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Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Sixth Edition by Sander van Vugt, Keir Thomas, Emilio Raggi

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A P P E N D I X  A

Introducing the BASH Shell

As you learn in Chapter 1, strictly speaking, the word Linux refers to just the kernel, which is the fundamental, invisible program that runs your PC and lets everything happen. However, on its own, the kernel is completely useless. It needs programs to let users interact with the PC and do cool stuff, and it needs a lot of system files (also referred to as libraries) to provide vital functions.

The GNU Project provides many of these low-level pieces of code and programs. This is why many people refer to the Linux OS as GNU/Linux, acknowledging that without the GNU components Linux wouldn’t have gotten off the starting blocks.

The GNU Project provides various shell programs too. A shell is what ...

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