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Basic Photographic Materials and Processes, 3rd Edition

Book Description

In order to develop your artistic skills to the best of your ability, you first must understand the science and the fundamentals of photography. Whether you are a student of photography or a seasoned professional, this thoroughly updated edition of the classic text Basic Photographic Materials and Processes will provide all of the scientific information that you need. Full color throughout for the first time, this third edition covers new topics including digital resolution, digital sensor technology, scanner technology, color management, and tone reproduction.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Foreword
  8. 1 Light and Photometry
    1. The Nature of Light
    2. Light Waves
    3. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    4. The Visible Spectrum
    5. Spectral Power Distributions
    6. Solid-Object Sources and the Heat-Light Relationship
    7. Vapor Sources and the Effect of Electrical Discharge
    8. Luminescence/Fluorescence/ Phosphorescence
    9. The Use of Color Temperature
    10. The Mired Scale
    11. Color-Rendering Index
    12. The Polarization of Light
    13. Practical Sources of Light and their Properties
    14. Lasers
    15. The Language of Light
    16. The Measurement of Intensity
    17. The Measurement of Flux
    18. The Measurement of Illuminance
    19. The Measurement of Luminance
  9. 2 Camera and Printing Exposure
    1. Camera Exposure Versus Photographic Exposure
    2. F-Numbers
    3. Whole Stops
    4. Maximum Diaphragm Openings
    5. Intermediate F-Numbers
    6. Limitations of the F-Number System
    7. Lens Transmittance
    8. Exposure Time
    9. Lens Shutters
    10. Effective Exposure Time
    11. Focal-Plane Shutters
    12. Electronic Shutters
    13. Shutter Testing
    14. Camera Exposure Latitude
    15. Alternatives to Exposure Meters
    16. Exposure Meters
    17. Reflected-Light/ Incident-Light Exposure Meters
    18. Meter Scales
    19. Light Ratios
    20. Meter Accuracy and Testing
    21. Methods of Using Reflected-Light Exposure Meters
    22. Incident-Light Readings
    23. Effective Film Speed and Degree of Development
    24. Flash Guide Numbers
    25. Flash Meters
    26. Color-Temperature Meters
  10. 3 Strictly Digital
    1. Digital Camera
    2. Digital Image Processing
    3. Digital Printing
  11. 4 Photographic Optics
    1. Image Formation with a Pinhole
    2. Image Formation with a Lens
    3. Graphical Drawings
    4. Depth of Field
    5. Permissible Circle of Confusion
    6. Depth-of-Field Controls
    7. Depth of Field and F-Number
    8. Depth of Field and Object Distance
    9. Depth of Field and Focal Length
    10. Depth of Focus
    11. View-Camera Movements
    12. Perpendicular Movements
    13. Back Movements and Image Shape
    14. Back Movements and Image Sharpness
    15. Lens Movements and Image Sharpness
    16. Lens Types
    17. Reversed Telephoto Wide-Angle Lenses
    18. Supplementary Lenses
    19. Soft-Focus Lenses
    20. Lens Shortcomings
    21. Diffraction
    22. Lens Testing
    23. Testing Flare
  12. 5 Sensitometry
    1. Introduction
    2. Exposure
    3. Digital Camera Sensitometry
    4. Film Sensitometry
    5. Transmittance, Density, Opacity
    6. Density Measurement
    7. Characteristic Curves
    8. Exposure—Characteristic Curve Relationships
    9. Log Exposure Range
    10. Exposure Latitude
    11. Effects of Development Time
    12. Gamma
    13. Average Gradient
    14. Contrast Index
    15. ISO Film Speed
    16. Analysis of Negative Curves
    17. Paper Sensitometry
    18. Analysis of Photographic Paper Curves
    19. Paper Contrast
    20. Condenser and Diffusion Enlargers
    21. The Effects of Enlarger Flare and Scattered Light
    22. Testing Enlargers for Flare Light
    23. Paper Speeds
    24. Analysis of Positive Film Curves
    25. Analysis of Reversal Film Curves
    26. Introduction to Photographic Effects
  13. 6 Tone Reproduction
    1. Purposes of Tone Reproduction
    2. Objective and Subjective Tone Reproduction
    3. Objective Tone Reproduction/ Preferred Photographs
    4. Objective Tone Reproduction Analysis
    5. Optical Flare
    6. The Making of the Negative
    7. The Making of the Negative
    8. Generation of the Tone-Reproduction Curve
    9. Tone Reproduction and the Zone System
  14. 7 Micro-Image Evaluation
    1. Image Characteristics
    2. Graininess/Granularity
    3. Measuring Graininess
    4. Grain Size and Image Color
    5. Granularity
    6. Minimizing Graininess
    7. Graininess of Color Films
    8. Sharpness/Acutance
    9. Acutance
    10. Resolving Power
    11. Resolving-Power Variables
    12. Resolving-Power Categories
    13. Resolving Power And Graininess
    14. Resolving Power And Acutance
    15. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
    16. Photographic Definition
    17. Pixels
    18. Digital Resolution
    19. T-Grain Emulsions
  15. 8 Filters
    1. How Do Filters Work?
    2. Color Filters
    3. Ultraviolet and Infrared Filters
    4. Filters for Color Photography
    5. Spectrophotometric Absorption Curves
    6. Neutral-Density Filters
    7. Graduated Neutral Density Filters
    8. Interference Filters
    9. Polarizing Filters
  16. 9 Color
    1. Introduction
    2. Spectrophotometers
    3. Spectrophotometric Curves
    4. Color Densitometers
    5. Color Densities
    6. Physical, Psychophysical, and Psychological Measurements
    7. Color Chain
    8. Color Mode
    9. Primary Colors
    10. Color Attributes
    11. Neutrals
    12. Color-Vision Theory
    13. Color Specification Systems
    14. Munsell System of Color Specification
    15. Pantone® System of Color Specification
    16. CIE System of Color Specification
    17. CIE Chromaticity Map
  17. 10 Color Management
    1. What Is CM?
    2. What Is Color Management?
    3. Using an ICC profile
  18. 11 Color Reproduction
    1. Objectives of Color Reproduction
    2. Additive and Subtractive Color Formation
    3. The Recording of Color (Analysis Stage)
    4. The Production of Color (Synthesis Stage)
    5. Spectral Sensitivity
    6. Dye Characteristics
    7. Color Densities
    8. Sensitometry of Color Photographic Materials
    9. Reversal Color Films
    10. Negative Color Films
    11. Photographic Color Paper
  19. 12 Visual Perception
    1. Post-Stimulus Perception
    2. Perception of Stimulus Attributes
    3. Perspective
    4. Linear Perspective
    5. Object Distance and Image Size
    6. Focal Length and Image Size
    7. Changing Object Distance and Focal Length
    8. Viewing Distance
    9. The Wide-Angle Effect
  20. 13 Chemistry for Photographers
    1. Introduction
    2. Image Capture
    3. Image Display
    4. Basic Chemistry
    5. Chemical Reactions
    6. Oxidation/Reduction
    7. Acid/Base
    8. Ionization
    9. pH
    10. Complexes
    11. Solutions
    12. Specific Gravity
  21. 14 Photographic Emulsions, Films, and Papers
    1. Photographic Emulsions
    2. Safety Base Films
    3. Polyester Film Bases
    4. Film Structure
    5. Paper Bases
    6. Brighteners
    7. Paper Weight and Thickness
    8. The Gelatin Colloid
    9. Properties of Gelatin
    10. Chemical Nature of Gelatin
    11. Physical Properties of Gelatin
    12. Emulsion Making
    13. Emulsion Characteristics
    14. Grain Size, Sensitivity, and Contrast
    15. Grain Composition
    16. Spectral Sensitivity
    17. Crystal Structure
    18. Emulsion Precipitation
    19. Effects of Development on Developers
    20. Dye Sensitization
    21. Formation of the Latent Image
    22. Photographic Effects
    23. Latent Image Stability
    24. Some Alternative Systems
    25. Calotype Process
    26. Daguerreotype
    27. Cyanotype
    28. Wet Collodion
    29. Gum Bichromate
    30. Electrophotography
    31. Thermography
    32. Diazo
    33. Electronic Image Display
    34. Charge-Coupled Devices
    35. Dye Transfer
    36. Diffusion Transfer
  22. 15 Black-and-White Photographic Development
    1. Negative Development
    2. Direct-Positive Images
    3. Reversal Processing
    4. Mechanism of Development
    5. Constitution of Typical Developers
    6. Developing Agents
    7. Hydroquinone
    8. Metol
    9. MQ Developers
    10. Accelerators
    11. Preservatives
    12. Restrainers
    13. Anti-Foggants
    14. Other Development Accelerators
    15. Concentration of Developer
    16. Development Time
    17. Developer Temperature
    18. Developer Agitation
    19. Replenishment
    20. Paper Processing
    21. Analysis of Developers
    22. Specific Black-and-White Processes
    23. Practical Applications
  23. 16 Archiving Photographic Images
    1. Introduction
    2. Digital Images
    3. Silver Image Archiving
    4. Preparation for Drying
    5. Drying Films
    6. Drying Prints
    7. Preservation of Photographs
  24. 17 Variability and Quality Control in Photography
    1. Introduction to the Concept of Variability
    2. Sources of Variation
    3. Patterns of Variation
    4. The Normal Distribution
    5. Populations vs. Samples
    6. Description of the Normal Distribution
    7. Measurement Methods and Subjective Evaluations
    8. Ordinal Scale
    9. Paired Comparisons
    10. Test Conditions
    11. Quality Control
  25. Appendixes
    1. Appendix A: Conversion Units and Scales
    2. Appendix B: Exposures, Depth of Field, Zone System, and Film Speed Information
    3. Appendix C: Calculations and Basic Logarithms
    4. Appendix D: Tristimulus Value and Chromaticity Coordinate Calculations
  26. Answers to Review Questions
  27. Bibliography
  28. Index