. Biomass to Liquid Biofuels
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 7. Bioenergy Crops
      1. Introduction
      2. Economics
      3. A crop-by-crop analysis
      4. Crop handling and logistics
      5. Sustainable management for biomass production
      6. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 8. On-farm Oil-based Biodiesel Production
      1. Introduction
      2. Species and variety selection
      3. Planting considerations
      4. Pest management
      5. Harvesting, cleaning, drying, and storage of seed
      6. Oil extraction and byproducts
      7. Challenges and opportunities with farm-based fuel production
      8. Examples of on-farm fuel systems
    4. Chapter 9. Life-Cycle Assessment: The Energy Return on Invested of Biodiesel
      1. Introduction
      2. EROI approaches and controversies
      3. Purpose
      4. Data and methods
      5. EROI of Vermont biodiesel
      6. Considerations
      7. Conclusions
    5. Chapter 10. Energy Management during Field Production Practices
      1. Introduction and overview
      2. Tractor use
      3. Ballasting, slip, and tire inflation
      4. Maintenance
      5. Transmission
      6. Tractor selection
      7. Other issues
      8. Harvest operations
      9. Other individual equipment operations
      10. Fertilizer and other cultural and technology issues affecting energy use
    6. Chapter 11. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?
      1. Performance of SVO
      2. Biodiesel: fuel made from SVO
      3. Where can I get more information?
    7. Chapter 12. Cellulosic Ethanol—Biofuel Beyond Corn
      1. Introduction
      2. Cellulose as Ethanol Feedstock
      3. Challenges in Cellulosic Ethanol
      4. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 13. Bioheat
      1. Biodiesel
      2. Bioheat
      3. Bioheat and Its Properties
      4. Properties of Heating Oil and Bioheat
      5. Fuel-related service calls
      6. Three steps to successful bioheat management
      7. Quick tests for fuel quality
      8. Oil filtration
      9. Fuel-additive treatment
      10. Preventative maintenance
      11. Sources
    9. Chapter 14. Algae Biomass Cultivation for Advanced Biofuel Production
      1. Introduction
      2. Algae as a sustainable feedstock for multiple uses
      3. Historical perspective of algae biomass and journey toward algal biofuel
      4. Possibilities of biofuel production from algae biomass
      5. Algae strain selection: algae types, strains, and use in biofuel production
      6. Microalgae
      7. Algae cultivation: growth systems
      8. Algae harvesting
      9. Oil extraction from harvested algae biomass
      10. Challenges in upscaling of algal biofuel operations from bench to commercial scales
      11. Integrated algal biofuel production
      12. Life cycle analysis, economics, and environmental impacts
      13. Conclusion
    10. Chapter 15. Biomass to Liquid Biofuels Service Learning Projects and Case Studies
      1. Subchapter 15A. Cost Analysis of Oilseed Production for Biodiesel and the Volatility in Corn and Crude
      2. SubChapter 15B. Thermal Heating Fuel Switch
      3. SubChapter 15C. Mobile Ethanol Distillery Unit: A Feasibility Study
  14. Part IV. Gaseous Fuels and Bioelectricity
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 16. Thermal Gasification of Biomass – A Primer
      1. Introduction
      2. Classification of gas mixtures
      3. Chemical concepts and background
      4. Heating values of gases and gas mixtures
      5. Measures of gas production performance
      6. Pyrolysis
      7. Thermochemical pathways
      8. Gasifier types
      9. Post-gasification processing
      10. Integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC)
    3. Chapter 17. Basics of Energy Production through Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Manure
      1. Introduction
      2. Benefits of anaerobic digestion
      3. What makes an operation appropriate for anaerobic digestion?
      4. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 18. Bioenergy and Anaerobic Digestion
      1. Introduction
      2. The anaerobic digestion process
      3. Feedstocks
      4. The process of starting a digester
      5. Loading rate
      6. Operation and control of a digester
      7. Role of mixing in biogas production
      8. Types of anaerobic digesters
      9. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 19. Gaseous Fuels and Bioelectricity Service Learning Projects and Case Studies
      1. subchapter 19A. Effect of Daily Variation in Food Waste on Biogas Production during Anaerobic Digestion
      2. subchapter 19B. Potential for Anaerobic Digestion in Meeting Statewide Energy Needs
      3. subchapter 19C. Biomass Gasification as a strategy for Rural Electrification in Developing Nations: Lessons from the Field
  15. Part V. Conversion Pathways for Cost-Effective Biofuel Production
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 20. Biodiesel Production
      1. Introduction
      2. Production processes
      3. Summary
      4. Post Reaction Processing
      5. Treatment and recovery of side streams
      6. Summary
    3. Chapter 21. Synthesis and Partial Characterization of Biodiesel via Base Catalyzed Transesterification
      1. Synthesis and Partial Characterization of Biodiesel via Base Catalyzed Transesterification
    4. Instructor Notes for Biomass to Biofuels Students
      1. Student directions
    5. Chapter 22. Whole Algal Biomass <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">In situ</span> Transesterification to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Biofuel Feedstocks Transesterification to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Biofuel Feedstocks
      1. Introduction
      2. Microalgae-focused lipid technologies for biofuel applications
      3. Renewable and biodiesel fuel properties
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">In situ</span> transesterification of oleaginous algal biomass transesterification of oleaginous algal biomass
      5. Choice of catalyst for <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">in situ</span> whole biomass transesterification whole biomass transesterification
      6. Analytical characterization of lipid content in algal biomass using <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">in situ</span> transesterification transesterification
      7. Conclusions
    6. Chapter 23. How Fuel Ethanol Is Made from Corn
      1. Introduction
      2. Fuel ethanol
      3. Yeast's role in ethanol production
      4. Corn as ethanol feedstock
      5. Industrial ethanol production
      6. Wet milling
      7. Dry grind
      8. Dry-grind ethanol processing steps
      9. Milling
      10. Liquefaction
      11. Saccharification
      12. Fermentation
      13. Distillation and recovery
      14. Energy use in ethanol production
      15. Conclusions
    7. Chapter 24. Small-Scale Approaches for Evaluating Biomass Bioconversion for Fuels and Chemicals
      1. Introduction
      2. Types of biomass
      3. Treatment of biomass
      4. Mechanical treatments
      5. No pretreatment
      6. Chemical/thermal pretreatment
      7. Organic pretreatment
      8. Biological pretreatment
      9. Examples of small-scale pretreatment
      10. Typical protocol for biomass pretreatment
      11. Biomass analysis
      12. Small-scale biomass fermentation approaches
      13. Analysis of fermentation results
      14. Identification of fermentation inhibition
      15. Concluding thoughts
    8. Chapter 25. Reducing Enzyme Costs, Novel Combinations and Advantages of Enzymes Could Lead to Improved Cost-Effective Biofuels Production
      1. Reducing enzyme costs increases the market potential of biofuels
      2. Novel combination of enzyme systems could lower biofuel costs
      3. Advantages of enzyme could lead to improved biofuels production highlights in science
    9. Chapter 26. Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass: Oil, Char, and Gas
      1. Introduction
      2. Types of thermochemical conversion
      3. Lignocellulosic structure and chemistry for pyrolysis
      4. Biomass pyrolysis strategies
      5. Applications and approaches for product use
      6. Conclusion
    10. Chapter 27. Sustainable Aviation Biofuels: A Development and Deployment Success Model
      1. Aviation Alternative Fuel 2006 snapshot: “what if your family were an airline?”
      2. Aviation Alternative Fuel 2013 snapshot: acknowledged leader in sustainable transport fuels
      3. Key methodologies for sustainable progress: creation of a “new fuel dynamic”
      4. Streamlining the fuel qualification process
      5. Implementing comprehensive risk management in alternative fuels research and development
      6. Structuring and facilitating comprehensive environment benefits assessments
      7. Deploying a “a new fuel dynamic” through public/private partnership, and multiple-success models
      8. Closing summary
    11. Chapter 28. Cutting-edge Biofuel Conversion Technologies to Integrate into Petroleum-based Infrastructure and Integrated Biorefineries
      1. Biodiesel as renewable diesel
      2. Biodiesel versus petroleum diesel
      3. Processing pathways for conversion of biofuel into diesel fuel
      4. Integration with existing refineries or to form new integrated biorefineries
      5. Conclusion
    12. Chapter 29. Biofuel Conversion Pathways Service Learning Projects and Case Studies
      1. Subchapter 29A. Biodiesel Project: An Educational Experience Converting Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel
      2. Subchapter 29B. Use of Magnetite for Enhanced Harvesting of Wastewater Biogas Feedstock
      3. Subchapter 29C. Fungal Breakdown of Lignocellulosic Biomass in Vermont
  16. Part VI. Biofuels Economics, Sustainability, Environmental and Policy
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 30. Biofuel Economics and Policy: The Renewable Fuel Standard, the Blend Wall, and Future Uncertainties
      1. The renewable fuel standard
      2. The blend wall
      3. Alternatives to the current situation
      4. Cellulosic biofuels
    3. Chapter 31. Economics of Ethanol and Biodiesel
      1. Agricultural economy
      2. Economics of biofuels
      3. Farm-scale production
    4. Chapter 32. Fuel Quality Policy
    5. Chapter 33. Renewable Oilheat
      1. The rise and fall of the oilheat market
      2. A cleaner and greener fuel
      3. Other renewable opportunities
    6. Chapter 34. What’s So Different About Biodiesel Fuel?
      1. Introduction
      2. Properties of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel
      3. Does the type of vegetable oil used matter?
      4. Making biodiesel better with additives
      5. What about blends?
      6. Summary
    7. Chapter 35. Biodiesel Emissions And Health Effects Testing
      1. Biodiesel emmissions
      2. Health Effects Testing
    8. Chapter 36. Biodiesel Sustainability Fact Sheet
      1. Sustainability principles
      2. Energy balance
      3. Water conservation
      4. Land conservation
      5. Food supply security
      6. Diversity
      7. Cleaner air and health effects
    9. Chapter 37. Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Bioenergy
      1. Bioenergy entrepreneurism
      2. The energy situation now and in the future
      3. Bioenergy entrepreneurship motivations
      4. Market drivers
      5. Opportunities in bioenergy: biofuel value chain
      6. Opportunities in small-scale bioenergy
      7. Opportunities in large-scale bioenergy
      8. Opportunities at the periphery
      9. Examples of entrepreneurism from the ethanol boom
      10. Challenges
    10. Chapter 38. Integrated Agroecological Technology Networks for Food, Bioenergy, and Biomaterial Production
      1. Introduction
      2. The role of industrial ecology in CFEA design and evaluation
      3. Measuring CFEA performance in a competitive world
      4. PAR for CFEA primary data collection
      5. Analysis of eco-technologies for Vermont-based CFEA
      6. CFEA case study: the Burlington Area Agro-Eco Park concept
      7. Conclusion
  17. Quizzes and Self-Test Questions
  18. Index