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Beautiful Code

Cover of Beautiful Code by Greg Wilson... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Beautiful Code
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Foreword
    4. Preface
      1. How This Book Is Organized
      2. Conventions Used in This Book
      3. Using Code Examples
      4. How to Contact Us
      5. Safari® Enabled
    5. 1. A Regular Expression Matcher
      1. 1.1. The Practice of Programming
      2. 1.2. Implementation
      3. 1.3. Discussion
      4. 1.4. Alternatives
      5. 1.5. Building on It
      6. 1.6. Conclusion
    6. 2. Subversion's Delta Editor: Interface As Ontology
      1. 2.1. Version Control and Tree Transformation
      2. 2.2. Expressing Tree Differences
      3. 2.3. The Delta Editor Interface
      4. 2.4. But Is It Art?
      5. 2.5. Abstraction As a Spectator Sport
      6. 2.6. Conclusions
    7. 3. The Most Beautiful Code I Never Wrote
      1. 3.1. The Most Beautiful Code I Ever Wrote
      2. 3.2. More and More with Less and Less
      3. 3.3. Perspective
      4. 3.4. What Is Writing?
      5. 3.5. Conclusion
      6. 3.6. Acknowledgments
    8. 4. Finding Things
      1. 4.1. On Time
      2. 4.2. Problem: Weblog Data
      3. 4.3. Problem: Who Fetched What, When?
      4. 4.4. Search in the Large
      5. 4.5. Conclusion
    9. 5. Correct, Beautiful, Fast (in That Order): Lessons from Designing XML Verifiers
      1. 5.1. The Role of XML Validation
      2. 5.2. The Problem
      3. 5.3. Version 1: The Naïve Implementation
      4. 5.4. Version 2: Imitating the BNF Grammar O(N)
      5. 5.5. Version 3: First Optimization O(log N)
      6. 5.6. Version 4: Second Optimization: Don't Check Twice
      7. 5.7. Version 5: Third Optimization O(1)
      8. 5.8. Version 6: Fourth Optimization: Caching
      9. 5.9. The Moral of the Story
    10. 6. Framework for Integrated Test: Beauty Through Fragility
      1. 6.1. An Acceptance Testing Framework in Three Classes
      2. 6.2. The Challenge of Framework Design
      3. 6.3. An Open Framework
      4. 6.4. How Simple Can an HTML Parser Be?
      5. 6.5. Conclusion
    11. 7. Beautiful Tests
      1. 7.1. That Pesky Binary Search
      2. 7.2. Introducing JUnit
      3. 7.3. Nailing Binary Search
      4. 7.4. Conclusion
    12. 8. On-the-Fly Code Generation for Image Processing
    13. 9. Top Down Operator Precedence
      1. 9.1. JavaScript
      2. 9.2. Symbol Table
      3. 9.3. Tokens
      4. 9.4. Precedence
      5. 9.5. Expressions
      6. 9.6. Infix Operators
      7. 9.7. Prefix Operators
      8. 9.8. Assignment Operators
      9. 9.9. Constants
      10. 9.10. Scope
      11. 9.11. Statements
      12. 9.12. Functions
      13. 9.13. Array and Object Literals
      14. 9.14. Things to Do and Think About
    14. 10. The Quest for an Accelerated Population Count
      1. 10.1. Basic Methods
      2. 10.2. Divide and Conquer
      3. 10.3. Other Methods
      4. 10.4. Sum and Difference of Population Counts of Two Words
      5. 10.5. Comparing the Population Counts of Two Words
      6. 10.6. Counting the 1-Bits in an Array
      7. 10.7. Applications
    15. 11. Secure Communication: The Technology Of Freedom
      1. 11.1. The Heart of the Start
      2. 11.2. Untangling the Complexity of Secure Messaging
      3. 11.3. Usability Is the Key
      4. 11.4. The Foundation
      5. 11.5. The Test Suite
      6. 11.6. The Functioning Prototype
      7. 11.7. Clean Up, Plug In, Rock On…
      8. 11.8. Hacking in the Himalayas
      9. 11.9. The Invisible Hand Moves
      10. 11.10. Speed Does Matter
      11. 11.11. Communications Privacy for Individual Rights
      12. 11.12. Hacking the Civilization
    16. 12. Growing Beautiful Code in BioPerl
      1. 12.1. BioPerl and the Bio::Graphics Module
      2. 12.2. The Bio::Graphics Design Process
      3. 12.3. Extending Bio::Graphics
      4. 12.4. Conclusions and Lessons Learned
    17. 13. The Design of the Gene Sorte
      1. 13.1. The User Interface of the Gene Sorter
      2. 13.2. Maintaining a Dialog with the User over the Web
      3. 13.3. A Little Polymorphism Can Go a Long Way
      4. 13.4. Filtering Down to Just the Relevant Genes
      5. 13.5. Theory of Beautiful Code in the Large
      6. 13.6. Conclusion
    18. 14. How Elegant Code Evolves with Hardware The Case of Gaussian Elimination
      1. 14.1. The Effects of Computer Architectures on Matrix Algorithms
      2. 14.2. A Decompositional Approach
      3. 14.3. A Simple Version
      4. 14.4. LINPACK's DGEFA Subroutine
      5. 14.5. LAPACK DGETRF
      6. 14.6. Recursive LU
      7. 14.7. ScaLAPACK PDGETRF
      8. 14.8. Multithreading for Multi-Core Systems
      9. 14.9. A Word About the Error Analysis and Operation Count
      10. 14.10. Future Directions for Research
      11. 14.11. Further Reading
    19. 15. The Long-Term Benefits of Beautiful Design
      1. 15.1. My Idea of Beautiful Code
      2. 15.2. Introducing the CERN Library
      3. 15.3. Outer Beauty
      4. 15.4. Inner Beauty
      5. 15.5. Conclusion
    20. 16. The Linux Kernel Driver Model: The Benefits of Working Together
      1. 16.1. Humble Beginnings
      2. 16.2. Reduced to Even Smaller Bits
      3. 16.3. Scaling Up to Thousands of Devices
      4. 16.4. Small Objects Loosely Joined
    21. 17. Another Level of Indirection
      1. 17.1. From Code to Pointers
      2. 17.2. From Function Arguments to Argument Pointers
      3. 17.3. From Filesystems to Filesystem Layers
      4. 17.4. From Code to a Domain-Specific Language
      5. 17.5. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
      6. 17.6. Layers Forever?
    22. 18. Python's Dictionary Implementation: Being All Things to All People
      1. 18.1. Inside the Dictionary
      2. 18.2. Special Accommodations
      3. 18.3. Collisions
      4. 18.4. Resizing
      5. 18.5. Iterations and Dynamic Changes
      6. 18.6. Conclusion
      7. 18.7. Acknowledgments
    23. 19. Multidimensional Iterators in NumPy
      1. 19.1. Key Challenges in N-Dimensional Array Operations
      2. 19.2. Memory Models for an N-Dimensional Array
      3. 19.3. NumPy Iterator Origins
      4. 19.4. Iterator Design
      5. 19.5. Iterator Interface
      6. 19.6. Iterator Use
      7. 19.7. Conclusion
    24. 20. A Highly Reliable Enterprise System for NASA's Mars Rover Mission
      1. 20.1. The Mission and the Collaborative Information Portal
      2. 20.2. Mission Needs
      3. 20.3. System Architecture
      4. 20.4. Case Study: The Streamer Service
      5. 20.5. Reliability
      6. 20.6. Robustness
      7. 20.7. Conclusion
    25. 21. ERP5: Designing for Maximum Adaptability
      1. 21.1. General Goals of ERP
      2. 21.2. ERP5
      3. 21.3. The Underlying Zope Platform
      4. 21.4. ERP5 Project Concepts
      5. 21.5. Coding the ERP5 Project
      6. 21.6. Conclusion
    26. 22. A Spoonful of Sewage
    27. 23. Distributed Programming with MapReduce
      1. 23.1. A Motivating Example
      2. 23.2. The MapReduce Programming Model
      3. 23.3. Other MapReduce Examples
      4. 23.4. A Distributed MapReduce Implementation
      5. 23.5. Extensions to the Model
      6. 23.6. Conclusion
      7. 23.7. Further Reading
      8. 23.8. Acknowledgments
      9. 23.9. Appendix: Word Count Solution
    28. 24. Beautiful Concurrency
      1. 24.1. A Simple Example: Bank Accounts
      2. 24.2. Software Transactional Memory
      3. 24.3. The Santa Claus Problem
      4. 24.4. Reflections on Haskell
      5. 24.5. Conclusion
      6. 24.6. Acknowledgments
    29. 25. Syntactic Abstraction: The syntax-case Expander
      1. 25.1. Brief Introduction to syntax-case
      2. 25.2. Expansion Algorithm
      3. 25.3. Example
      4. 25.4. Conclusion
    30. 26. Labor-Saving Architecture: An Object-Oriented Framework for Networked Software
      1. 26.1. Sample Application: Logging Service
      2. 26.2. Object-Oriented Design of the Logging Server Framework
      3. 26.3. Implementing Sequential Logging Servers
      4. 26.4. Implementing Concurrent Logging Servers
      5. 26.5. Conclusion
    31. 27. Integrating Business Partners the RESTful Way
      1. 27.1. Project Background
      2. 27.2. Exposing Services to External Clients
      3. 27.3. Routing the Service Using the Factory Pattern
      4. 27.4. Exchanging Data Using E-Business Protocols
      5. 27.5. Conclusion
    32. 28. Beautiful Debugging
      1. 28.1. Debugging a Debugger
      2. 28.2. A Systematic Process
      3. 28.3. A Search Problem
      4. 28.4. Finding the Failure Cause Automatically
      5. 28.5. Delta Debugging
      6. 28.6. Minimizing Input
      7. 28.7. Hunting the Defect
      8. 28.8. A Prototype Problem
      9. 28.9. Conclusion
      10. 28.10. Acknowledgments
      11. 28.11. Further Reading
    33. 29. Treating Code As an Essay
    34. 30. When a Button Is All That Connects You to the World
      1. 30.1. Basic Design Model
      2. 30.2. Input Interface
      3. 30.3. Efficiency of the User Interface
      4. 30.4. Download
      5. 30.5. Future Directions
    35. 31. Emacspeak: The Complete Audio Desktop
      1. 31.1. Producing Spoken Output
      2. 31.2. Speech-Enabling Emacs
      3. 31.3. Painless Access to Online Information
      4. 31.4. Summary
      5. 31.5. Acknowledgments
    36. 32. Code in Motion
      1. 32.1. On Being "Bookish"
      2. 32.2. Alike Looking Alike
      3. 32.3. The Perils of Indentation
      4. 32.4. Navigating Code
      5. 32.5. The Tools We Use
      6. 32.6. DiffMerge's Checkered Past
      7. 32.7. Conclusion
      8. 32.8. Acknowledgments
      9. 32.9. Further Reading
    37. 33. Writing Programs for "The Book"
      1. 33.1. The Nonroyal Road
      2. 33.2. Warning to Parenthophobes
      3. 33.3. Three in a Row
      4. 33.4. The Slippery Slope
      5. 33.5. The Triangle Inequality
      6. 33.6. Meandering On
      7. 33.7. "Duh!"—I Mean "Aha!"
      8. 33.8. Conclusion
      9. 33.9. Further Reading
    38. A. Afterword
    39. B. Contributors
    40. Colophon
    41. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Hacking in the Himalayas

Through 2000 and 2001 I was able to work on Cryptonite only intermittently, both because of other commitments and because the project needed peace and quiet, which was in limited supply when I was traveling around and living in chaotic, cacophonous, polluted Indian cities.

In the summer of 2002, my wife and I took a vacation in the Himalayas, where I finally managed to get the time to finish writing major chunks of the code, including adding important key management abilities to Crypt::GPG, and creating an integrated interface for key management, which is a critical part of the whole web-of-trust mechanism. The core of this management interface, the Edit Key dialog, is shown in Figure 11-5. It enables fingerprint verification, the viewing and creation of user identity certifications, and the assigning of trust values to keys.

I also ported the system over to OpenBSD, which would be the ultimate deployment platform.

We already had all the other major components for a secure email service in place, and as it would still take some time to get Cryptonite ready for public use, we decided to go ahead and launch a commercial secure email service right away. This would enable me to spend more time on Cryptonite development, and to begin building a community of testers immediately.

So in mid-2003, we launched the Neomailbox secure IMAP, POP3, and SMTP email service. In the following years, this proved to be an excellent move that would help fund development, freeing ...

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