You are previewing Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology.
O'Reilly logo
Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology

Book Description

A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today’s Process Control Operators

In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don’t exist.

Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration.

Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know “what the numbers mean” so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably.

T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry.

Coverage includes

• Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures

• Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation

• Understanding Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and the Ideal Gas Law

• Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions

• Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems

• Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization

• Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control

• Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries

• Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems

• Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput

• Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors

• Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling

• Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification

Table of Contents

  1. About This eBook
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. About the Author
  10. Part I: Basic Principles
    1. Chapter 1. Introductory Concepts
      1. 1.1 Using This Book
      2. 1.2 Steps for Solving a Problem
        1. 1. Read and Understand the Problem
        2. 2. Define the Question
        3. 3. Determine a Basis
        4. 4. Determine Available Data
        5. 5. Determine Data Conflicts
        6. 6. Organize Equations
        7. 7. Count the Number of Variables
        8. 8. Divide and Conquer
        9. 9. Input Data with Units
        10. 10. Add Appropriate Conversion Factors
        11. 11. Check Dimensional Consistency
        12. 12. Turn the Crank
        13. 13. Judge the Results
      3. 1.3 Degrees of Freedom
      4. 1.4 Dimensional Consistency and the Dimensional Equation
      5. 1.5 The Big Four: Unit Operations of Process Technology
        1. Movement of Material
        2. Heating and/or Cooling of Material
        3. Chemical Reactions of the Material
        4. Separations and Purification of the Material
      6. 1.6 Concluding Comments
      7. Problems
    2. Chapter 2. Areas, Volumes, Complex Objects, and Interpolation
      1. 2.1 Calculating Areas
        1. Area of a Square
        2. Area of a Rectangle
        3. Area of a Parallelogram
        4. Area of a Triangle
        5. Area of a Circle
        6. Area of an Ellipse
        7. Exterior Area of a Cylinder
        8. Exterior Area of an Elliptical Cylinder
        9. Exterior Area of a Right Cone
        10. Exterior Area of a Sphere
      2. 2.2 Calculating Volumes
        1. Volume of a Cube
        2. Volume of a Rectangular Prism
        3. Volume of a Triangular Prism
        4. Volume of a Cylinder
        5. Volume of an Elliptical Cylinder
        6. Volume of a Regular Pyramid
        7. Volume of a Cone
        8. Volume of a Sphere
        9. Volume of a Spherical Segment
      3. 2.3 Complex Objects: Areas and Volumes
      4. 2.4 Interpolation and Extrapolation
      5. 2.5 Concluding Comments
      6. Problems
        1. Areas
        2. Volumes
        3. Complex Areas
        4. Complex Volumes
    3. Chapter 3. Units of Measure
      1. 3.1 Time
      2. 3.2 Length
      3. 3.3 Volume
      4. 3.4 Temperature
      5. 3.5 Mass, Weight, and Force
      6. 3.6 Vectors
      7. 3.7 Torque, Moments, and Couples
      8. 3.8 Density and Specific Gravity
      9. 3.9 The Mole Unit
      10. 3.10 Concentrations
        1. Parts Per Million
      11. 3.11 Pressure
      12. 3.12 Work and Power
      13. 3.13 Accuracy, Precision, and Variance
      14. 3.14 Engineering Accuracy and Significant Figures
      15. 3.15 Scientific Notation
      16. 3.16 The Vernier Scale
      17. 3.17 Prefixes: M versus m
      18. 3.18 Concluding Comments
      19. References
      20. Problems
    4. Chapter 4. Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
      1. 4.1 Boyle’s Law
      2. 4.2 Charles’s Law
      3. 4.3 Absolute Temperature
      4. 4.4 The Ideal Gas Law
      5. 4.5 Real Gases
      6. 4.6 Volumetric Fractions and Mole Fractions
      7. 4.7 Standard Conditions
      8. 4.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Appendix 4A: Equations of State
        1. The van der Waals Equation of State
        2. Compressibility Factors
      10. Problems
    5. Chapter 5. Thermodynamics: Energy, Heat, and Work
      1. 5.1 Heat and Its Equivalence
      2. 5.2 The Conservation of Energy and Matter
      3. 5.3 Work
      4. 5.4 Heat Capacity
        1. Cp: Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure
        2. CV: Heat Capacity at Constant Volume
      5. 5.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy
      6. 5.6 Power
      7. 5.7 Entropy
      8. 5.8 Reversible versus Irreversible Systems
      9. 5.9 Functions of State
      10. 5.10 The Mollier Diagram
      11. 5.11 Steam Tables
      12. 5.12 The Entropy of Mixtures
        1. Understanding a Process Operation
      13. 5.13 Latent Heat versus Sensible Heat
      14. 5.14 Free Energy, Chemical Potential, and Entropy
        1. Free Energy
        2. Chemical Potential
        3. Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
      15. 5.15 Laws of Thermodynamics
        1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
        2. First Law of Thermodynamics
        3. Second Law of Thermodynamics
        4. Third Law of Thermodynamics
      16. 5.16 Adiabatic Processes: Compression and Expansion
      17. 5.17 The Carnot Cycle and Thermodynamic Efficiency
      18. 5.18 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
        1. Refrigeration
        2. Heat Pumps
      19. 5.19 Joule-Thomson Expansion
      20. 5.20 Turbo-Expanders
      21. 5.21 Systems
      22. 5.22 Concluding Comments
      23. Appendix 5A: Concepts of Activity and Fugacity
      24. Problems
    6. Chapter 6. Phase Equilibria
      1. 6.1 The Units of Equilibrium: Partial Pressure and Mole Fraction
      2. 6.2 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
      3. 6.3 Chemical Potential
      4. 6.4 Boiling
        1. Mixtures
        2. Vacuum
      5. 6.5 Azeotropes
      6. 6.6 Degrees of Freedom and the Gibbs’ Phase Rule
        1. Gibbs’ Phase Rule
        2. The Triple Point
      7. 6.7 Phase Transitions
      8. 6.8 Effects of Impurities
      9. 6.9 Quality, Bubble Point, and Dew Point
      10. 6.10 Equilibrium Equations
        1. Tables
        2. K Values
        3. Graphs
      11. 6.11 Effects of Mass and Volume
      12. 6.12 Osmotic Pressure
      13. 6.13 Ion Exchange
      14. 6.14 Supercritical Fluids
      15. 6.15 Concluding Comments
      16. Problems
    7. Chapter 7. Chemical Reaction Kinetics
      1. 7.1 Effect of Reactant Concentration
        1. Higher-Order Reactions
        2. Half-Life of First-Order Reactions
      2. 7.2 Complex Mechanisms with Intermediates
        1. Chemical Reaction-Rate Expressions
        2. Detection of Intermediates
        3. Rate-Limiting Step
      3. 7.3 Effect of Temperature
      4. 7.4 Catalysts
      5. 7.5 Yield, Fractional Conversion, and Extent of Reaction
        1. Yield
        2. Fractional Conversion
        3. Extent of Reaction
      6. 7.6 Equilibrium Reactions and the Law of Mass Action
        1. Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium
      7. 7.7 Effect of Phase Behavior
      8. 7.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Problems
  11. Part II: Calculations: Material and Energy Balances
    1. Chapter 8. Material Balances
      1. 8.1 Methodology
        1. 1. Understand the Problem
        2. 2. Define the Question
        3. 3. Sketch a Representation
        4. 4. Draw the Envelope(s)
        5. 5. Identify and Label Streams
        6. 6. Determine What Is Known and Not Known for Each Stream
        7. 7. Write Equations, Equalities, Correlations, and Restrictions
        8. 8. Classify Independent and Dependent Variables
        9. 9. Specify a Basis
        10. 10. Determine Degrees of Freedom
        11. 11. Calculate
        12. 12. Judge the Result
        13. Writing Equations, Equalities, Correlations, and Restrictions
        14. Subscript Conventions
        15. When Things Don’t Add Up
      2. 8.2 The Assumption of Steady-State
      3. 8.3 Single-Phase Material Balances for Separation Processes
      4. 8.4 Single-Phase Material Balances for Blending Processes
      5. 8.5 Multiple-Phase Material Balances
      6. 8.6 Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
        1. Extent of Reaction
        2. Limiting Reactant
        3. Conversion
        4. Yield
        5. Extent of Reaction versus the Conversion of a Limiting Reactant
      7. 8.7 Material Balances in the Real World
        1. Prominently Missing Material Balances
      8. 8.8 Concluding Comments
      9. Appendix 8A: Business Economics
        1. Assets, Liabilities, Incomes, and Expenses
        2. Depreciation and Amortization
        3. Discounted Return on Investment
      10. Problems
        1. Blending Two Mixtures
        2. Blending by Mixing Two Streams
        3. Blending by Dilution with a Stream
        4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Material Balances
        5. Material Balances of an Absorber
        6. Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
    2. Chapter 9. Energy Balances
      1. 9.1 Methodology
      2. 9.2 Simple Energy Balances
      3. 9.3 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances
      4. 9.4 Simultaneous Balances with Chemical Reactions
      5. 9.5 Concluding Comments
      6. Appendix 9A: Heat of Mixing
      7. Problems
        1. Heat Exchanger Energy Balances
        2. Reboiler Energy Balance
        3. Energy Balances with Chemical Reactions
  12. Part III: Application of Basic Principles and Calculations to Transport Phenomena
    1. Chapter 10. Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow
      1. 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity
      2. 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
      3. 10.3 Vectors and Tensors
      4. 10.4 Shell Balances
        1. Momentum Transport in a Falling Film
      5. 10.5 The Equations of Motion
      6. 10.6 Dimensional Analysis
      7. 10.7 The Reynolds Number and the Fanning Friction Factor
      8. 10.8 The Bernoulli Equation
        1. Compressible Fluid Flow
      9. 10.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
      10. 10.10 Centrifugal Pumps and Feet of Head
      11. 10.11 Concluding Comments
      12. References
      13. Problems
    2. Chapter 11. Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer
      1. 11.1 Heat Conduction
      2. 11.2 Convection
      3. 11.3 Combined Conduction and Convection
        1. Fouling Factors
      4. 11.4 Radiation
      5. 11.5 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 11.6 Shell Balances
      7. 11.7 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Heat Transfer
      8. 11.8 Concluding Comments
      9. References
      10. Problems
    3. Chapter 12. Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer
      1. 12.1 Diffusion
      2. 12.2 The Entropy of Mass Transport
      3. 12.3 Shell Balances
      4. 12.4 Dispersion
      5. 12.5 Mass Transport in the Real World
      6. 12.6 Mass-Transfer Processes: Unit Operations
        1. Absorption
        2. Stripping
        3. Adsorption
        4. Distillation
        5. Liquid-Liquid Extraction
        6. Other Processes
      7. 12.7 Material and Energy Balances
        1. Energy Balances of a Distillation Column
        2. Material Balance of a Distillation Column
        3. Material Balances on the Reboiler and Partial Condensers
      8. 12.8 Cocurrent versus Countercurrent Flow
      9. 12.9 Dimensional Analysis, the HETP, and Efficiency
        1. Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate
        2. Efficiency
      10. 12.10 Concluding Comments
      11. References
      12. Problems
  13. Postface
  14. Appendix A. Answers to Selected Problems
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  15. Appendix B. Conversion Factors
  16. Appendix C. Gas Constants
  17. Appendix D. Steam Tables
  18. Index