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Bebop to the Boolean Boogie

Book Description

This entertaining and readable book provides a solid, comprehensive introduction to contemporary electronics. It's not a "how-to-do" electronics book, but rather an in-depth explanation of how today's integrated circuits work, how they are designed and manufactured, and how they are put together into powerful and sophisticated electronic systems. In addition to the technical details, it's packed with practical information of interest and use to engineers and support personnel in the electronics industry. It even tells how to pronounce the alphabet soup of acronyms that runs rampant in the industry.
CONTENTS:
Section 1: Fundamentals
Chapter 1 Analog versus Digital
Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Crystals
Chapter 3 Conductors, Insulators, and Other Stuff
Chapter 4 Semiconductors (Diodes and Transistors)
Chapter 5 Primitive Logic Functions
Chapter 6 Using Transistors to Build Logic Gates
Chapter 7 Alternative Numbering Systems
Chapter 8 Binary Arithmetic
Chapter 9 Boolean Algebra
Chapter 10 Karnaugh Maps
Chapter 11 Slightly More Complex Functions
Chapter 12 State Machines
Chapter 13 Analog-to-Digital and Vice Versa
Section 2: Components and Processes
Chapter 14 Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Chapter 15 Memory ICs
Chapter 16 Programmable ICs
Chapter 17 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs)
Chapter 18 Circuit Boards
Chapter 19 Hybrids
Chapter 20 System-in-Package (Sip) and Friends
Chapter 21 Alternative and Future Technologies Section 3: Design Tools and Stuff
Chapter 22 General Concepts
Chapter 23 Design and Verification Tools

Appendix A Assertion-Level Logic
Appendix B Positive Logic versus Negative Logic
Appendix C Reed-Müller Logic
Appendix D Gray Codes
Appendix E Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs)
Appendix F Pass-Transistor Logic
Appendix G More on Semiconductors
Appendix H Rounding Algorithms 101
Appendix I Pass-Transistor Logic
Appendix J An Interesting Conundrum
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Glossary
Index

*Written in conversational, fun style that has generated a strong following for the author and sales of over 14,000 copies for the first two editions *The Third Edition is even bigger and better, with lots of new material, illustrations, and an expanded glossary
*Ideal for training incoming engineers and technicians, and for people in marketing or other related fields or anyone else who needs to familiarize themselves with electronics terms and technology

Table of Contents

  1. Brief Table of Contents
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Foreword
  6. About this Book
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Author
  9. Part I. Fundamentals
    1. Chapter 1. Analog Versus Digital
      1. It was a dark and stormy night…
      2. Analog versus digital views of the world
      3. Multi-value digital systems
      4. Experiments with bricks
    2. Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Crystals
      1. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
      2. Quantum Levels and Electron Shells
      3. Making Molecules
      4. Crystals and Other Structures
    3. Chapter 3. Conductors, Insulators, and Other Stuff
      1. Conductors and Insulators
      2. Voltage, Current, and Resistance
      3. Resistance and Resistors
      4. Capacitance and Capacitors
      5. Inductance and Inductors
      6. Memristance and Memristors
      7. Impedance and Reactance
      8. Admittance, Conductance, and Susceptance
      9. Unit Qualifiers
    4. Chapter 4. Semiconductors (Diodes and Transistors)
      1. Herding Wild Electrons
      2. The Electromechanical Relay
      3. The First Vacuum Tubes
      4. Semiconductors
      5. Semiconductor Diodes
      6. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
      7. Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)
      8. The Transistor as a Switch
      9. Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors
      10. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
      11. Organic LEDs (OLEDs)
      12. Active Versus Passive and Electric Versus Electronic
    5. Chapter 5. Primitive Logic Functions
      1. Switch Representations of AND and OR Functions
      2. FALSE and True Versus OPEN and CLOSED
      3. BUF and NOT Functions
      4. “Connect the NOTs”
      5. AND, OR, and XOR Functions
      6. NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions
      7. Not a Lot
      8. Functions Versus Gates
    6. Chapter 6. Using Transistors to Build Logic Gates
      1. NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS
      2. Using os and 1s Instead of Fs and Ts
      3. NOT and BUF Gates
      4. NAND and AND Gates
      5. NOR and OR Gates
      6. XNOR and XOR Gates
      7. XNOR and XOR Gates: Pass-Transistor Implementations
      8. Pass-Transistor Logic
    7. Chapter 7. Alternative Number Systems
      1. Fingers, Toes, and Pebbles
      2. Bones with Notches
      3. Tally Sticks: The Hidden Dangers
      4. The Abacus
      5. Roman Numerals
      6. Decimal (Base-10)
      7. Duo-Decimal (Base-12)
      8. Sexagesimal (Base-60)
      9. The Concepts of Zero and Negative Numbers
      10. Vigesimal (Base-20)
      11. Jobs Abound for Time-Travelers
      12. Quinary (Base Five)
      13. Binary (Base-2)
      14. Octal (Base-8) and Hexadecimal (Base-16)
      15. Way Back in the Mists of Time
      16. Representing Numbers Using Powers
      17. Lucky and Unlucky Numbers
      18. Tertiary Logic
    8. Chapter 8. Binary Arithmetic
      1. Before We Start ….
      2. Unsigned Binary Numbers
      3. Adding Unsigned Binary Numbers
      4. Nines’ and Ten’s Complements
      5. Subtracting Unsigned Binary Numbers
      6. Sign-Magnitude Binary Numbers
      7. Signed Binary Numbers
      8. Adding Signed Binary Numbers
      9. Subtracting Signed Binary Numbers
      10. Binary Multiplication
      11. Binary Division
    9. Chapter 9. Boolean Algebra
      1. Cabbages, Parrots, and Buckets of Burning Oil
      2. Primitive Logic Functions
      3. Combining a Single Variable With Logic 0 or Logic 1
      4. The Idempotent Rules
      5. The Complementary Rules
      6. The Involution Rule
      7. The Commutative Rules
      8. The Associative Rules
      9. Precedence of Operators
      10. The First Distributive Rule
      11. The Second Distributive Rule
      12. The Simplification Rules
      13. DeMorgan Transformations
      14. Minterms and Maxterms
      15. Sum-of-Products and Product-of-Sums
      16. Canonical Forms
      17. An Interesting Conundrum
    10. Chapter 10. Karnaugh Maps
      1. The Tree of Porphyry
      2. John Venn and his Venn Diagrams
      3. Allan Marquand and Lewis Carroll
      4. Maurice Karnaugh and Karnaugh Maps
      5. Minimization using Karnaugh Maps
      6. Grouping Minterms
      7. Incompletely Specified Functions
      8. Populating Maps using Os Versus 1 s
    11. Chapter 11. Slightly More Complex Functions
      1. First gather a bucket of logic gates
      2. Scalar versus vector notation
      3. Equality comparators
      4. Multiplexers
      5. Decoders
      6. Tri-state functions
      7. Combinational versus sequential functions
      8. RS latch (NOR implementation)
      9. RS latch (NAND implementation)
      10. D-type latches
      11. D-type flip-flops
      12. Implementing a D-type flip-flop
      13. JK and T flip-flops
      14. Shift registers
      15. Counters
      16. Setup and hold times
      17. Brick by brick
    12. Chapter 12. State Machines
      1. “Is That a Gizmo in Your Pocket, Or …”
      2. State Diagrams
      3. State Tables
      4. State Machines
      5. State Assignment
      6. Don't Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up Conditions
    13. Chapter 13. Analog-to-Digital and Vice Versa
      1. Setting the scene
      2. Analog-to-digital
      3. Digital-to-analog
      4. DSP versus DSP
      5. Analog signal processing (ASP)
      6. Digital signal processing (DSP)
      7. DSP Examples
      8. What implements the digital signal processing?
  10. Part II. Components and Processes
    1. Chapter 14. Integrated Circuits (ICs)
      1. The first integrated circuits
      2. An overview of the fabrication process
      3. A slightly more detailed look at the fabrication process
      4. An introduction to the packaging process
      5. Integrated circuits versus discrete components
      6. Different types of ICs
      7. TTL, ECL, and CMOS
      8. Core supply voltages
      9. Equivalent gates
      10. Device geometries
      11. What comes after optical lithography?
      12. How many transistors?
      13. Moore’s law
    2. Chapter 15. Memory ICs
      1. RAMs and ROMs
      2. Cells, words, and arrays
      3. Addressing a word in memory
      4. Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Etc.
      5. Bits and bytes
      6. ROM control decoding
      7. RAM with separate data in and data out busses
      8. RAM with single bidirectional bus
      9. Increasing width and depth
      10. Mask-programmed ROMs
      11. PROMs
      12. EPROMs
      13. EEPROMs/E2PROMS
      14. Flash
      15. SRAMs and DRAMs
      16. SDRAMs
      17. DDR, DDR2, DDR3, QDR, RAMBUS, Etc.
      18. SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs
      19. ECC memory
      20. MRAMs
      21. nvRAMs, FRAMs, PRAMs, RRAMs, CBRAMs, SONOS, Etc.
    3. Chapter 16. Programmable ICs
      1. A simple programmable function
      2. Fusible-link technologies
      3. Antifuse technologies
      4. EPROM, E2PROM, FLASH, and SRAM Technologies
      5. The first programmable logic devices (PLDs)
      6. PROMs
      7. PLAs
      8. PALs and GALs
      9. Additional programmable options
      10. Introducing CPLDs
      11. Introducing FPGAs
      12. Alternative FPGA architectures
      13. Alternative FPGA configuration technologies
      14. Mixed-Signal FPGAs, CSSPs, and …
    4. Chapter 17. Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs)
      1. Introducing ASICs
      2. Full Custom Devices
      3. Gate Arrays
      4. High-Level View of the Gate ArrayDesign Flow
      5. Standard Cell Devices
      6. High-Level View of the Standard CellDesign Flow
      7. 1T Versus 6T SRAM
      8. Structured ASICs
      9. Input/Output (I/O) Cells and Pads
      10. ASICs Versus ASSPs
      11. Who Are All the Players?
      12. Summary
    5. Chapter 18. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
      1. Not Much Fun
      2. The First Circuit Boards
      3. PCBs and PWBs
      4. RoHS and Lead-Free Solder
      5. Subtractive Processes
      6. Additive Processes
      7. Single-Sided Boards
      8. Lead Through-Hole (LTH)
      9. Wave Soldering
      10. Surface Mount Technology (SMT)
      11. Double-Sided Boards
      12. Holes Versus Vias
      13. Multilayer Boards
      14. Through-Hole, Blind, and Buried Vias
      15. Power and Ground Planes
      16. High Density Interconnect (HDI) and Microvia Technologies
      17. Backplanes and Motherboards
      18. Conductive Ink Technology
      19. Chip-on-Board (COB)
      20. Flexible Printed Circuits (FPCs)
    6. Chapter 19. Hybrids
      1. The Offspring Resulting From Crossbreeding
      2. Hybrid Substrates
      3. The Thick-Film Process
      4. The Thin-Film Process
      5. The Packaging Process
    7. Chapter 20. Advanced Packaging Techniques
      1. Sliding down the rabbit hole
      2. Wire bonds versus flip-chip
      3. Wire bonding and Flip-chip
      4. Chip-scale package (CSP) technology
      5. 3-D Die stacking
      6. System-in-package (SiP), PiP, and PoP
      7. A positive plethora of substrates
      8. An example SiP based on cofired ceramics
      9. The mind boggles
    8. Chapter 21. Alternative and Future Technologies
      1. A Smorgasbord of Technologies
      2. Reconfigurable Computing
      3. Elemental Computing Arrays (ECAs)
      4. Optical Interconnect
      5. Optical Memories
      6. Protein Switches and Memories
      7. Electromagnetic Transistor Fabrication
      8. Heterojunction Transistors
      9. Buckyballs and Nanotubes
      10. Diamond Substrates
      11. Conductive Adhesives
      12. Superconductors
      13. Nanotechnology
      14. Once Again, the Mind Boggles
      15. Summary
  11. Part III. Design Tools and Stuff
    1. Chapter 22. General Concepts
      1. Stuff, More Stuff, and Yet More Stuff
      2. The Origins of EDA
      3. Automation
      4. Embedded Systems
      5. Programming Versus Hardware Design Languages
      6. Netlists
      7. Different Levels of Abstraction
      8. Different Languages
      9. Electronic System Level (ESL)
    2. Chapter 23. Design and Verification Tools
      1. Weasel Words
      2. Design Capture
      3. Functional Verification (Simulation)
      4. Formal Verification
      5. Logic Synthesis
      6. Layout (Place-and-Route)
      7. Parasitic Extraction
      8. Timing Analysis
      9. Design for Manufacturability (DFT)
      10. And So Much More …
      11. Turn That Frown Upside Down
  12. Appendix A. Assertion-Level Logic
    1. Beware—Here Be Dragons!
    2. Standard versus Assertion-Level Logic
    3. Did Someone Just Shriek?
  13. Appendix B. Positive Versus Negative Logic
    1. Are You Positive About That?
    2. Physical to Logical Mapping (NMOS Logic)
    3. Physical to Logical Mapping (PMOS Logic)
  14. Appendix C. Reed-Müller Logic
    1. “But That’s Not Logical, Captain!”
  15. Appendix D. Gray Codes
    1. Gray, But Not Gloomy
    2. Generating a Gray Code
    3. Binary-to-Gray and Gray-to-Binary
    4. It’s too Noisy in Here!
    5. Actually Generating a Gray Code
    6. Generating Sub-2n Sequences
    7. Generating Sub-2n Sequences with Consecutive Values
  16. Appendix E. Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs)
    1. The ouroboros of the digital consciousness
    2. Many-to-one implementations
    3. More taps than you know what to do with
    4. One-to-many implementations
    5. Seeding an LFSR
    6. FIFO applications
    7. Modifying LFSRs to sequence 2n values
    8. Accessing an LFSR’s previous value
    9. Encryption and decryption applications
    10. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) applications
    11. Data compression applications
    12. Built-in self-test (BIST) applications
    13. Pseudo-random number applications
    14. Last but not least
  17. Appendix F. Pass-Transistor Logic
    1. “Would you pass the logic, please?”
  18. Appendix G. More on Semiconductors
    1. P-N junctions, depletion zones, and diodes
    2. Junction FETs (JFETs) and MESFETs
    3. Depletion-mode MOSFETs
    4. Enhancement-mode MOSFETs
  19. Appendix H. Rounding Algorithms 101
    1. Introduction
    2. Round-Half-Up (Arithmetic Rounding)
    3. Round-half-down
    4. Round-half-even (banker’s rounding)
    5. Round-half-odd
    6. Round-ceiling (toward positive infinity)
    7. Round-floor (toward negative infinity)
    8. Round-toward-zero
    9. Round-away-from-zero
    10. Round-up
    11. Round-down
    12. Truncation (chopping)
    13. Round-alternate
    14. Round-random (stochastic rounding)
    15. Rounding sign-magnitude binary values
    16. Rounding signed binary values
    17. Summary
  20. Appendix I. An Interesting Conundrum
    1. Inverting three signals using only two NOT gates
  21. Appendix J. A No-Holds Barred Seafood Gumbo
    1. Downhill mud-wrestling
    2. Ingredients
    3. Step-by-step instructions
    4. Serving your gorgeous gourmet gumbo
  22. Glossary
  23. Glossary
  24. Index
    1. SYMBOL
    2. A
    3. B
    4. C
    5. D
    6. E
    7. F
    8. G
    9. H
    10. I
    11. J
    12. K
    13. L
    14. M
    15. N
    16. O
    17. P
    18. Q
    19. R
    20. S
    21. T
    22. U
    23. V
    24. W
    25. X
    26. Y