## With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

No credit card required

# Basic Operators

For more information on how operators work, consult the perlop documentation bundled with Perl.

## Arithmetic Operators

Perl has the basic five arithmetic operators:

+

-

Subtraction

*

Multiplication

/

Division

**

Exponentiation

These operators work on both integers and floating-point values (and may give you unexpected results if you apply them to strings, as well).

Perl also has a `modulus` operator, which computes the remainder of two integers:

`% modulus`

For example, `17 % 3` is 2, because 2 is left over when you divide 3 into 17.

Perl also has autoincrement and autodecrement operators:

```++ add one
-- subtract one```

Unlike the previous six operators, these change a variable's value. `\$x++` adds one to `\$x`, changing 4 to 5 (or 'a' to 'b').

## Bitwise Operators

All scalars, whether numbers or strings, are represented as sequences of individual bits "under the hood." Every once in a while, you need to manipulate those bits, and Perl provides five operators to help:

`&`

Bitwise `and`

`|`

Bitwise `or`

`^`

Bitwise `xor`

`>>`

Right shift

`<<`

Left shift

## String Operators

Two strings may be concatenated—joined together end to end—with the dot operator:

`'This is a ' . 'joined string'`

This results in the value `'This` `is` `a` `joined` `string'`.

A string may be repeated with the `x` operator:

`print "Hear ye! " x 3;`

This prints out:

`Hear ye! Hear ye! Hear ye!`

## File Test Operators

File test operators are unary operators that test files for certain characteristics, such as `-e \$file`, which returns `true` if the file

## With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

No credit card required