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Beginning HTML, XHTML, CSS, and JavaScript®

Book Description

An indispensable introductory guide to creating web pages using the most up-to-date standards

This beginner guide shows you how to use XHTML, CSS, and JavaScript to create compelling Web sites. While learning these technologies, you will discover coding practices such as writing code that works on multiple browsers including mobile devices, how to use AJAX frameworks to add interactivity to your pages, and how to ensure your pages meet accessible requirements.

Packed with real-world examples, the book not only teaches you how to write Web sites using XHTML, CSS and JavaScript, but it also teaches you design principles that help you create attractive web sites and practical advice on how to make web pages more usable. In addition, special checklists and appendices review key topics and provide helpful references that re-enforce the basics you've learned.

  • Serves as an ideal beginners guide to writing web pages using XHTML

  • Explains how to use CSS to make pages more appealing and add interactivity to pages using JavaScript and AJAX frameworks

  • Share advice on design principles and how to make pages more attractive and offers practical help with usability and accessibility

  • Features checklists and appendices that review key topics

This introductory guide is essential reading for getting started with using XHTML, CSS and JavaScript to create exciting and compelling Web sites.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. About the Tech Editor
  4. Credits
  5. Introduction
    1. About the Book
      1. About the Book
      2. Whom This Book Is For
      3. What This Book Covers
      4. What You Need to Use This Book
      5. How This Book Is Organized
    2. Conventions
    3. Source Code
    4. Errata
    5. p2p.wrox.com
  6. 1. Structuring Documents for the Web
    1. 1.1. A Web of Structured Documents
    2. 1.2. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      1. 1.2.1. Tags and Elements
      2. 1.2.2. Separating Heads from Bodies
      3. 1.2.3. Attributes Tell Us About Elements
      4. 1.2.4. Learning from Others by Viewing Their Source Code
      5. 1.2.5. Elements for Marking Up Text
    3. 1.3. Basic Text Formatting
      1. 1.3.1. White Space and Flow
      2. 1.3.2. Creating Headings Using hn Elements
      3. 1.3.3. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
      4. 1.3.4. Creating Paragraphs Using the <p> Element
      5. 1.3.5. Creating Line Breaks Using the <br /> Element
      6. 1.3.6. Creating Preformatted Text Using the <pre> Element
    4. 1.4. Presentational Elements
      1. 1.4.1. The <b> Element
      2. 1.4.2. The <i> Element
      3. 1.4.3. The <u> Element (Deprecated)
      4. 1.4.4. The <s> and <strike> Elements (Deprecated)
      5. 1.4.5. The <tt> Element
      6. 1.4.6. The <sup> Element
      7. 1.4.7. The <sub> Element
      8. 1.4.8. The <big> Element
      9. 1.4.9. The <small> Element
      10. 1.4.10. The <hr /> Element
    5. 1.5. Phrase Elements
      1. 1.5.1. The <em> Element Adds Emphasis
      2. 1.5.2. The <strong> Element Adds Strong Emphasis
      3. 1.5.3. The <address> Element Is for Addresses
      4. 1.5.4. The <abbr> Element Is for Abbreviations
      5. 1.5.5. The <acronym> Element Is for Acronym Use
      6. 1.5.6. The <dfn> Element Is for Special Terms
      7. 1.5.7. The <blockquote> Element Is for Quoting Text
      8. 1.5.8. Using the cite Attribute with the <blockquote> Element
      9. 1.5.9. The <q> Element Is for Short Quotations
      10. 1.5.10. The <cite> Element Is for Citations
      11. 1.5.11. The <code> Element Is for Code
      12. 1.5.12. The <kbd> Element Is for Text Typed on a Keyboard
      13. 1.5.13. The <var> Element Is for Programming Variables
      14. 1.5.14. The <samp> Element Is for a Program Output
    6. 1.6. Lists
      1. 1.6.1. Using the <ul> Element to Create Unordered Lists
      2. 1.6.2. Ordered Lists
        1. 1.6.2.1. Using the type Attribute to Select Numbers, Letters, or Roman Numerals in Ordered Lists (Deprecated)
        2. 1.6.2.2. Using the start Attribute to Change the Starting Number in Ordered Lists (Deprecated)
      3. 1.6.3. Definition Lists
      4. 1.6.4. Nesting Lists
    7. 1.7. Editing Text
    8. 1.8. Using Character Entities for Special Characters
    9. 1.9. Comments
    10. 1.10. The <font> Element (Deprecated)
    11. 1.11. Understanding Block and Inline Elements
    12. 1.12. Grouping Elements with <div> and <span>
      1. 1.12.1. The XML Declaration
      2. 1.12.2. Document Type Declaration
    13. 1.13. Core Elements and Attributes
      1. 1.13.1. The <html> Element
      2. 1.13.2. The <head> Element
      3. 1.13.3. The <title> Element
      4. 1.13.4. The <body> Element
    14. 1.14. Attribute Groups
      1. 1.14.1. Core Attributes
        1. 1.14.1.1. The id Attribute
        2. 1.14.1.2. The class Attribute
        3. 1.14.1.3. The title Attribute
        4. 1.14.1.4. The style Attribute (Deprecated)
      2. 1.14.2. Internationalization
        1. 1.14.2.1. The dir Attribute
        2. 1.14.2.2. The lang Attribute
        3. 1.14.2.3. The xml:lang Attribute
      3. 1.14.3. UI Events
    15. 1.15. Summary
    16. 1.16. Exercises
  7. 2. Links and Navigation
    1. 2.1. Basic Links
      1. 2.1.1. Linking to Other Web Pages
      2. 2.1.2. Linking to E-mail Addresses
    2. 2.2. Understanding Directories and Directory Structures
    3. 2.3. Understanding URLs
      1. 2.3.1. Absolute and Relative URLs
        1. 2.3.1.1. Same Directory
        2. 2.3.1.2. Subdirectory
        3. 2.3.1.3. Parent Directory
        4. 2.3.1.4. From the Root
      2. 2.3.2. The <base> Element
    4. 2.4. Creating Links with the <a> Element
      1. 2.4.1. Creating a Source Anchor with the href Attribute
      2. 2.4.2. Creating a Destination Anchor Using the name and id Attributes (Linking to a Specific Part of a Page)
      3. 2.4.3. The <a> Element's Other Attributes
        1. 2.4.3.1. The accesskey Attribute
        2. 2.4.3.2. The charset Attribute
        3. 2.4.3.3. The coords Attribute
        4. 2.4.3.4. The hreflang Attribute
        5. 2.4.3.5. The rel Attribute
        6. 2.4.3.6. The rev Attribute
        7. 2.4.3.7. The shape Attribute
        8. 2.4.3.8. The tabindex Attribute
        9. 2.4.3.9. The target Attribute
        10. 2.4.3.10. The title Attribute
        11. 2.4.3.11. The type Attribute
    5. 2.5. Advanced E-mail Links
    6. 2.6. Summary
    7. 2.7. Exercises
  8. 3. Images, Audio, and Video
    1. 3.1. Adding Images Using the <img> Element
      1. 3.1.1. The src Attribute
      2. 3.1.2. The alt Attribute
      3. 3.1.3. The height and width Attributes
      4. 3.1.4. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
      5. 3.1.5. The border Attribute (Deprecated)
      6. 3.1.6. The hspace and vspace Attributes (Deprecated)
      7. 3.1.7. The ismap and usemap Attributes
      8. 3.1.8. The longdesc Attribute
      9. 3.1.9. The name Attribute (Deprecated)
    2. 3.2. Using Images as Links
    3. 3.3. Image Maps
      1. 3.3.1. Client-Side Image Maps
        1. 3.3.1.1. Client-Side Image Maps Using <map> and <area>
          1. 3.3.1.1.1. The shape Attribute
          2. 3.3.1.1.2. The coords Attribute
          3. 3.3.1.1.3. The href and nohref Attributes
          4. 3.3.1.1.4. The alt Attribute
          5. 3.3.1.1.5. The target Attribute
          6. 3.3.1.1.6. The tabindex Attribute
        2. 3.3.1.2. Client-Side Image Maps Using the <object> Element
      2. 3.3.2. Server-Side Image Maps
    4. 3.4. Choosing the Right Image Format
      1. 3.4.1. GIF Images
      2. 3.4.2. Animated GIFs
      3. 3.4.3. JPEG Images
      4. 3.4.4. PNG Images
      5. 3.4.5. Keeping File Sizes Small
    5. 3.5. Adding Flash, Video, and Audio to Your Web Pages
      1. 3.5.1. Adding Flash Movies to Your Site
        1. 3.5.1.1. Adding the YouTube Flash Video Player to a Page
        2. 3.5.1.2. Adding Flash to a Page Using <object> and <embed> Elements
        3. 3.5.1.3. Adding Flash to a Page Using SWFObject
      2. 3.5.2. Adding Videos to Your Site
      3. 3.5.3. Adding Videos Using Flash Video
      4. 3.5.4. Video Size
      5. 3.5.5. Adding Audio to Your Site
        1. 3.5.5.1. Adding Audio Using Default Media Players
        2. 3.5.5.2. Adding MP3s to Your Pages Using Flash
      6. 3.5.6. Automatically Playing Audio and Video When a Page Loads
      7. 3.5.7. A Closer Look at the <object> and <param> Elements
        1. 3.5.7.1. The archive Attribute
        2. 3.5.7.2. The border Attribute (Deprecated)
        3. 3.5.7.3. The classid Attribute
        4. 3.5.7.4. The codebase Attribute
        5. 3.5.7.5. The codetype Attribute
        6. 3.5.7.6. The declare Attribute
        7. 3.5.7.7. The data Attribute
        8. 3.5.7.8. The height and width Attributes
        9. 3.5.7.9. The hspace and vspace attributes (Deprecated)
        10. 3.5.7.10. The name Attribute (Deprecated)
        11. 3.5.7.11. The standby Attribute
        12. 3.5.7.12. The tabindex Attribute
        13. 3.5.7.13. The usemap Attribute
      8. 3.5.8. The <param> Element
        1. 3.5.8.1. The name and value Attributes
        2. 3.5.8.2. The valuetype Attribute
        3. 3.5.8.3. The type Attribute
    6. 3.6. Summary
    7. 3.7. Exercises
  9. 4. Tables
    1. 4.1. Introducing Tables
    2. 4.2. Basic Table Elements and Attributes
      1. 4.2.1. The <table> Element Creates a Table
        1. 4.2.1.1. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
        2. 4.2.1.2. The bgcolor Attribute (Deprecated)
        3. 4.2.1.3. The border Attribute (Deprecated)
      2. 4.2.2. The cellpadding Attribute (Deprecated)
        1. 4.2.2.1. The cellspacing Attribute (Deprecated)
        2. 4.2.2.2. The dir Attribute
        3. 4.2.2.3. The frame Attribute (Deprecated)
        4. 4.2.2.4. The rules Attribute (Deprecated)
        5. 4.2.2.5. The summary Attribute
        6. 4.2.2.6. The width Attribute (Deprecated)
      3. 4.2.3. The <tr> Element Contains Table Rows
        1. 4.2.3.1. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
        2. 4.2.3.2. The bgcolor Attribute (Deprecated)
        3. 4.2.3.3. The char Attribute
        4. 4.2.3.4. The charoff Attribute
        5. 4.2.3.5. The valign Attribute (Deprecated)
      4. 4.2.4. The <td> and <th> Elements Represent Table Cells
        1. 4.2.4.1. The abbr Attribute
        2. 4.2.4.2. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
        3. 4.2.4.3. The axis Attribute
        4. 4.2.4.4. The bgcolor Attribute (Deprecated)
        5. 4.2.4.5. The char Attribute
        6. 4.2.4.6. The charoff Attribute
        7. 4.2.4.7. The colspan Attribute
        8. 4.2.4.8. The headers Attribute
        9. 4.2.4.9. The height Attribute (Deprecated)
        10. 4.2.4.10. The nowrap Attribute (Deprecated)
        11. 4.2.4.11. The rowspan Attribute
        12. 4.2.4.12. The scope Attribute
        13. 4.2.4.13. The valign Attribute (Deprecated)
        14. 4.2.4.14. The width Attribute (Deprecated)
    3. 4.3. Adding a <caption> to a Table
    4. 4.4. Grouping Sections of a Table
      1. 4.4.1. Spanning Columns Using the colspan Attribute
      2. 4.4.2. Spanning Rows Using the rowspan Attribute
      3. 4.4.3. Splitting Up Tables Using a Head, Body, and Foot
      4. 4.4.4. Grouping Columns Using the <colgroup> Element
      5. 4.4.5. Columns Sharing Styles Using the <col> Element
    5. 4.5. Nested Tables
    6. 4.6. Accessible Tables
      1. 4.6.1. How to Linearize Tables
      2. 4.6.2. Using the id, scope, and headers Attributes
    7. 4.7. Summary
    8. 4.8. Exercises
  10. 5. Forms
    1. 5.1. Introducing Forms
    2. 5.2. Creating a Form with the <form> Element
      1. 5.2.1. The action Attribute
      2. 5.2.2. The method Attribute
      3. 5.2.3. The id Attribute
      4. 5.2.4. The name Attribute (Deprecated)
      5. 5.2.5. The onsubmit Attribute
      6. 5.2.6. The onreset Attribute
      7. 5.2.7. The enctype Attribute
      8. 5.2.8. The accept-charset Attribute
      9. 5.2.9. The accept Attribute
      10. 5.2.10. The target Attribute
      11. 5.2.11. White Space and the <form> Element
    3. 5.3. Form Controls
      1. 5.3.1. Text Inputs
        1. 5.3.1.1. Single-Line Text Input Controls
        2. 5.3.1.2. Password Input Controls
        3. 5.3.1.3. Multiple-Line Text Input Controls
      2. 5.3.2. Buttons
        1. 5.3.2.1. Creating Buttons Using the <input> Element
        2. 5.3.2.2. Using Images for Buttons
        3. 5.3.2.3. Creating Buttons Using the <button> Element
      3. 5.3.3. Checkboxes
      4. 5.3.4. Radio Buttons
      5. 5.3.5. Select Boxes
        1. 5.3.5.1. The <select> Element
        2. 5.3.5.2. The <option> Element
        3. 5.3.5.3. Creating Scrolling Select Boxes
        4. 5.3.5.4. Selecting Multiple Options with the multiple Attribute
        5. 5.3.5.5. Grouping Options with the <optgroup> Element
        6. 5.3.5.6. Attributes for Select Boxes
      6. 5.3.6. File Select Boxes
      7. 5.3.7. Hidden Controls
      8. 5.3.8. Object Controls
    4. 5.4. Creating Labels for Controls and the <label> Element
    5. 5.5. Structuring Your Forms with <fieldset> and <legend> Elements
    6. 5.6. Focus
      1. 5.6.1. Tabbing Order
      2. 5.6.2. Access Keys
    7. 5.7. Disabled and Read-Only Controls
    8. 5.8. Sending Form Data to the Server
      1. 5.8.1. HTTP get
      2. 5.8.2. HTTP post
    9. 5.9. Summary
    10. 5.10. Exercises
  11. 6. Frames
    1. 6.1. Introducing the Frameset
    2. 6.2. When To Use Frames
    3. 6.3. The <frameset> Element
      1. 6.3.1. The cols Attribute
        1. 6.3.1.1. Absolute Values in Pixels
        2. 6.3.1.2. A Percentage of the Browser Window or Parent Frame
        3. 6.3.1.3. Relative Widths Between Columns
        4. 6.3.1.4. The Wildcard Symbol
        5. 6.3.1.5. Mixing Measurements and Resizing Windows
      2. 6.3.2. The rows Attribute
      3. 6.3.3. Browser-Specific Extensions to the <frameset> Element
        1. 6.3.3.1. The border Attribute
        2. 6.3.3.2. The frameborder Attribute
        3. 6.3.3.3. The framespacing Attribute
    4. 6.4. The <frame> Element
      1. 6.4.1. The src Attribute
      2. 6.4.2. The name Attribute
      3. 6.4.3. The frameborder Attribute
      4. 6.4.4. The marginwidth and marginheight Attributes
      5. 6.4.5. The noresize Attribute
      6. 6.4.6. The scrolling Attribute
      7. 6.4.7. The longdesc Attribute
    5. 6.5. The <noframes> Element
    6. 6.6. Creating Links Between Frames
    7. 6.7. Setting a Default Target Frame Using the <base> Element
    8. 6.8. Nested Framesets
    9. 6.9. Inline or Floating Frames with <iframe>
      1. 6.9.1. The <iframe> Element
        1. 6.9.1.1. The src Attribute
        2. 6.9.1.2. The align Attribute (Deprecated)
        3. 6.9.1.3. The height and width Attributes
        4. 6.9.1.4. The frameborder Attribute
        5. 6.9.1.5. The longdesc Attribute
        6. 6.9.1.6. The marginheight and marginwidth Attributes
        7. 6.9.1.7. The scrolling Attribute
    10. 6.10. Summary
    11. 6.11. Exercises
  12. 7. Cascading Style Sheets
    1. 7.1. Introducing CSS
      1. 7.1.1. A Basic Example
      2. 7.1.2. Inheritance
    2. 7.2. Where You Can Add CSS Rules
      1. 7.2.1. The <link> Element
        1. 7.2.1.1. The rel Attribute
        2. 7.2.1.2. The type Attribute
        3. 7.2.1.3. The href Attribute
        4. 7.2.1.4. The hreflang Attribute
        5. 7.2.1.5. The media Attribute
      2. 7.2.2. The <style> Element
      3. 7.2.3. Advantages of External CSS Style Sheets
    3. 7.3. CSS Properties
    4. 7.4. Controlling Text
      1. 7.4.1. The font-family Property
      2. 7.4.2. The font-size Property
      3. 7.4.3. The font-weight Property
      4. 7.4.4. The font-style Property
      5. 7.4.5. The font-variant Property
      6. 7.4.6. The font-stretch Property
      7. 7.4.7. The font-size-adjust Property
    5. 7.5. Text Formatting
      1. 7.5.1. The color Property
      2. 7.5.2. The text-align Property
      3. 7.5.3. The vertical-align Property
      4. 7.5.4. The text-decoration Property
      5. 7.5.5. The text-indent Property
      6. 7.5.6. The text-shadow Property
      7. 7.5.7. The text-transform Property
      8. 7.5.8. The letter-spacing Property
      9. 7.5.9. The word-spacing Property
      10. 7.5.10. The white-space Property
      11. 7.5.11. The direction Property
    6. 7.6. Text Pseudo-Classes
      1. 7.6.1. The first-letter Pseudo-Class
      2. 7.6.2. The first-line Pseudo-Class
    7. 7.7. Selectors
      1. 7.7.1. Universal Selector
      2. 7.7.2. The Type Selector
      3. 7.7.3. The Class Selector
      4. 7.7.4. The ID Selector
      5. 7.7.5. The Child Selector
      6. 7.7.6. The Descendant Selector
      7. 7.7.7. The Adjacent Sibling Selector
      8. 7.7.8. The General Sibling Selector
      9. 7.7.9. Using Child and Sibling Selectors To Reduce Dependence on Classes in Markup
      10. 7.7.10. Attribute Selectors
    8. 7.8. Lengths
      1. 7.8.1. Relative Units
        1. 7.8.1.1. px
        2. 7.8.1.2. em
        3. 7.8.1.3. ex
      2. 7.8.2. Absolute Units
      3. 7.8.3. Percentages
    9. 7.9. Introducing the Box Model
      1. 7.9.1. An Example Illustrating the Box Model
      2. 7.9.2. The Border Properties
        1. 7.9.2.1. The border-color Property
        2. 7.9.2.2. The border-style Property
        3. 7.9.2.3. The border-width Property
        4. 7.9.2.4. Expressing Border Properties Using Shorthand
      3. 7.9.3. The padding Property
      4. 7.9.4. The margin Property
      5. 7.9.5. Dimensions of a Box
        1. 7.9.5.1. The height and width Properties
        2. 7.9.5.2. The line-height Property
        3. 7.9.5.3. The max-width and min-width Properties
        4. 7.9.5.4. The min-height and max-height Properties
        5. 7.9.5.5. The overflow Property
      6. 7.9.6. Internet Explorer Box Model Bug
    10. 7.10. Summary
    11. 7.11. Exercises
  13. 8. More Cascading Style Sheets
    1. 8.1. Links
    2. 8.2. Backgrounds
      1. 8.2.1. The background-color Property
      2. 8.2.2. The background-image Property
      3. 8.2.3. The background-repeat Property
      4. 8.2.4. The background-position Property (for Fixing Position of Backgrounds)
      5. 8.2.5. The background-attachment Property (for Watermarks)
      6. 8.2.6. The background Property (the Shorthand)
    3. 8.3. Lists
      1. 8.3.1. The list-style-type Property
      2. 8.3.2. The list-style-position Property
      3. 8.3.3. The list-style-image Property
      4. 8.3.4. The list-style Property (the Shorthand)
    4. 8.4. Tables
      1. 8.4.1. Table-Specific Properties
      2. 8.4.2. The border-collapse Property
      3. 8.4.3. The border-spacing Property
      4. 8.4.4. The empty-cells Property
      5. 8.4.5. The caption-side Property
      6. 8.4.6. The table-layout Property
    5. 8.5. Outlines
      1. 8.5.1. The outline-width Property
      2. 8.5.2. The outline-style Property
      3. 8.5.3. The outline-color Property
      4. 8.5.4. The outline Property (the Shorthand)
    6. 8.6. The :focus and :active Pseudo-Classes
    7. 8.7. Generated Content
      1. 8.7.1. The :before and :after Pseudo-Elements
      2. 8.7.2. The content Property
        1. 8.7.2.1. Counters
        2. 8.7.2.2. Quotation Marks
    8. 8.8. Miscellaneous Properties
      1. 8.8.1. The cursor Property
      2. 8.8.2. The display Property
      3. 8.8.3. The visibility Property
    9. 8.9. Additional Rules
      1. 8.9.1. The @import Rule: Modularized Style Sheets
      2. 8.9.2. The !important Rule
      3. 8.9.3. The @charset Rule
    10. 8.10. Positioning and Layout with CSS
      1. 8.10.1. Normal Flow
      2. 8.10.2. The position Property
      3. 8.10.3. Box Offset Properties
      4. 8.10.4. Relative Positioning
      5. 8.10.5. Absolute Positioning
      6. 8.10.6. Fixed Positioning
      7. 8.10.7. The z-index Property
      8. 8.10.8. Floating Using the float Property
      9. 8.10.9. The clear Property
    11. 8.11. Summary
    12. 8.12. Exercises
  14. 9. Page Layout
    1. 9.1. Understanding the Site's Audience
      1. 9.1.1. Who Will Visit the Site?
      2. 9.1.2. Why Have They Visited Your Site?
      3. 9.1.3. What Does a Visitor Need to Achieve a Goal?
      4. 9.1.4. How Often Will People Want to Visit?
      5. 9.1.5. Things You Want the Site to Do
      6. 9.1.6. Prioritizing Information
      7. 9.1.7. Grouping and Categorization
      8. 9.1.8. Creating a Site Map
      9. 9.1.9. Identifying Key Elements for Each Page
    2. 9.2. Page Size (and Screen Resolution)
      1. 9.2.1. Understanding Screen Sizes
        1. 9.2.1.1. Deciding the Width of Your Page
        2. 9.2.1.2. Deciding the Height of Your Page
      2. 9.2.2. Fixed-Width vs. Liquid Designs
        1. 9.2.2.1. Liquid (Stretchy) Page
        2. 9.2.2.2. Fixed-Width Page
    3. 9.3. Designing Pages
      1. 9.3.1. Composition and Grids
      2. 9.3.2. Sketching the Placement of Elements
        1. 9.3.2.1. Common Page Elements and Templates
        2. 9.3.2.2. Grouping Elements
        3. 9.3.2.3. Creating a Visual Hierarchy and Prioritizing Information on a Page
      3. 9.3.3. How Visitors Look at a Page
        1. 9.3.3.1. Homepages
        2. 9.3.3.2. Content Pages
        3. 9.3.3.3. Section Homepages
        4. 9.3.3.4. Selecting Images
        5. 9.3.3.5. Things You May Need from a Client
    4. 9.4. Coding Your Design
      1. 9.4.1. The IE Box Model Bug
      2. 9.4.2. Working with a Grid
      3. 9.4.3. Multi-Column Layouts
        1. 9.4.3.1. Three-Column Layout
        2. 9.4.3.2. Two-Column Layouts
        3. 9.4.3.3. Four-Column Layouts
        4. 9.4.3.4. Six-Column Layouts
        5. 9.4.3.5. Liquid Layouts
        6. 9.4.3.6. Backgrounds That Reach the Bottom of the Page
    5. 9.5. Developing for Mobile Devices
      1. 9.5.1. Understanding the Medium and How It Is Used
        1. 9.5.1.1. Context: What Is the Mobile User Doing?
        2. 9.5.1.2. Relationship: How Do Users Treat Their Mobile Phones?
        3. 9.5.1.3. Capabilities: How Do Features of Mobiles Compare with Desktop PCs?
      2. 9.5.2. How to Approach Mobile Development
        1. 9.5.2.1. Do Not Develop a Mobile Site
        2. 9.5.2.2. Provide an Alternative View of Your Site
        3. 9.5.2.3. Create a Separate Mobile-Optimized with Its Own Content
      3. 9.5.3. Building a Mobile Site
        1. 9.5.3.1. Domain Name
        2. 9.5.3.2. Device Detection
        3. 9.5.3.3. Languages for Creating Mobile Web Sites
        4. 9.5.3.4. Design Tips
          1. 9.5.3.4.1. Content
          2. 9.5.3.4.2. Color
          3. 9.5.3.4.3. Navigation
          4. 9.5.3.4.4. Links
          5. 9.5.3.4.5. Forms
        5. 9.5.3.5. Testing
    6. 9.6. Summary
    7. 9.7. Exercises
  15. 10. Design Issues
    1. 10.1. Typography
      1. 10.1.1. Line Length — A Measure
      2. 10.1.2. Font Sizes
      3. 10.1.3. Choosing Fonts
      4. 10.1.4. Line Height — Leading
      5. 10.1.5. CSS Resets
      6. 10.1.6. Line Height — Baseline Grids
        1. 10.1.6.1. Setting Headings on the Grid
        2. 10.1.6.2. Aligning Other Items to the Grid
      7. 10.1.7. Space Between Letters — Tracking
      8. 10.1.8. White Space
      9. 10.1.9. Chunking
      10. 10.1.10. Contrast
    2. 10.2. Navigation
      1. 10.2.1. Menus
        1. 10.2.1.1. Menus Should Be Concise
        2. 10.2.1.2. Menus Should Have Clear Labels
        3. 10.2.1.3. Menus Should Focus on What Visitors Want to Achieve
        4. 10.2.1.4. Menus Do Not Need to Contain Every Link
        5. 10.2.1.5. Menus Should Provide Context
        6. 10.2.1.6. Menu Items Should Be Interactive
        7. 10.2.1.7. Menus Should Be Consistent Across All Pages
        8. 10.2.1.8. If You Use Icons, Provide a Text Equivalent, Too
        9. 10.2.1.9. Coding for Menus
      2. 10.2.2. Links
        1. 10.2.2.1. Text Links
        2. 10.2.2.2. Images as Links
        3. 10.2.2.3. CSS Sprites
      3. 10.2.3. Site Search Features
        1. 10.2.3.1. Search Features Make Sites More Usable
        2. 10.2.3.2. Adding a Google Search to Your Site
    3. 10.3. Tables
      1. 10.3.1. Padding
      2. 10.3.2. Headings
      3. 10.3.3. Shading Alternate Rows
    4. 10.4. Forms
      1. 10.4.1. Before Designing the Form
        1. 10.4.1.1. Listing Required Information First
        2. 10.4.1.2. Group Related Information
        3. 10.4.1.3. Model Forms Users Are Familiar With
        4. 10.4.1.4. Are Users Going to Provide the Same Information Each Time?
        5. 10.4.1.5. What Else Needs to Appear on the Form?
      2. 10.4.2. Designing the Form
        1. 10.4.2.1. Selecting the Right Type of Form Control
          1. 10.4.2.1.1. Text Boxes
          2. 10.4.2.1.2. Radio Buttons and Checkboxes or Select Boxes
          3. 10.4.2.1.3. Select Boxes
        2. 10.4.2.2. Grouping Controls
          1. 10.4.2.2.1. Using <fieldset> Elements
          2. 10.4.2.2.2. Splitting a Form into Separate Pages
          3. 10.4.2.2.3. Number Questions
      3. 10.4.3. Layout of Forms
        1. 10.4.3.1. Labeling Controls
        2. 10.4.3.2. Keeping Relevant Information Next to or Above Form Controls
        3. 10.4.3.3. Required Information
        4. 10.4.3.4. Careful Placement of Buttons
        5. 10.4.3.5. Using the title Attribute on Form Controls
        6. 10.4.3.6. Tab Index
        7. 10.4.3.7. Don't Rely on Color to Convey Information
        8. 10.4.3.8. Using CSS with Form Elements
        9. 10.4.3.9. Large Form Inputs
        10. 10.4.3.10. Testing the Form
        11. 10.4.3.11. Lazy Registration
    5. 10.5. Summary
    6. 10.6. Exercises
  16. 11. Learning JavaScript
    1. 11.1. What Is Programming About?
    2. 11.2. How to Add a Script to Your Pages
      1. 11.2.1. Comments in JavaScript
      2. 11.2.2. The <noscript> Element
    3. 11.3. The Document Object Model
      1. 11.3.1. Accessing Values Using Dot Notation
      2. 11.3.2. The Document Object
        1. 11.3.2.1. Properties of the Document Object
        2. 11.3.2.2. Methods of the Document Object
      3. 11.3.3. The Forms Collection
        1. 11.3.3.1. Properties of the Form Objects
        2. 11.3.3.2. Methods of the Form Objects
      4. 11.3.4. Form Elements
        1. 11.3.4.1. Properties of Form Elements
        2. 11.3.4.2. Methods of Form Elements
      5. 11.3.5. Images Collection
        1. 11.3.5.1. Properties of the Image Object
      6. 11.3.6. Different Types of Objects
    4. 11.4. Starting to Program with JavaScript
    5. 11.5. Variables
      1. 11.5.1. Assigning a Value to a Variable
      2. 11.5.2. Lifetime of a Variable
    6. 11.6. Operators
      1. 11.6.1. Arithmetic Operators
      2. 11.6.2. Assignment Operators
      3. 11.6.3. Comparison Operators
      4. 11.6.4. Logical or Boolean Operators
      5. 11.6.5. String Operator (Using + with Strings)
    7. 11.7. Functions
      1. 11.7.1. How to Define a Function
      2. 11.7.2. How To Call a Function
      3. 11.7.3. The Return Statement
    8. 11.8. Conditional Statements
      1. 11.8.1. if Statements
      2. 11.8.2. if . . . else Statements
      3. 11.8.3. switch Statements
    9. 11.9. Looping
      1. 11.9.1. while
      2. 11.9.2. do . . . while
      3. 11.9.3. for
      4. 11.9.4. Infinite Loops and the break Statement
    10. 11.10. Events
    11. 11.11. Built-in Objects
      1. 11.11.1. String
        1. 11.11.1.1. Properties
        2. 11.11.1.2. Methods
      2. 11.11.2. Date
      3. 11.11.3. Math
        1. 11.11.3.1. Properties
        2. 11.11.3.2. Methods
      4. 11.11.4. Array
        1. 11.11.4.1. Methods
      5. 11.11.5. Window
        1. 11.11.5.1. Properties
        2. 11.11.5.2. Methods
    12. 11.12. Writing JavaScript
      1. 11.12.1. A Word About Data Types
      2. 11.12.2. Keywords
    13. 11.13. Summary
    14. 11.14. Exercises
  17. 12. Working with JavaScript
    1. 12.1. Practical Tips for Writing Scripts
      1. 12.1.1. Has Someone Already Written This Script?
      2. 12.1.2. Reusable Functions
      3. 12.1.3. Using External JavaScript Files
      4. 12.1.4. Place Scripts in a Scripts Folder
    2. 12.2. Form Validation
      1. 12.2.1. When to Validate
      2. 12.2.2. What You Can Check For
      3. 12.2.3. How to Check a Form
      4. 12.2.4. Checking Text Fields
        1. 12.2.4.1. Single Function Approach
        2. 12.2.4.2. Re-Usable Functions Approach
        3. 12.2.4.3. The replace() Method
        4. 12.2.4.4. Regular Expressions
        5. 12.2.4.5. Testing Characters Using test() and Regular Expressions
      5. 12.2.5. Select Box Options
      6. 12.2.6. Radio Buttons
      7. 12.2.7. Checkboxes
        1. 12.2.7.1. Preventing a Form Submission Until a Checkbox Has Been Selected
    3. 12.3. Form Enhancements
      1. 12.3.1. Focus on First Form Item
      2. 12.3.2. Auto-Tabbing Between Fields
      3. 12.3.3. Disabling a Text Input
      4. 12.3.4. Case Conversion
      5. 12.3.5. Trimming Spaces from Beginning and End of Fields
      6. 12.3.6. Selecting All the Content of a Text Area
      7. 12.3.7. Check and Uncheck All Checkboxes
    4. 12.4. JavaScript Libraries
      1. 12.4.1. Animated Effects Using Scriptaculous
      2. 12.4.2. Drag-and-Drop Sortable Lists Using Scriptaculous
      3. 12.4.3. Creating a Lightbox
      4. 12.4.4. Creating a Modal Window
      5. 12.4.5. Sortable Tables with MochiKit
      6. 12.4.6. Creating Calendars with YUI
      7. 12.4.7. Auto-Completing Text Inputs with YUI
    5. 12.5. Summary
    6. 12.6. Exercises
  18. 13. Putting Your Site on the Web
    1. 13.1. Meta Tags
      1. 13.1.1. name and content Attributes
        1. 13.1.1.1. Using name with a Value of description
        2. 13.1.1.2. Using name with a Value of keywords
        3. 13.1.1.3. Using name with a Value of robots
      2. 13.1.2. http-equiv and content
        1. 13.1.2.1. Expiring Pages
        2. 13.1.2.2. Preventing a Browser from Caching a Page
        3. 13.1.2.3. Refreshing and Redirecting Pages
        4. 13.1.2.4. Specifying the Author Name
        5. 13.1.2.5. Setting the Character Encoding
      3. 13.1.3. The scheme Attribute
    2. 13.2. Testing Your Site
      1. 13.2.1. Validating HTML, XHTML, and CSS
      2. 13.2.2. Link Checking
      3. 13.2.3. Checking Color Depths
      4. 13.2.4. Accessibility Checkers
      5. 13.2.5. Checking in Different Versions of Browsers
      6. 13.2.6. Pilot Testing
      7. 13.2.7. Proofreading
    3. 13.3. Taking the Leap to Live
      1. 13.3.1. Getting a Domain Name
      2. 13.3.2. Hosting
      3. 13.3.3. Key Considerations for Choosing a Host
      4. 13.3.4. Putting Your Site on a Server Using FTP
      5. 13.3.5. The Importance of Directory Structure and Relative URLs
    4. 13.4. Telling the World about Your Site
      1. 13.4.1. Always Mention Your URL
      2. 13.4.2. Content Is King
      3. 13.4.3. Forums, Communities, and Social Networks
      4. 13.4.4. Check for Trade Sites and Directories
      5. 13.4.5. Reciprocal Links
      6. 13.4.6. Look at Your Competition
      7. 13.4.7. Make It Easy for People to Link to You
      8. 13.4.8. Pay-per-click Advertising
      9. 13.4.9. Display Advertising
      10. 13.4.10. Create an E-mail Newsletter
    5. 13.5. Understanding Your Visitors
      1. 13.5.1. Ten Things to Check in Google Analytics
      2. 13.5.2. Measuring Everything
    6. 13.6. What Next?
      1. 13.6.1. Tools
        1. 13.6.1.1. Blogs
        2. 13.6.1.2. Discussion Boards or Forums
        3. 13.6.1.3. Adding a Search Utility
        4. 13.6.1.4. Creating an E-mail Newsletter
      2. 13.6.2. Introducing Other Technologies
        1. 13.6.2.1. Server-Side Web Programming: ASP.NET and PHP
          1. 13.6.2.1.1. Choosing a Server-Side Language
          2. 13.6.2.1.2. Content Management
        2. 13.6.2.2. Flash
        3. 13.6.2.3. Learning Graphics Packages
    7. 13.7. Summary
  19. 14. Checklists
    1. 14.1. Search Engine Optimization Checklist
      1. 14.1.1. On-Page Techniques
      2. 14.1.2. Identifying Keywords and Phrases
        1. 14.1.2.1. Brainstorm for Words People Might Search On
        2. 14.1.2.2. Select Five to Ten Major Keywords
        3. 14.1.2.3. List Other Keywords and Phrases That Correspond to Your Major Keywords
        4. 14.1.2.4. Look Up Related Words (Not Exact Matches)
        5. 14.1.2.5. Determine the Popularity of Terms
        6. 14.1.2.6. Prioritize the Core Terms
        7. 14.1.2.7. Location
        8. 14.1.2.8. Mapping Core Terms to Pages
        9. 14.1.2.9. Homepages
      3. 14.1.3. Off-Page Techniques
    2. 14.2. Accessibility Checklist
      1. 14.2.1. Setting Up Your Document
      2. 14.2.2. Structural and Semantic Markup
      3. 14.2.3. Links and Navigation
      4. 14.2.4. Images and Multimedia
      5. 14.2.5. Color
      6. 14.2.6. Tables
      7. 14.2.7. Forms
      8. 14.2.8. Style Sheets
      9. 14.2.9. JavaScript
      10. 14.2.10. Skip Links
    3. 14.3. Differences Between HTML and XHTML
      1. 14.3.1. All Tag Names and Attribute Names Must Be Written in Lowercase
      2. 14.3.2. All Attributes Must Have a Value Given in Double Quotation Marks
      3. 14.3.3. Elements Must Nest; There Must Be No Overlapping
      4. 14.3.4. Empty Elements Must Contain a Closing Slash
      5. 14.3.5. Scripts Should Live in a CDATA Section
    4. 14.4. HTML 5
      1. 14.4.1. Language Compatibility in HTML 5
      2. 14.4.2. Stylistic Markup Will Be Removed
      3. 14.4.3. New Semantic Elements
      4. 14.4.4. New Values for the <input> Element's type Attribute
      5. 14.4.5. New Multimedia Elements
      6. 14.4.6. New APIs
  20. A. Answers to Exercises
    1. A.1. Chapter 1
      1. A.1.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.1.1.1. Answer
      2. A.1.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.1.2.1. Answer
    2. A.2. Chapter 2
      1. A.2.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.2.1.1. Answer
      2. A.2.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.2.2.1. Answer
    3. A.3. Chapter 3
      1. A.3.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.3.1.1. Answer
      2. A.3.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.3.2.1. Answer
      3. A.3.3. Exercise 3
        1. A.3.3.1. Answer
    4. A.4. Chapter 4
      1. A.4.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.4.1.1. Answer
      2. A.4.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.4.2.1. Answer
      3. A.4.3. Exercise 3
        1. A.4.3.1. Answer
    5. A.5. Chapter 5
      1. A.5.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.5.1.1. Answer
      2. A.5.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.5.2.1. Answer
    6. A.6. Chapter 6
      1. A.6.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.6.1.1. Answer
      2. A.6.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.6.2.1. Answer
    7. A.7. Chapter 7
      1. A.7.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.7.1.1. Answer
      2. A.7.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.7.2.1. Answer
      3. A.7.3. Exercise 3
        1. A.7.3.1. Answer
      4. A.7.4. Exercise 4
        1. A.7.4.1. Answer
      5. A.7.5. Exercise 5
        1. A.7.5.1. Answer
    8. A.8. Chapter 8
      1. A.8.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.8.1.1. Answer
      2. A.8.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.8.2.1. Answer
    9. A.9. Chapter 9
      1. A.9.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.9.1.1. Answer
      2. A.9.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.9.2.1. Answer
    10. A.10. Chapter 10
      1. A.10.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.10.1.1. Answer
    11. A.11. Chapter 11
      1. A.11.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.11.1.1. Answer
      2. A.11.2. Exercise 2
        1. A.11.2.1. Answer
    12. A.12. Chapter 12
      1. A.12.1. Exercise 1
        1. A.12.1.1. Answer
  21. B. XHTML Element Reference
    1. B.1. Core Attributes
      1. B.1.1.
        1. B.1.1.1. Core Attributes
        2. B.1.1.2. <a>
        3. B.1.1.3. <abbr>
        4. B.1.1.4. <acronym>
        5. B.1.1.5. <address>
        6. B.1.1.6. <applet> (Deprecated)
        7. B.1.1.7. <area>
        8. B.1.1.8. <b>
        9. B.1.1.9. <base>
        10. B.1.1.10. <basefont> (Deprecated)
        11. B.1.1.11. <bdo>
        12. B.1.1.12. <big>
        13. B.1.1.13. <blockquote>
        14. B.1.1.14. <body>
        15. B.1.1.15. <br />
        16. B.1.1.16. <button>
        17. B.1.1.17. <caption>
        18. B.1.1.18. <center> (Deprecated)
        19. B.1.1.19. <cite>
        20. B.1.1.20. <code>
        21. B.1.1.21. <col>
        22. B.1.1.22. <colgroup>
        23. B.1.1.23. <dd>
        24. B.1.1.24. <del>
        25. B.1.1.25. <dfn>
        26. B.1.1.26. <dir> (Deprecated)
        27. B.1.1.27. <div>
        28. B.1.1.28. <dl>
        29. B.1.1.29. <dt>
        30. B.1.1.30. <em>
        31. B.1.1.31. <embed>
        32. B.1.1.32. <fieldset>
        33. B.1.1.33. <font> (Deprecated)
        34. B.1.1.34. <form>
        35. B.1.1.35. <frame>
        36. B.1.1.36. <noframes>
        37. B.1.1.37. <frameset>
        38. B.1.1.38. <head>
        39. B.1.1.39. <hn>
        40. B.1.1.40. <hr />
        41. B.1.1.41. <html>
        42. B.1.1.42. <i>
        43. B.1.1.43. <iframe>
        44. B.1.1.44. <img>
        45. B.1.1.45. <input type="button">
        46. B.1.1.46. <input type="checkbox">
        47. B.1.1.47. <input type="file">
        48. B.1.1.48. <input type="hidden">
        49. B.1.1.49. <input type="image">
        50. B.1.1.50. <input type="password">
        51. B.1.1.51. <input type="radio">
        52. B.1.1.52. <input type="reset">
        53. B.1.1.53. <input type="submit">
        54. B.1.1.54. <input type="text">
        55. B.1.1.55. <ins>
        56. B.1.1.56. <isindex> (Deprecated)
        57. B.1.1.57. <kbd>
        58. B.1.1.58. <label>
        59. B.1.1.59. <legend>
        60. B.1.1.60. <li>
        61. B.1.1.61. <link>
        62. B.1.1.62. <map>
        63. B.1.1.63. <menu> (Deprecated)
        64. B.1.1.64. <meta>
        65. B.1.1.65. <noframes>
        66. B.1.1.66. <noscript>
        67. B.1.1.67. <object>
        68. B.1.1.68. <ol>
        69. B.1.1.69. <optgroup>
        70. B.1.1.70. <option>
        71. B.1.1.71. <p>
        72. B.1.1.72. <param>
        73. B.1.1.73. <pre>
        74. B.1.1.74. <q>
        75. B.1.1.75. <s> (Deprecated)
        76. B.1.1.76. <samp>
        77. B.1.1.77. <script>
        78. B.1.1.78. <select>
        79. B.1.1.79. <small>
        80. B.1.1.80. <span>
        81. B.1.1.81. <strike> (Deprecated)
        82. B.1.1.82. <strong>
        83. B.1.1.83. <style>
        84. B.1.1.84. <sub>
        85. B.1.1.85. <sup>
        86. B.1.1.86. <table>
        87. B.1.1.87. <tbody>
        88. B.1.1.88. <td>
        89. B.1.1.89. <textarea>
        90. B.1.1.90. <tfoot>
        91. B.1.1.91. <thead>
        92. B.1.1.92. <th>
        93. B.1.1.93. <title>
        94. B.1.1.94. <tr>
        95. B.1.1.95. <tt>
        96. B.1.1.96. <u> (Deprecated)
        97. B.1.1.97. <ul>
        98. B.1.1.98. <var>
  22. C. CSS Properties
    1. C.1. Font Properties
      1. C.1.1. font
      2. C.1.2. font-family
      3. C.1.3. font-size
      4. C.1.4. font-size-adjust
      5. C.1.5. font-stretch
      6. C.1.6. font-style
      7. C.1.7. font-variant
      8. C.1.8. font-weight
    2. C.2. Text Properties
      1. C.2.1. letter-spacing
      2. C.2.2. text-align
      3. C.2.3. text-decoration
      4. C.2.4. text-indent
      5. C.2.5. text-shadow
      6. C.2.6. text-transform
      7. C.2.7. white-space
      8. C.2.8. word-spacing
    3. C.3. Color and Background Properties
      1. C.3.1. background
      2. C.3.2. background-attachment
      3. C.3.3. background-color
      4. C.3.4. background-image
      5. C.3.5. background-position
      6. C.3.6. background-repeat
      7. C.3.7. background-positionX
      8. C.3.8. background-positionY
    4. C.4. Border properties
      1. C.4.1. border (border-bottom, border-left, border-top, border-right)
      2. C.4.2. border-style (border-bottom-style, border-left-style, border-top-style, border-right-style)
      3. C.4.3. border-width (border-bottom-width, border-left-width, border-top-width, border-right-width)
      4. C.4.4. border-color (border-bottom-color, border-left-color, border-top-color, border-right-color)
    5. C.5. Dimensions
      1. C.5.1. height
      2. C.5.2. width
      3. C.5.3. line-height
      4. C.5.4. max-height
      5. C.5.5. max-width
      6. C.5.6. min-height
      7. C.5.7. min-width
    6. C.6. Margin Properties
      1. C.6.1. margin (margin-bottom, margin-left, margin-top, margin-right)
    7. C.7. Padding Properties
      1. C.7.1. padding (padding-bottom, padding-left, padding-right, padding-top)
    8. C.8. List Properties
      1. C.8.1. list-style
      2. C.8.2. list-style-position
      3. C.8.3. list-style-type
      4. C.8.4. marker-offset
    9. C.9. Positioning Properties
      1. C.9.1. position
      2. C.9.2. top
      3. C.9.3. left
      4. C.9.4. bottom
      5. C.9.5. right
      6. C.9.6. vertical-align
      7. C.9.7. z-index
      8. C.9.8. clip
      9. C.9.9. overflow
      10. C.9.10. overflow-x
      11. C.9.11. overflow-y
    10. C.10. Outline Properties
      1. C.10.1. Outline (outline-color, outline-style, outline-width)
    11. C.11. Table Properties
      1. C.11.1. border-collapse
      2. C.11.2. border-spacing
      3. C.11.3. caption-side
      4. C.11.4. empty-cells
      5. C.11.5. table-layout
    12. C.12. Classification Properties
      1. C.12.1. clear
      2. C.12.2. display
      3. C.12.3. float
      4. C.12.4. visibility
    13. C.13. Internationalization Properties
      1. C.13.1. direction
      2. C.13.2. unicode-bidi
    14. C.14. Lengths
      1. C.14.1. Absolute Lengths
      2. C.14.2. Relative Lengths
  23. D. Color Names and Values
    1. D.1. Using Hex Codes to Specify Colors
    2. D.2. Understanding Hex Codes
    3. D.3. Using Color Names to Specify Colors
    4. D.4. Color Name and Number Reference
  24. E. Character Encodings
  25. F. Special Characters
    1. F.1. Character Entity References for Symbols, Mathematical Symbols, and Greek Letters
    2. F.2. Markup-Significant and Internationalization Characters
  26. G. Language Codes
  27. H. MIME Media Types
    1. H.1. text
    2. H.2. image
    3. H.3. multipart
    4. H.4. audio
    5. H.5. video
    6. H.6. message
    7. H.7. model
    8. H.8. application
  28. I. Deprecated and Browser-Specific Markup
    1. I.1. Why Deprecated Markup Exists
    2. I.2. Older Pages Break Many Rules
    3. I.3. Fonts
      1. I.3.1. The <font> Element
      2. I.3.2. The text Attribute
      3. I.3.3. The <basefont> Element
      4. I.3.4. The <s> and <strike> Elements
      5. I.3.5. The <u> Element
      6. I.3.6. The <listing>, <plaintext>, and <xmp> Elements
    4. I.4. Backgrounds
      1. I.4.1. The bgcolor Attribute
      2. I.4.2. The background Attribute
    5. I.5. Formatting
      1. I.5.1. The <center> Element
      2. I.5.2. The align Attribute
      3. I.5.3. The width Attribute
      4. I.5.4. The height Attribute
      5. I.5.5. The vspace Attribute
      6. I.5.6. The hspace Attribute
      7. I.5.7. The clear Attribute (on <br /> element)
    6. I.6. Links
    7. I.7. Lists
      1. I.7.1. The start Attribute
      2. I.7.2. The value Attribute
      3. I.7.3. The type Attribute
      4. I.7.4. The <dir> and <menu> Elements
    8. I.8. Tables
      1. I.8.1. The nowrap Attribute
    9. I.9. Miscellaneous Attributes
      1. I.9.1. The border Attribute
      2. I.9.2. The compact Attribute
      3. I.9.3. The language Attribute
      4. I.9.4. The version Attribute
      5. I.9.5. The <applet> Element
      6. I.9.6. The <embed> Element
      7. I.9.7. The <isindex> Element
      8. I.9.8. The <nobr> Element
    10. I.10. IE-Specific Elements
      1. I.10.1. IE-Specific Attributes
      2. I.10.2. IE-Specific CSS Styles