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Beginning GIMP: From Novice to Professional, Second Edition

Book Description

From first installation to advanced image manipulation techniques, Beginning GIMP: From Novice to Professional, Second Edition explains how anyone can utilize The GIMP: a free, open source image manipulation program. You will learn how to install The GIMP on Windows, Linux, and MacOS X platforms. Once you've installed the application, you'll learn about the interface and configuration options, and then jump into a quick and simple project to familiarize yourself.

With four-color graphics and screenshots throughout, you'll learn how to prepare camera images for display on web pages-including processes like rescaling, cropping, and balancing color. Utilizing layers, paths, and masks are also covered in extensive detail. Of course, you will also learn how to draw lines and shapes; utilize patterns and gradients; and even create your own brushes, patterns, and gradients.

GIMP expert and author Akkana Peck teaches you how to touch up digital photographs, smudging away blemishes, fixing red-eye, and stitching panoramic images. You'll learn how to tap into the powerful filters, effects, and plug-ins that are available for The GIMP and automate tasks using scripts. The entire book is approached in a project-based manner, and as you progress, numerous projects will help strengthen your newly acquired abilities.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. About the Technical Reviewer
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Introduction
    1. Structure of the Book
    2. A Note on GIMP Versions
    3. Downloads and Feedback
  6. 1. Getting to Know GIMP
    1. 1.1. What Is GIMP?
    2. 1.2. A Tour of the Most Important GIMP Windows
      1. 1.2.1. The Toolbox
      2. 1.2.2. Tool Options
      3. 1.2.3. Image Windows
      4. 1.2.4. The Layers Dialog and Dialog Docking
    3. 1.3. Menu Overview
      1. 1.3.1. Tear-off Menus and Context Menus
      2. 1.3.2. Image Window Menus
    4. 1.4. A Few GIMP Settings You Can Customize
      1. 1.4.1. Tool Settings Changes
      2. 1.4.2. Window Controls
      3. 1.4.3. Keyboard Shortcuts
    5. 1.5. A First GIMP Project
    6. 1.6. Summary
  7. 2. Improving Digital Photos
    1. 2.1. Opening Files
    2. 2.2. Scaling
      1. 2.2.1. What Size Should You Choose for Your Images?
      2. 2.2.2. The Scale Tool
    3. 2.3. Saving Files
    4. 2.4. Image File Types
      1. 2.4.1. JPEG
      2. 2.4.2. GIF
      3. 2.4.3. PNG
      4. 2.4.4. XCF
      5. 2.4.5. TIFF
      6. 2.4.6. Other Formats
    5. 2.5. Experimenting with JPEG and GIF Settings
      1. 2.5.1. JPEG Quality Settings
      2. 2.5.2. GIF and Indexed PNG Quality Settings
    6. 2.6. Cropping
    7. 2.7. Brightening and Darkening
      1. 2.7.1. Brightness-Contrast
      2. 2.7.2. Levels
        1. 2.7.2.1. Color Correction
      3. 2.7.3. Curves
        1. 2.7.3.1. Options in the Curves Dialog
      4. 2.7.4. Other Exposure Adjustments
    8. 2.8. Rotating
      1. 2.8.1. Rotating by Multiples of 90 Degrees
      2. 2.8.2. Free Rotation
    9. 2.9. Sharpening
    10. 2.10. Fixing Red-eye
    11. 2.11. Summary
  8. 3. Introduction to Layers
    1. 3.1. What Is a Layer?
    2. 3.2. Using Layers to Add Text
      1. 3.2.1. The Text Tool
    3. 3.3. Using the Move Tool
    4. 3.4. Changing Colors
      1. 3.4.1. GIMP's Color Chooser
    5. 3.5. Simple Effects Using Layers
      1. 3.5.1. Drop Shadows
    6. 3.6. Linking Layers Together
    7. 3.7. Performing Operations on Layers
    8. 3.8. Using Layers for Copy and Paste
      1. 3.8.1. Select Only the Part You Want to Paste
      2. 3.8.2. Paste into the Image
      3. 3.8.3. Scale the Pasted Layer
    9. 3.9. Aligning Layers
    10. 3.10. A Tour of the Layers Dialog
      1. 3.10.1. Title Area
      2. 3.10.2. Tabs
      3. 3.10.3. Layer Mode
      4. 3.10.4. Opacity
      5. 3.10.5. Keep Transparent
      6. 3.10.6. Layers List
        1. 3.10.6.1. The Visibility Eye
        2. 3.10.6.2. The Chain Link
        3. 3.10.6.3. The Layer Preview
        4. 3.10.6.4. Layer Masks
        5. 3.10.6.5. Layer Name
      7. 3.10.7. Layer Buttons
        1. 3.10.7.1. The New Layer Button
        2. 3.10.7.2. The Raise and Lower Buttons
        3. 3.10.7.3. The Duplicate Layer Button
        4. 3.10.7.4. The Anchor Layer Button
        5. 3.10.7.5. The Delete Layer Button
      8. 3.10.8. Layer Context Menus
        1. 3.10.8.1. The (Sometimes) Text Tool Item
        2. 3.10.8.2. Edit Layer Attributes
        3. 3.10.8.3. Layer Controls
        4. 3.10.8.4. Layer Boundary Size
        5. 3.10.8.5. Layer to Image Size
        6. 3.10.8.6. Scale Layer
        7. 3.10.8.7. Mask Options
        8. 3.10.8.8. Add Alpha Channel
        9. 3.10.8.9. Alpha to Selection
        10. 3.10.8.10. Merge or Flatten
    11. 3.11. Bonus Project: Making Simple GIF Animations
      1. 3.11.1. Create a Base Image
      2. 3.11.2. Add the Animation Frames
      3. 3.11.3. Give Each Frame Its Own Background
      4. 3.11.4. Test Your Animation
      5. 3.11.5. Animation for the Web: Save As GIF
    12. 3.12. Summary
  9. 4. Drawing
    1. 4.1. A New Image
    2. 4.2. Using Layers for Drawing
    3. 4.3. Drawing Lines and Curves
      1. 4.3.1. Drawing Hard-Edged Lines: The Pencil Tool
      2. 4.3.2. Brushes
        1. 4.3.2.1. Parametric Brushes vs. Image Brushes
      3. 4.3.3. Drawing Tool Options
        1. 4.3.3.1. Special Drawing Tool Modes
      4. 4.3.4. Drawing Fuzzy or Smooth Lines: The Paintbrush Tool
      5. 4.3.5. The Airbrush Tool
      6. 4.3.6. The Ink Pen Tool
    4. 4.4. The Eraser Tool
    5. 4.5. Drawing Rectangles, Circles, and Other Shapes
      1. 4.5.1. Defining Regions
      2. 4.5.2. Outlining Selections: Stroking
      3. 4.5.3. Free Select with the Lasso
      4. 4.5.4. Filling Regions
      5. 4.5.5. The Bucket Fill Tool
      6. 4.5.6. Patterns
      7. 4.5.7. Gradients: The Blend Tool
        1. 4.5.7.1. The Gradient Chooser
        2. 4.5.7.2. Other Gradient Options
    6. 4.6. A Drawing Project
      1. 4.6.1. Drawing a Tree
      2. 4.6.2. Making a Planter Box Using Perspective Transformation
        1. 4.6.2.1. Using Guides
      3. 4.6.3. Preparing the Planter Box
      4. 4.6.4. Increasing Canvas Size
      5. 4.6.5. Plant the Tree
      6. 4.6.6. Final Touch-Ups
    7. 4.7. Summary
  10. 5. Selection
    1. 5.1. Working with Selections
      1. 5.1.1. Marching Ants
      2. 5.1.2. The Select Menu
      3. 5.1.3. Moving Selections
    2. 5.2. Select by Color and Fuzzy Select
      1. 5.2.1. Select Contiguous Regions
    3. 5.3. Bezier Paths
      1. 5.3.1. Defining a Path
      2. 5.3.2. The Paths Dialog
        1. 5.3.2.1. Creating a Selection from a Path
      3. 5.3.3. Curved Paths
      4. 5.3.4. Adding Nodes or Segments and Moving Paths
      5. 5.3.5. Moving or Modifying an Existing Path
    4. 5.4. The Intelligent Scissors
    5. 5.5. Modifying Selections with Selection Modes
    6. 5.6. The QuickMask
    7. 5.7. Highlighting Foreground Objects
    8. 5.8. Using Channels to Save a Selection
    9. 5.9. Layer Masks
    10. 5.10. Extracting Foreground Objects with SIOX
    11. 5.11. Summary
  11. 6. Erasing and Touching Up
    1. 6.1. Darkroom Work with Dodge and Burn
      1. 6.1.1. Dodging
      2. 6.1.2. Burning
    2. 6.2. Smudging Blemishes Away
    3. 6.3. The Clone Tool, for More Difficult Jobs
      1. 6.3.1. Setting the Clone Source
      2. 6.3.2. Fine-tuning a Clone Job
      3. 6.3.3. Clone Tool Options
    4. 6.4. Copying Small Regions
    5. 6.5. The Heal Tool
    6. 6.6. Perspective Cloning
    7. 6.7. Enhancing Specific Regions: The Blur/Sharpen Tool
      1. 6.7.1. Sharpening with the Convolve Tool
      2. 6.7.2. Blurring with the Convolve Tool
    8. 6.8. Blurring Backgrounds with Gaussian Blur
    9. 6.9. Summary
  12. 7. Filters and Effects
    1. 7.1. Image Window Filters vs. Toolbox Xtns
    2. 7.2. Filters for Images
      1. 7.2.1. Tools vs. Plug-ins
      2. 7.2.2. The Filters Menu
      3. 7.2.3. Blur
      4. 7.2.4. Enhance
      5. 7.2.5. Distorts
      6. 7.2.6. Light and Shadow
        1. 7.2.6.1. Flares and Sparkles
        2. 7.2.6.2. Shadows
        3. 7.2.6.3. Lens and Glass Effects
      7. 7.2.7. Noise Filters
      8. 7.2.8. Edge-detection Filters
      9. 7.2.9. "Generic" Filters
      10. 7.2.10. Combine
      11. 7.2.11. The Artistic Filters
        1. 7.2.11.1. GIMPressionist
      12. 7.2.12. The Map Filters
        1. 7.2.12.1. Bump Map
        2. 7.2.12.2. Displace
        3. 7.2.12.3. Some Mapping Toys
        4. 7.2.12.4. Tiling
        5. 7.2.12.5. Warp
      13. 7.2.13. Adding Patterns to a Layer
        1. 7.2.13.1. Clouds
        2. 7.2.13.2. Nature
        3. 7.2.13.3. Pattern
        4. 7.2.13.4. Fractal Explorer
        5. 7.2.13.5. gfig
        6. 7.2.13.6. Other Patterns
      14. 7.2.14. Filters to Help Make Web Pages
      15. 7.2.15. Animation Helpers
      16. 7.2.16. Alpha to Logo
      17. 7.2.17. Decor
    3. 7.3. Scripts to Make New Images: The Xtns Menu
    4. 7.4. Summary
  13. 8. Color
    1. 8.1. RGB and CMY Color
      1. 8.1.1. Additive Colors
      2. 8.1.2. Subtractive Colors
      3. 8.1.3. The Relationship Between Additive and Subtractive Systems
      4. 8.1.4. Color Depth
      5. 8.1.5. The Indexed Palette
      6. 8.1.6. Representing RGB Color in Web Pages
    2. 8.2. Working in HSV
      1. 8.2.1. Why Use HSV?
    3. 8.3. Working for Print: CMYK
      1. 8.3.1. CMYK for Professional Printers
    4. 8.4. GIMP's Other Color Choosers
      1. 8.4.1. The Triangle Color Selector
      2. 8.4.2. The CMYK Tab
      3. 8.4.3. The Watercolor Selector
    5. 8.5. Correcting Color Balance
      1. 8.5.1. Hue-Saturation
      2. 8.5.2. Color Balance
      3. 8.5.3. Using Curves or Levels for Balancing Colors
        1. 8.5.3.1. Levels
        2. 8.5.3.2. Curves
    6. 8.6. Working with Grayscale or Black and White
      1. 8.6.1. Methods of Measuring Brightness
      2. 8.6.2. Grayscale Mode
      3. 8.6.3. Desaturate
      4. 8.6.4. Hue-Saturation
      5. 8.6.5. Decompose
      6. 8.6.6. Channel Mixer
    7. 8.7. Coloring Monochrome Images and Making Sepia Photos
      1. 8.7.1. Automatic Conversion with the "Old Photo" Filter
      2. 8.7.2. Manual Conversion for Fine Control
        1. 8.7.2.1. Colorify
        2. 8.7.2.2. Colorize
        3. 8.7.2.3. Sample Colorize
        4. 8.7.2.4. Layer Modes
    8. 8.8. Using Threshold to Clean Up Scanned Images
    9. 8.9. Indexed Color
      1. 8.9.1. A Typical Indexing Problem: Choosing the Palette
      2. 8.9.2. Dithering an Indexed Image
        1. 8.9.2.1. Flatten for Better Dithering
      3. 8.9.3. Redesigning for Better Indexed Results
        1. 8.9.3.1. Editing the Palette
    10. 8.10. Picking Colors from the Image
    11. 8.11. The Color Channels
    12. 8.12. Selection Using Color Decomposition
      1. 8.12.1. Use Threshold and QuickMask to Improve the Selection
      2. 8.12.2. Decomposing to HSV
    13. 8.13. Some Color-mapping Toys
    14. 8.14. Color Profiles
      1. 8.14.1. Embedded Color Profiles
    15. 8.15. Summary
  14. 9. Advanced Drawing
    1. 9.1. Useful Mask Tricks
      1. 9.1.1. Making Text "Fade Out"
      2. 9.1.2. Making a Fuzzy Border
      3. 9.1.3. Even Bigger Fuzzy Borders
    2. 9.2. Layer Modes
      1. 9.2.1. A Quick Tour Through All of GIMP's Layer Modes
      2. 9.2.2. Addition, Subtract, and Difference
      3. 9.2.3. Multiply and Divide
      4. 9.2.4. Dodge and Burn, Screen and Overlay
      5. 9.2.5. Hard and Soft Lights
      6. 9.2.6. Darken or Lighten Only
      7. 9.2.7. Grain Extract and Grain Merge
      8. 9.2.8. Hue, Color, Saturation, and Value
    3. 9.3. Creating Depth: Drawing with Layer Modes
      1. 9.3.1. Combining Layer Modes: Making 3-D Letters
    4. 9.4. Drawing Realistic Shadows
      1. 9.4.1. Using an Object to Cast Its Own Shadow
      2. 9.4.2. Transparency: Add the Final Tweak
    5. 9.5. Realism and Multipoint Perspective
      1. 9.5.1. Single-Point Perspective
      2. 9.5.2. Two-Point Perspective
    6. 9.6. Adding Reflections and Shading
    7. 9.7. Making Brushes, Patterns, and Gradients
      1. 9.7.1. Making Brushes
        1. 9.7.1.1. The Clipboard Brush
        2. 9.7.1.2. Simple Image Brushes
        3. 9.7.1.3. Animated Brushes
        4. 9.7.1.4. Importing Animated Brushes
      2. 9.7.2. Making Patterns
      3. 9.7.3. Making Gradients
    8. 9.8. Summary
  15. 10. Advanced Compositing
    1. 10.1. Colorizing Images
    2. 10.2. Combining Patterns with Textures or Grain
    3. 10.3. Using Layer Modes to Improve Photos
      1. 10.3.1. Using Screen Mode for Dark Images
      2. 10.3.2. Using Overlay or Hard Light When Light Is Flat
      3. 10.3.3. Using Overlay or Burn to Cut Through Haze
    4. 10.4. Making Photos into Art Using Layer Modes
      1. 10.4.1. Making "Drawings" and Other Effects Using Layer Offset
        1. 10.4.1.1. Colored Pencil Drawings: Divide Mode
        2. 10.4.1.2. Black Velvet Paintings: Difference Mode
        3. 10.4.1.3. Embossing: Grain Extract
      2. 10.4.2. Adding Blurs and Other Tricks for Artistic Effects
    5. 10.5. Compositing Unrelated Images
      1. 10.5.1. Using Soft Light for Combining Images
      2. 10.5.2. Using Overlay for Dark Images
      3. 10.5.3. Using Screen to Get a Lighter Effect
      4. 10.5.4. Using Addition to Complement Light and Dark
      5. 10.5.5. Using Subtract to Make a Cutout Mask
      6. 10.5.6. Making Eerie Colors with Burn
      7. 10.5.7. Using Grain Merge to Add Texture
    6. 10.6. Stacking Images
      1. 10.6.1. Reducing Noise
      2. 10.6.2. Loading All the Images As Layers
      3. 10.6.3. Registering the Images Using Difference Mode
      4. 10.6.4. Increasing Light by Additive Stacking
      5. 10.6.5. Increasing Contrast by Multiplicative Stacking
      6. 10.6.6. Increasing Resolution by Averaging
    7. 10.7. Stitching Panoramas
      1. 10.7.1. Shooting the Images
        1. 10.7.1.1. Overlap Photos for Panoramas
        2. 10.7.1.2. Keep the Horizon Level
        3. 10.7.1.3. Match Exposure Levels
      2. 10.7.2. Decide on a Resolution
      3. 10.7.3. Calculate Your Expected New Image Size
      4. 10.7.4. Load the First Two Images
      5. 10.7.5. Make a Gradient Layer Mask
      6. 10.7.6. Fine-tune the Position of the Second Image
      7. 10.7.7. Adjust the Layer Mask
      8. 10.7.8. Adjust with Other Tools If Necessary
      9. 10.7.9. Add the Rest of the Images
      10. 10.7.10. Final Adjustments
    8. 10.8. Summary
  16. 11. Plug-ins and Scripting
    1. 11.1. Plug-ins
      1. 11.1.1. The Plug-in Browser
      2. 11.1.2. Finding External Plug-ins
        1. 11.1.2.1. The Plug-in Registry
        2. 11.1.2.2. Finding Plug-ins on the Web
        3. 11.1.2.3. Installing Scripts and Plug-ins
        4. 11.1.2.4. Installing a Script
        5. 11.1.2.5. Installing a C Plug-in
        6. 11.1.2.6. Installing a Gimp C Development Environment
        7. 11.1.2.7. Building a C Plug-in
    2. 11.2. Writing GIMP Scripts
      1. 11.2.1. Script-Fu (= Scheme (= Lisp))
      2. 11.2.2. Python
      3. 11.2.3. Perl
      4. 11.2.4. Reading and Modifying a Script-Fu Script
        1. 11.2.4.1. Find the Original Script
        2. 11.2.4.2. Edit a Copy of the Script
        3. 11.2.4.3. Make the Script Your Own
        4. 11.2.4.4. Try Making a Change
        5. 11.2.4.5. Try Your Fix
        6. 11.2.4.6. What Went Wrong? Some GIMP Peculiarities
        7. 11.2.4.7. Bringing the Shadow Back
        8. 11.2.4.8. Anatomy of Script-Fu: A Stroll Through the Sphere Script
    3. 11.3. User Interface Options for Scripts
      1. 11.3.1.
        1. 11.3.1.1. TOGGLE
        2. 11.3.1.2. STRING
        3. 11.3.1.3. ADJUSTMENT
        4. 11.3.1.4. TEXT
        5. 11.3.1.5. OPTION
        6. 11.3.1.6. RADIO
        7. 11.3.1.7. COLOR
        8. 11.3.1.8. FONT
        9. 11.3.1.9. FILENAME
        10. 11.3.1.10. DIRNAME
        11. 11.3.1.11. ENUM
        12. 11.3.1.12. BRUSH
        13. 11.3.1.13. PATTERN
        14. 11.3.1.14. GRADIENT
        15. 11.3.1.15. PALETTE
        16. 11.3.1.16. VECTORS
        17. 11.3.1.17. IMAGE, LAYER, CHANNEL, DRAWABLE
    4. 11.4. A Python Script
    5. 11.5. Finding Out How to Do Things: The Procedure Browser
    6. 11.6. A Perl Script
    7. 11.7. Writing a C Plug-in
      1. 11.7.1. A Tour Through Zealous Crop
      2. 11.7.2. The run Procedure
      3. 11.7.3. The Routine That Does the Work
      4. 11.7.4. Getting Pixels: Tiles and Pixel Regions
      5. 11.7.5. Searching the Image for Blank Rows and Columns
      6. 11.7.6. Writing to Pixel Regions
      7. 11.7.7. Making a New Plug-in
      8. 11.7.8. Layer Coordinates vs. Image Coordinates
      9. 11.7.9. Setting Boundaries
      10. 11.7.10. Handling the Edges One at a Time
    8. 11.8. Summary
  17. 12. Additional Topics
    1. 12.1. Printing
      1. 12.1.1. Printing with GTKPrint
      2. 12.1.2. Printing with Gutenprint
      3. 12.1.3. Setting Your Printer Model
      4. 12.1.4. Other Print Settings You Can Adjust
      5. 12.1.5. Fine-tuning: Image/Output Settings
    2. 12.2. Screen Shots and Scanners: The Acquire Menu
      1. 12.2.1. Scanning from GIMP
      2. 12.2.2. Screen Shots
    3. 12.3. GIMP Preferences
      1. 12.3.1. Environment
      2. 12.3.2. User Interface and Keyboard Shortcuts
      3. 12.3.3. Theme
      4. 12.3.4. Help System
      5. 12.3.5. Tool Options
      6. 12.3.6. Toolbox
      7. 12.3.7. Default Image
      8. 12.3.8. Default Grid
      9. 12.3.9. Image Windows
      10. 12.3.10. Image Windows: Appearance
        1. 12.3.10.1. Image Windows: Title and Status
      11. 12.3.11. Display
      12. 12.3.12. Color Management
      13. 12.3.13. Input Devices
        1. 12.3.13.1. Input Controllers
      14. 12.3.14. Window Management
      15. 12.3.15. Folders
    4. 12.4. GIMP Configuration Files
      1. 12.4.1. gimprc
        1. 12.4.1.1. Stingy Memory Use
        2. 12.4.1.2. Default Brush, Pattern, Palette, Gradient, and Font
        3. 12.4.1.3. Share Palette
        4. 12.4.1.4. "Perfect Mouse"
        5. 12.4.1.5. Default Threshold
        6. 12.4.1.6. Saving Modified Images
        7. 12.4.1.7. Help Browser on F1
        8. 12.4.1.8. Help Locales
        9. 12.4.1.9. Restoring Keyboard Shortcuts
        10. 12.4.1.10. Tear-off Menus
        11. 12.4.1.11. Plug-in Paths
      2. 12.4.2. Changing Preview Sizes with gtkrc
      3. 12.4.3. GIMP's Window Positions and Configuration: sessionrc
      4. 12.4.4. Key Bindings for Menu Entries: menurc
      5. 12.4.5. Other Files
      6. 12.4.6. Folders Inside the GIMP Profile
    5. 12.5. Additional Resources
      1. 12.5.1. Official GIMP Documentation
        1. 12.5.1.1. Other Official GIMP User Documentation
        2. 12.5.1.2. Developer Documentation
      2. 12.5.2. The Wiki
      3. 12.5.3. Other Tutorial Sites
      4. 12.5.4. Mailing Lists
      5. 12.5.5. Reporting Bugs
      6. 12.5.6. Finding Source Code at svn.gnome.org
      7. 12.5.7. Where to Find Freely Available Images
        1. 12.5.7.1. US Government Sites
      8. 12.5.8. Art Sites and Imaging Contests
    6. 12.6. Summary and Conclusion
  18. A. Getting and Installing GIMP
    1. A.1. Requirements
    2. A.2. Where to Find GIMP
    3. A.3. Installing on Windows
      1. A.3.1. The Quick Start Version
      2. A.3.2. The (Slightly) Longer Version
    4. A.4. Installing on Macintosh
      1. A.4.1. The Quick Start Version
      2. A.4.2. The (Slightly) Longer Version
    5. A.5. Installing on Linux (and Other UNIXy Systems)
      1. A.5.1. The Quick Start Version
      2. A.5.2. The (Slightly) Longer Version
        1. A.5.2.1. Suggested Installation Commands for Various Systems
  19. B. Installing GIMP on Older Systems
    1. B.1. Older Linux or UNIX Versions
    2. B.2. Older Windows Versions
    3. B.3. Older OS X Versions
  20. C. Building from Source
    1. C.1. Getting the Source
      1. C.1.1.
        1. C.1.1.1. Configure
        2. C.1.1.2. Make
        3. C.1.1.3. Make Install
  21. D. A Preview of GIMP 2.6
    1. D.1. No More Toolbox Menus
    2. D.2. The Improved Free/Polygonal Select Tool
    3. D.3. GEGL
    4. D.4. Color Tool Improvements
    5. D.5. Brush Dynamics
    6. D.6. Text Tool Wrapping
    7. D.7. Other Changes