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Biochemistry for Nurses

Book Description

Biochemistry for Nurses has been designed considering the syllabi requirements laid down by The Indian Nursing Council and other premier institutes/universities. Book covers the most up-to-date developments in the area of Biochemistry and presents all the essential course information required for all UG course in an easy-to-follow and step-by-step format.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Authors
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. 1 - Introduction: Composition and Function of Cell
    1. 1.1 - Introduction to and Importance of Biochemistry
    2. 1.2 - Structure, Composition and Function of Cell
      1. 1.2.1 - Cell Wall
      2. 1.2.2 - Bacterial Cell Wall
      3. 1.2.3 - The Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membrane
      4. 1.2.4 - Fimbrae and Pili
      5. 1.2.5 - Capsules and Slime Layers
      6. 1.2.6 - Flagellum (Singular)
      7. 1.2.7 - Cell Membrane
      8. 1.2.8 - Cytoplasm
    3. 1.3 - Cell Organelles
      1. 1.3.1 - Chloroplasts
      2. 1.3.2 - Vacuole
      3. 1.3.3 - Cytoskeleton
      4. 1.3.4 - Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
      5. 1.3.5 - Golgi Apparatus
      6. 1.3.6 - Ribosomes
      7. 1.3.7 - Mitochondrion
      8. 1.3.8 - Lysosomes
      9. 1.3.9 - Peroxisome
      10. 1.3.10 - Centrioles
      11. 1.3.11 - Nucleus
    4. 1.4 - Cellular Organization: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
      1. 1.4.1 - Prokaryotic Cells
      2. 1.4.2 - Eukaryotic Cells
      3. 1.4.3 - Similarities Between Prokaryotic Cell and a Eukaryotic Cell
    5. 1.5 - Microscopy
      1. 1.5.1 - Light Microscopy
      2. 1.5.2 - Bright Field Microscopy
      3. 1.5.3 - Dark Field Microscopy
      4. 1.5.4 - Phase Contrast Microscopy
      5. 1.5.5 - Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy
      6. 1.5.6 - Fluorescence Microscopy
      7. 1.5.7 - Electron Microscopy
    6. Exercises
    7. Multiple Choice Questions
  8. 2 - Structure and Functions of Cell Membrane
    1. 2.1 - Fluid-Mosaic Model
    2. 2.2 - Cytoskeleton and Cell-Cell Interaction
    3. 2.3 - Transport Mechanism Across Plasma Membrane
      1. 2.3.1 - Diffusion
      2. 2.3.2 - Osmosis
      3. 2.3.3 - Facilitated Diffusion
      4. 2.3.4 - Membrane Channels
      5. 2.3.5 - Membrane Transporters
      6. 2.3.6 - Active Transport: Na+-K+ Pump
    4. 2.4 - Acid-Base Balance: Blood pH, Buffering and Diagnosis
      1. 2.4.1 - Symptoms and Diagnosis
    5. 2.5 - Chemistry of Water, pH and Buffers
      1. 2.5.1 - Buffers
      2. 2.5.2 - Buffering Action
    6. 2.6 - Water Electrolyte Balance
    7. Exercises
    8. Multiple Choice Questions
  9. 3 - Composition and Metabolism of Carbohydrates
    1. 3.1 - Introduction to Carbohydrates
    2. 3.2 - Classification of Carbohydrates
      1. 3.2.1 - Monosaccharides
      2. 3.2.2 - Disaccharides
      3. 3.2.3 - Oligosaccharides
      4. 3.2.4 - Polysaccharides
    3. 3.3 - Classification of Monosaccharides
      1. 3.3.1 - Monosaccharides Have Asymmetric Carbon Atom
      2. 3.3.2 - Enantiomer
      3. 3.3.3 - D and L Forms
      4. 3.3.4 - Epimers
      5. 3.3.5 - Cyclic Structure of Monosaccharide
      6. 3.3.6 - Pyranose and Furanose Rings
      7. 3.3.7 - α and β Anomers
      8. 3.3.8 - Isomerism
      9. 3.3.9 - Chemical Properties of Monosaccharide
    4. 3.4 - Disaccharides
      1. 3.4.1 - Sucrose
      2. 3.4.2 - Lactose
      3. 3.4.3 - Maltose
    5. 3.5 - Polysaccharides
      1. 3.5.1 - Storage Polysaccharides
      2. 3.5.2 - Structural Polysaccharides
    6. 3.6 - Oligosaccharides
    7. 3.7 - Qualitative Tests for Identification of Carbohydrates
      1. 3.7.1 - Identifying Reducing Sugars
      2. 3.7.2 - Benedict's Test
      3. 3.7.3 - Barfoed's Test
      4. 3.7.4 - Flowchart for Classifying an Unknown Carbohydrate
    8. 3.8 - Introduction to Carbohydrate Metabolism
    9. 3.9 - Glycolysis
      1. 3.9.1 - Reactions of Glycolysis Pathway
      2. 3.9.2 - Preparatory Phase of Glycolysis
      3. 3.9.3 - Fates of Pyruvate After Glycolysis
      4. 3.9.4 - Overall Process of Glycolysis
      5. 3.9.5 - Post-glycolytic Processes
      6. 3.9.6 - Anaerobic Respiration
      7. 3.9.7 - Aerobic Respiration
    10. 3.10 - Gluconeogenesis
      1. 3.10.1 - Pathway of Gluconeogenesis
    11. 3.11 - Cori Cycle
    12. 3.12 - Pentose Phosphate Pathway
    13. 3.13 - Citric Acid Cycle
    14. 3.14 - Glycogenesis
      1. 3.14.1 - Steps of Glycogenesis Pathway
    15. 3.15 - Glycogenolysis
      1. 3.15.1 - Function
      2. 3.15.2 - Clinical Significance
      3. 3.15.3 - Reaction
      4. 3.15.4 - Regulation
    16. 3.16 - Regulation of Blood Glucose: Glucose Utilization After a Meal
      1. 3.16.1 - Insulin
      2. 3.16.2 - Maintenance of Blood Glucose Between Meals
      3. 3.16.3 - The Glucagon
      4. 3.16.4 - Supply of Glucose to Exercising Muscle
      5. 3.16.5 - Glycogen Metabolism in Liver and Muscle
      6. 3.16.6 - Role of Glucose 6-phosphatase
      7. 3.16.7 - Conversion of Excess Glucose to Fat
    17. 3.17 - Carbohydrate Metabolic Disorder and Diseases, Their Investigations and Interpretation
      1. 3.17.1 - Diabetes Mellitus
      2. 3.17.2 - Glycogen Storage Diseases
      3. 3.17.3 - Galactosemia
      4. 3.17.4 - Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
      5. 3.17.5 - Mucopolysaccharidoses
      6. 3.17.6 - Disorders of Pyruvate Metabolism
    18. 3.18 - Summary of Carbohydrate Metabolism
    19. Exercises
    20. Multiple Choice Questions
  10. 4 - Composition and Metabolism of Lipids
    1. 4.1 - Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 - Definitions
    2. 4.2 - Classification of Lipids
      1. 4.2.1 - Simple Lipids
      2. 4.2.2 - Compound Lipids
      3. 4.2.3 - Terpenoids and Steroids
      4. 4.2.4 - Derived Lipids
    3. 4.3 - Simple Lipids
      1. 4.3.1 - Structure of Triacylglycerides
      2. 4.3.2 - Fats
      3. 4.3.3 - Waxes
    4. 4.4 - Compound Lipids
      1. 4.4.1 - Basic Structure of Phospholipids
      2. 4.4.2 - Phospholipid Structures
      3. 4.4.3 - Non-phosphorylated Lipids
    5. 4.5 - Terpenoids and Steroids
      1. 4.5.1 - Terpenes
      2. 4.5.2 - Steroids
      3. 4.5.3 - Animal Sterols
      4. 4.5.4 - Bile Acids
    6. 4.6 - Derived Lipids
      1. 4.6.1 - Fatty Acids
      2. 4.6.2 - Eicosanoids
    7. 4.7 - Qualitative Test of Lipids
    8. 4.8 - Metabolism of Fatty Acids
      1. 4.8.1 - Fatty Acids Transport into Mitochondria
      2. 4.8.2 - Fatty Acids Oxidation
      3. 4.8.3 - b-Oxidation of Saturated Fatty Acids
    9. 4.9 - Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
      1. 4.9.1 - Difference Between Fatty Acid Synthesis and b-oxidation Pathways
      2. 4.9.2 - Digestion and Transport of Fatty Acids
    10. 4.10 - Cholesterol Metabolism
      1. 4.10.1 - Biosynthesis of Cholesterol
      2. 4.10.2 - Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis
      3. 4.10.3 - Transport of Cholesterol
      4. 4.10.4 - Catabolism of Cholesterol
    11. 4.11 - Classification of Plasma Lipoproteins and the Systemic Pathway of Lipids
    12. 4.12 - Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols
      1. 4.12.1 - Triacylglycerol Metabolism in the Intestines, Liver and Mammary Glands
    13. 4.13 - Metabolic Disorder of Lipids
    14. Exercises
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
  11. 5 - Composition and Metabolism of Amino Acids and Proteins
    1. 5.1 - Introduction
      1. 5.1.1 - Essential Amino Acids
      2. 5.1.2 - Non-essential Amino Acids
    2. 5.2 - Structure of Amino Acids
    3. 5.3 - Classification of Amino Acids
    4. 5.4 - Amino Acid Metabolism
    5. 5.5 - Biosynthesis of Non-essential Amino Acids
      1. 5.5.1 - Glutamate and Aspartate
      2. 5.5.2 - Glucose-Alanine Cycle
      3. 5.5.3 - Cysteine Biosynthesis
      4. 5.5.4 - Tyrosine Biosynthesis
      5. 5.5.5 - Ornithine and Proline Biosynthesis
      6. 5.5.6 - Serine Biosynthesis
      7. 5.5.7 - Glycine Biosynthesis
    6. 5.6 - Amino Acid Catabolism
      1. 5.6.1 - Glutamine/Glutamate and Asparagine/Aspartate Catabolism
      2. 5.6.2 - Alanine Catabolism
      3. 5.6.3 - Arginine, Ornithine and Proline Catabolism
      4. 5.6.4 - Proline Catabolism is a Reversal of its Synthesis Process
      5. 5.6.5 - Serine Catabolism
      6. 5.6.6 - Threonine Catabolism
      7. 5.6.7 - Glycine Catabolism
      8. 5.6.8 - Cysteine Catabolism
      9. 5.6.9 - Methionine Catabolism
      10. 5.6.10 - Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine Catabolism
      11. 5.6.11 - Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Catabolism
      12. 5.6.12 - Lysine Catabolism
      13. 5.6.13 - Histidine Catabolism
      14. 5.6.14 - Tryptophan Catabolism
    7. 5.7 - Proteins
      1. 5.7.1 - Introduction to Proteins
      2. 5.7.2 - Importance of Proteins
      3. 5.7.3 - Structure of Proteins
    8. 5.8 - Protein Synthesis
      1. 5.8.1 - Preparing for Protein Synthesis
      2. 5.8.2 - Amino acid AMP Enzyme Complex + tRNA
      3. 5.8.3 - Initiation Step
      4. 5.8.4 - Elongation Step
      5. 5.8.5 - Termination
    9. 5.9 - Glycosylation of Proteins
    10. 5.10 - Protein Targeting
    11. 5.11 - Sequencing of Proteins
      1. 5.11.1 - Amino-terminal Sequence Determination
      2. 5.11.2 - Sanger's Reagent
      3. 5.11.3 - Dansyl Chloride
      4. 5.11.4 - Edman Degradation
    12. 5.12 - Denaturation Of Proteins
      1. 5.12.1 - Heat
    13. 5.13 - Precipitation of Proteins
    14. 5.14 - Protease Digestion
    15. 5.15 - Chemical Digestion of Proteins
    16. 5.16 - Chromatography
      1. 5.16.1 - Size Exclusion Chromatography
      2. 5.16.2 - Ion Exchange Chromatography
      3. 5.16.3 - Affinity Chromatography
      4. 5.16.4 - High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
    17. 5.17 - Electrophoresis of Proteins
    18. 5.18 - Nitrogenous Constituent of Urine
      1. 5.18.1 - Composition of Urine
      2. 5.18.2 - Urea
      3. 5.18.3 - Ammonia
      4. 5.18.4 - Uric Acid and Other Purines
      5. 5.18.5 - Creatinine and Creatine
      6. 5.18.6 - Amino Acids
      7. 5.18.7 - Hippuric Acid
      8. 5.18.8 - Allantoin
      9. 5.18.9 - Proteins
      10. 5.18.10 - Ketone Bodies
    19. 5.19 - Urea Cycle
    20. 5.20 - Porphyrins, Hemes, Haemoglobin, Blood and Plasma Proteins, and Chlorophylls
      1. 5.20.1 - Porphyrins
      2. 5.20.2 - Haemoglobin
      3. 5.20.3 - Blood and Plasma Proteins
      4. 5.20.4 - Chlorophylls
    21. 5.21 - Enzymes and Co-enzymes
      1. 5.21.1 - Enzymes and Their Nature
      2. 5.21.2 - Classification and Nomenclature
      3. 5.21.3 - Factors Affecting Enzyme Catalysis
      4. 5.21.4 - The Effects of Enzyme Inhibitors
      5. 5.21.5 - Theories (Mechanism) of Enzyme Catalysis (Action)
      6. 5.21.6 - Cofactors and Coenzymes
      7. 5.21.7 - Isoenzymes
    22. Exercises
    23. Multiple Choice Questions
  12. 6 - Vitamins
    1. 6.1 - Introduction to Vitamins
      1. 6.1.1 - History of Vitamins
      2. 6.1.2 - Classification of Vitamins
      3. 6.1.3 - List of Vitamins
    2. 6.2 - Fat-Soluble Vitamins
      1. 6.2.1 - Vitamin A
      2. 6.2.2 - Vitamin D
      3. 6.2.3 - Vitamin E
      4. 6.2.4 - Vitamin K
    3. 6.3 - Water-Soluble Vitamins
      1. 6.3.1 - Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
      2. 6.3.2 - Riboflavin (Vitamin B2 or Vitamin G)
      3. 6.3.3 - Niacin (Vitamin B3 Or Vitamin Pp)
      4. 6.3.4 - Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
      5. 6.3.5 - Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
      6. 6.3.6 - Biotin (Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H)
      7. 6.3.7 - Folic Acid (Vitamin B9 or Vitamin M)
      8. 6.3.8 - Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
      9. 6.3.9 - Vitamin C or L-ascorbic Acid
    4. 6.4 - Minerals
      1. 6.4.1 - Source and Functions of Macro Minerals
      2. 6.4.2 - Source and Functions of Micro Minerals
      3. 6.4.3 - Macro Minerals
      4. 6.4.4 - Micronutrient or Trace Minerals
    5. Exercises
    6. Multiple Choice Questions
  13. 7 - Immunochemistry
    1. 7.1 - Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 - Types of Immunity
    2. 7.2 - Production of Antibodies
      1. 7.2.1 - Immunoglobulin (Ig) or Antibody (Ab)
      2. 7.2.2 - Structure of Immunoglobulins
      3. 7.2.3 - Immunoglobulin Fragments: Structure-Function Relationships
      4. 7.2.4 - Human Immunoglobulin Classes
      5. 7.2.5 - The Role of Antibodies
    3. 7.3 - Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
      1. 7.3.1 - HLA Typing: Clinical Testing for Tissue Typing and Organ Transplant
      2. 7.3.2 - Diseases of HLA
    4. 7.4 - Antioxidants
      1. 7.4.1 - Oxidative Stress and Cell Damage
    5. 7.5 - Quantitative Determination of Immunoglobulins
      1. 7.5.1 - Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
    6. 7.6 - Myosin Proteins
    7. 7.7 - Human Eye Lens Structure
    8. Exercises
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
  14. 8 - Composition and Metabolism of Nucleic Acids
    1. 8.1 - Introduction of Nucleic Acids
    2. 8.2 - The Structure of Nucleic Acids
      1. 8.2.1 - Purines and Pyrimidines
      2. 8.2.2 - Bases, Nucleosides and Nucleotides
    3. 8.3 - Structure of DNA
    4. 8.4 - Structure of RNA
    5. 8.5 - Types of RNA
    6. 8.6 - Nucleic Acid Metabolism
    7. 8.7 - Biosynthesis of Purine Nucleotides
    8. 8.8 - Biosynthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
    9. 8.9 - Catabolism of Purine Nucleotides
    10. 8.10 - Catabolism of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
    11. 8.11 - Salvage Pathway
    12. 8.12 - Metabolic Disorder of Nucleic Acids
    13. Exercises
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
  15. Appendix
  16. Glossary
  17. Acknowledgements
  18. Copyright