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Basic Mechanical Engineering

Book Description

Basic Mechanical Engineering covers a wide range of topics and engineering concepts that are required to be learnt as in any undergraduate engineering course. Divided into three parts, this book lays emphasis on explaining the logic and physics of critical problems to develop analytical skills in students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1: Concepts of Thermodynamics and Properties of Gases
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Important Terminologies Used in Thermodynamics
    3. 1.3 Specific Heat Capacity
      1. 1.3.1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume (Cv)
      2. 1.3.2 Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (Cp)
      3. 1.3.3 Relationship Between Cp and Cv
    4. 1.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 1.4.1 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
      2. 1.4.2 Internal Energy
      3. 1.4.3 Physical Interpretation of Internal Energy
      4. 1.4.4 Energy Transfer Across the System Boundary (Heat and Work)
      5. 1.4.5 Non-flow Processes
      6. 1.4.6 Application of First Law of Thermodynamics in Steady Flow Process and Variable Flow Process
      7. 1.4.7 Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics
    5. 1.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. 1.5.1 Kelvin–Planck Statement
      2. 1.5.2 Clausius Statement
      3. 1.5.3 Equivalence of Kelvin–Planck and Clausius Statement
    6. 1.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
    7. 1.7 The Carnot Cycle
    8. 1.8 The Clausius Inequality
    9. 1.9 Entropy and Entropy Generation
      1. 1.9.1 Entropy
      2. 1.9.2 Entropy Generation
      3. 1.9.3 Entropy Balance
      4. 1.9.4 Evaluation of Entropy Change
    10. 1.10 Third Law of Thermodynamics
    11. 1.11 Gas Laws
      1. 1.11.1 Boyle’s Law
      2. 1.11.2 Charles’s Law
      3. 1.11.3 Gay–Lussac’s Law
      4. 1.11.4 The Combined Gas Law
      5. 1.11.5 Gas Constant
    12. Summary
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Fill in the Blanks
    15. Review Questions
    16. Problems for Practice
  8. Chapter 2: Fuels and Combustion
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Coal
      1. 2.2.1 Analysis of Coal
    3. 2.3 Liquid Fuels
      1. 2.3.1 Petroleum
      2. 2.3.2 Kerosene
      3. 2.3.3 Diesel
      4. 2.3.4 Gasoline
      5. 2.3.5 Calorific Value of Liquid Fuels
      6. 2.3.6 Major Contents of Liquid Fuels
    4. 2.4 Gaseous Fuels
      1. 2.4.1 LPG
      2. 2.4.2 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
    5. 2.5 Biofuels
      1. 2.5.1 Bioalcohols
      2. 2.5.2 Biodiesel
      3. 2.5.3 Green Diesel
      4. 2.5.4 Vegetable Oil
      5. 2.5.5 Bioethers
      6. 2.5.6 Biogas
      7. 2.5.7 Syngas
      8. 2.5.8 Solid Biofuels
    6. 2.6 Combustion
      1. 2.6.1 Principle of Combustion
    7. 2.7 Determination of Calorific Value of Fuel Using Bomb Calorimeter
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems for Practice
  9. Chapter 3: Power Plant Engineering and Sources of Energy
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Prime Movers
      1. 3.2.1 Historical Development of Prime Movers
    3. 3.3 Power Plant Engineering
      1. 3.3.1 Thermal Power Plant
      2. 3.3.2 Hydroelectric Power Plant
      3. 3.3.3 Nuclear Power Plant
    4. 3.4 Sources of Energy
      1. 3.4.1 Renewable Energy
      2. 3.4.2 Non-renewable Energy
    5. Summary
    6. Multiple Choice Questions
    7. Review Questions
  10. Chapter 4: Properties of Steam and Steam Generators
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Formation of Steam at Constant Pressure
    3. 4.3 Throttling Calorimeter
    4. 4.4 Separating and Throttling Calorimeter
    5. 4.5 Steam Table
    6. 4.6 Mollier Diagram or h–S Chart
    7. 4.7 Steam Generators/Boilers
      1. 4.7.1 Classification of Boilers
      2. 4.7.2 Requirements of a Good Boiler
      3. 4.7.3 Cochran Boiler
      4. 4.7.4 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
      5. 4.7.5 Locomotive Boiler
      6. 4.7.6 Lancashire Boiler
      7. 4.7.7 Cornish Boiler
    8. 4.8 Boiler Mountings
      1. 4.8.1 Safety Valves
      2. 4.8.2 High Steam Low Water Safety Valve
      3. 4.8.3 Water Level Indicator
      4. 4.8.4 Pressure Gauge
      5. 4.8.5 Feed Check Valve
      6. 4.8.6 Steam Stop Valve
      7. 4.8.7 Blow-off Cock
      8. 4.8.8 Fusible Plug
      9. 4.8.9 Manhole
    9. 4.9 Boiler Accessories
      1. 4.9.1 Economiser
      2. 4.9.2 Air Preheater
      3. 4.9.3 Superheater
      4. 4.9.4 Feed Pump
      5. 4.9.5 Injector
      6. 4.9.6 Steam Trap
      7. 4.9.7 Steam Separator
      8. 4.9.8 Pressure Reducing Valve
    10. 4.10 Chimney Height Calculation
      1. 4.10.1 Draught
    11. 4.11 Performance of Boilers
    12. Summary
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Fill in the Blanks
    15. Review Questions
    16. Problems for Practice
  11. Chapter 5: Steam Engine, Steam and Gas Turbines
    1. 5.1 Introduction to Steam Power Systems
    2. 5.2 Steam Engines and their Working Principles
      1. 5.2.1 Modified Rankine Cycle: Theoretical Indicator Diagram
      2. 5.2.2 Rankine Cycle
    3. 5.3 Steam Turbine
      1. 5.3.1 Classification of Steam Turbine
      2. 5.3.2 Compounding of Impulse Turbine
      3. 5.3.3 Impulses-reaction Turbine (Reaction Turbine)
      4. 5.3.4 Differences Between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
      5. 5.3.5 Losses in Steam Turbines
      6. 5.3.6 Governing of Steam Turbines
    4. 5.4 Gas Turbines
      1. 5.4.1 Classification of Gas Turbine
      2. 5.4.2 Applications of Gas Turbines
      3. 5.4.3 Gas Turbine Cycle with Regenerator
      4. 5.4.4 Gas Turbine Cycle with Reheating and Intercooling
    5. Summary
    6. Multiple Choice Questions
    7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems for Practice
  12. Chapter 6: Internal Combustion Engines
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Classification of IC Engines
    3. 6.3 Basic Structure of IC Engines
      1. 6.3.1 Nomenclature
    4. 6.4 Working Principle of IC Engines
      1. 6.4.1 Four-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
      2. 6.4.2 Four-stroke Compression Ignition Engine
      3. 6.4.3 Two-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
      4. 6.4.4 Two-stroke CI Engine
      5. 6.4.5 Comparison Between Four-strokes and Two-strokes Engines
      6. 6.4.6 Comparison Between SI and CI Engines
      7. 6.4.7 Comparison Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle
    5. 6.5 Valve Timing Diagrams
      1. 6.5.1 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-strokes SI Engines
      2. 6.5.2 Port Timing Diagram for Two-strokes SI Engines
      3. 6.5.3 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-strokes CI Engine
    6. 6.6 Otto Cycle
    7. 6.7 Diesel Cycle
    8. 6.8 Dual Cycle
    9. 6.9 Engine Performance Parameters
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Fill in the Blanks
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems for Practice
  13. Chapter 7: Introduction to Heat Transfer
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Conduction
      2. 7.1.2 Convection
      3. 7.1.3 Radiation
      4. 7.1.4 Combined Heat Transfer
    2. 7.2 Heat Exchanger
      1. 7.2.1 Parallel and Counter Flow Heat Exchangers
      2. 7.2.2 Cross flow Recuperator
      3. 7.2.3 Multi-pass and Mixed Flow Recuperators
    3. Summary
    4. Multiple Choice Questions
    5. Review Questions
    6. Problems for Practice
  14. Chapter 8: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Refrigerator and Heat Pump
    3. 8.3 Components of Refrigeration System
      1. 8.3.1 Evaporator
      2. 8.3.2 Compressor
      3. 8.3.3 Condenser
      4. 8.3.4 Expansion Valve
    4. 8.4 Types of Refrigeration Systems
      1. 8.4.1 Air-refrigeration System
      2. 8.4.2 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
      3. 8.4.3 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle
    5. 8.5 Type of Refrigerants
    6. 8.6 Types of Refrigerators
      1. 8.6.1 Top-mount Refrigerators
      2. 8.6.2 Side-by-Side Mount Refrigerators
      3. 8.6.3 Bottom-mount Freezers
      4. 8.6.4 French-door Refrigerators
    7. 8.7 Psychrometry
    8. 8.8 Psychrometric Processes
      1. 8.8.1 Psychrometric Chart
    9. 8.9 Air Washers
    10. 8.10 Human Comfort Conditions
    11. 8.11 Room Air Conditioner
      1. 8.11.1 Window Air Conditioner
      2. 8.11.2 Split Air Conditioner
      3. 8.11.3 Difference Between Split and Window ACs
    12. Summary
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems for Practice
  15. Chapter 9: Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Properties of Fluids
      1. 9.2.1 Density
      2. 9.2.2 Viscosity
      3. 9.2.3 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
      4. 9.2.4 Surface Tension
      5. 9.2.5 Capillarity
      6. 9.2.6 Pressure Variation with Depth
    3. 9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 9.4 Types of Flow
    5. 9.5 Introduction to Hydraulic Machines
    6. 9.6 Hydraulic Turbines
      1. 9.6.1 Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
    7. 9.7 Terminology Used in Turbine
    8. 9.8 Pelton Turbine
      1. 9.8.1 Main Components of Pelton Turbine
      2. 9.8.2 Selection of Speed of Pelton Turbine
      3. 9.8.3 Velocity Triangle for Pelton Turbine
    9. 9.9 Francis Turbine
      1. 9.9.1 Main Components of Francis Turbine
      2. 9.9.2 Different Shapes of Draft Tubes
    10. 9.10 Kaplan Turbine
      1. 9.10.1 Velocity Triangle for Kaplan Turbine
    11. 9.11 Governing of Turbines
    12. 9.12 Pumps
    13. 9.13 Centrifugal Pump
      1. 9.13.1 Main Components of Centrifugal Pump
      2. 9.13.2 Velocity Triangle for Centrifugal Pump
      3. 9.13.3 Various Heads and Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pumps
      4. 9.13.4 Some Important Points Related to Centrifugal Pump
    14. 9.14 Reciprocating Pump
      1. 9.14.1 Air Vessels
    15. 9.15 Gear Pump
    16. 9.16 Vane Pump
    17. 9.17 Lobe Pump
    18. 9.18 Screw Pump
      1. 9.18.1 Two-screw, Low-pitch, Screw Pump
      2. 9.18.2 Three-screw, High-pitch, Screw Pump
    19. 9.19 Hydraulic Coupling
    20. 9.20 Hydraulic Torque Converter
    21. Summary
    22. Multiple Choice Questions
    23. Review Questions
    24. Problems for Practice
  16. Chapter 10: Air Compressors
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Classification of Compressors
    3. 10.3 Reciprocating Compressors
      1. 10.3.1 Polytropic Compression
      2. 10.3.2 Isothermal Compression
      3. 10.3.3 Effect of Clearance on Work Done
      4. 10.3.4 Volumetric Efficiency
      5. 10.3.5 Multistage Compression
      6. 10.3.6 Work Done in Multistage Compression
    4. 10.4 Rotary compressors
      1. 10.4.1 Fixed Vane Type Compressors
      2. 10.4.2 Multiple Vane Type Rotary Compressors
    5. 10.5 Centrifugal Compressors
    6. 10.6 Axial Flow Compressors
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice Questions
    9. Fill in the Blanks
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems for Practice
  17. Chapter 11: Centroid and Moment of Inertia
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Determination of Position of Centroid of Plane Geometric Figures
      1. 11.2.1 Centre of Gravity, Centre of Mass, and Centroid of an Irregular Shape
      2. 11.2.2 Centroid of I-section
      3. 11.2.3 Centroid of U-section
      4. 11.2.4 Centroid of H-section
      5. 11.2.5 Centroid of L-section
      6. 11.2.6 Centroid of T-section
      7. 11.2.7 Centroid of C-section
      8. 11.2.8 Centroid of Circular Arc
      9. 11.2.9 Centroid of Semicircular-section of a Disc
      10. 11.2.10 Centroid of a Sector of a Circular Disc
      11. 11.2.11 Centroid of a Parabola
      12. 11.2.12 Centroid of a Triangle
    3. 11.3 Second Moment of Area
      1. 11.3.1 Radius of Gyration
      2. 11.3.2 Theorem of Perpendicular Axis
      3. 11.3.3 Theorem of Parallel Axis
      4. 11.3.4 Moment of Inertia from First Principle
      5. 11.3.5 Moment of Inertia of Some Composite Sections
    4. 11.4 Centre of Gravity of Solids
    5. 11.5 Mass Moment of Inertia
      1. 11.5.1 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Ring
      2. 11.5.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Disc
      3. 11.5.3 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Hollow Cylinder
      4. 11.5.4 Mass Moment of Inertia of Sphere
      5. 11.5.5 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Cone
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice Questions
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems for Practice
  18. Chapter 12: Stress and Strain
    1. 12.1 Introduction to Stress and Strain
    2. 12.2 Hooke’s Law
    3. 12.3 Extension in Varying Cross-section or Taper Rod
    4. 12.4 Stress and Strain in Varying Cross-section Bar of Uniform Strength
    5. 12.5 Stress and Strain in Compound Bar
    6. 12.6 Stress and Strain in an Assembly of Tube and Bolt
    7. 12.7 Stress and Strain in Composite Bar
    8. 12.8 Temperature Stress
    9. 12.9 Stress and Strain Due to Suddenly Applied Load
    10. 12.10 Stress and Strain for Impact Load
    11. 12.11 Relation Between Stress and Volumetric Strain
    12. 12.12 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk Modulus
    13. 12.13 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rigidity
    14. Summary
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Review Questions
    17. Problems for Practice
  19. Chapter 13: Lifting Machines
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Terminology Related to the Lifting Machines
      1. 13.2.1 Frictional Loss in Lifting Machine and Law of Machine
      2. 13.2.2 Expression for Maximum Mechanical Advantage
    3. 13.3 Reversible and Irreversible Machines
      1. 13.3.1 Condition for Reversibility of Machine
      2. 13.3.2 Condition for Irreversibility or Self-locking of Machine
    4. 13.4 Simple Wheel and Axle
    5. 13.5 Differential Wheel and Axle
    6. 13.6 Pulleys
      1. 13.6.1 Order of Pulley
      2. 13.6.2 Weston’s Differential Pulley Block
    7. 13.7 Worm and Worm Wheel
    8. 13.8 Single Purchase Winch Crab
    9. 13.9 Double Purchase Winch Crab
    10. 13.10 Simple Screw Jack
    11. 13.11 Compound Screw Jack
    12. Summary
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems for Practice
  20. Chapter 14: Flywheel and Governors
    1. 14.1 Introduction to Flywheel
    2. 14.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of Flywheel
    3. 14.3 Introduction to Governors
    4. 14.4 Terminology Used in Governors
    5. 14.5 Classification of Governors
    6. 14.6 Gravity Controlled Centrifugal Governors
      1. 14.6.1 Watt Governor
      2. 14.6.2 Porter Governor
      3. 14.6.3 Proell Governor
    7. 14.7 Spring Controlled Centrifugal Governor
      1. 14.7.1 Hartnell Governor
      2. 14.7.2 Willson–Hartnell Governor
      3. 14.7.3 Hartung Governor
    8. 14.8 Sensitiveness of Governors
    9. 14.9 Governing of IC Engines
      1. 14.9.1 Qualitative Governing
      2. 14.9.2 Quantitative Governing
      3. 14.9.3 Hit and Miss Governing
    10. 14.10 Differences Between Flywheel and Governors
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems for Practice
  21. Chapter 15: Power Transmission Devices
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Belt Drive
      1. 15.2.1 Type of Belt Cross-sections
      2. 15.2.2 Velocity Ratio
      3. 15.2.3 Creep
      4. 15.2.4 Open-belt Drive
      5. 15.2.5 Crossed-belt Drive
      6. 15.2.6 Ratio of Tensions
      7. 15.2.7 Effect of Centrifugal Force on Belt Drive
    3. 15.3 Rope Drive
    4. 15.4 Chain Drive
      1. 15.4.1 Chain Length
      2. 15.4.2 Types of Chain
    5. 15.5 Gear Drive
      1. 15.5.1 Gear Terminology
      2. 15.5.2 Law of Gearing
      3. 15.5.3 Forms of Teeth
    6. 15.6 Classification of Gears
      1. 15.6.1 Parallel Shafts
      2. 15.6.2 Intersecting Shaft
    7. 15.7 Gear Trains
      1. 15.7.1 Simple Gear Train
      2. 15.7.2 Compound Gear Train
      3. 15.7.3 Reverted Gear Train
      4. 15.7.4 Planetary or Epicyclic Gear Train
      5. 15.7.5 Sun and Planet Gear
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Fill in the Blanks
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems for Practice
  22. Chapter 16: Coupling, Clutch, and Brake
    1. 16.1 Introduction to Coupling
    2. 16.2 Rigid Coupling
    3. 16.3 Flexible Bushed Coupling
    4. 16.4 Universal Joint
    5. 16.5 Introduction to Clutches
    6. 16.6 Single Plate Clutch
    7. 16.7 Multi-plate Disc Clutch
    8. 16.8 Cone Clutch
    9. 16.9 Centrifugal Clutch
    10. 16.10 Introduction to Brakes
      1. 16.10.1 Block or Shoe Brake
      2. 16.10.2 Band Brake
      3. 16.10.3 Band and Block Brake
      4. 16.10.4 Internal Expanding Shoe Brake
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems for Practice
  23. Chapter 17: Engineering Materials
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials
    3. 17.3 Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials
      1. 17.3.1 Tensile Test
      2. 17.3.2 Hardness
    4. 17.4 Impact Test
    5. 17.5 Classification of Engineering Materials
      1. 17.5.1 Ferrous Metals
      2. 17.5.2 Non-ferrous Metals
      3. 17.5.3 Plastics
      4. 17.5.4 Abrasive Materials
      5. 17.5.5 Ceramics
      6. 17.5.6 Silica
      7. 17.5.7 Glasses
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice Questions
    8. Review Questions
  24. Chapter 18: Mechanical Measurement
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Temperature Measurement
      1. 18.2.1 Thermocouple
      2. 18.2.2 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD)
      3. 18.2.3 Infrared Temperature Measurement Devices
      4. 18.2.4 Bimetallic Temperature Measurement Devices
      5. 18.2.5 Fluid-expansion Temperature Measurement Devices
      6. 18.2.6 Change-of-state Temperature Measurement Devices
    3. 18.3 Pressure Measurement
      1. 18.3.1 Manometers
      2. 18.3.2 Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge
      3. 18.3.3 Low Pressure Measurement
    4. 18.4 Velocity Measurement
      1. 18.4.1 Velocity Measurement of Fluid with Pitot Tube
      2. 18.4.2 Hot Wire Anemometer
    5. 18.5 Flow Measurement
      1. 18.5.1 Flow Measurement Through Velocity of Fluid Over Known Area
      2. 18.5.2 Orificemeter
      3. 18.5.3 Rotameter
    6. 18.6 Strain Measurement
      1. 18.6.1 Strain Gauge
    7. 18.7 Force Measurement
      1. 18.7.1 Cantilever Beam
    8. 18.8 Torque Measurement
      1. 18.8.1 Prony Brake Dynamometer
      2. 18.8.2 Rope Brake Dynamometer
      3. 18.8.3 Torque Measurement by Pointer and Scale
    9. 18.9 Measurement Errors
    10. 18.10 Uncertainties of Measurement
    11. 18.11 Vernier calipers
    12. 18.12 Micrometer or Screw Gauge
      1. 18.12.1 Measurement Procedure
    13. 18.13 Dial Gauge or Dial Indicator
    14. 18.14 Slip Gauges
      1. 18.14.1 Classification of Slip Gauges
      2. 18.14.2 Applications of Slip Gauge
    15. 18.15 Sine Bar
    16. 18.16 Combination Set
    17. Summary
    18. Multiple Choice Questions
    19. Review Questions
  25. Chapter 19: Machine Tools
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Mechanism of Metal Cutting
      1. 19.2.1 Types of Chip Formation
    3. 19.3 Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tool
    4. 19.4 Orthogonal and Oblique Metal Cutting
    5. 19.5 Lathe
      1. 19.5.1 Classification of Lathes
      2. 19.5.2 Specifications of Lathe
      3. 19.5.3 Constructional Detail of Lathe
      4. 19.5.4 Power Transmission System in Lathe Machine
      5. 19.5.5 Cutting Tools Used in Lathe
      6. 19.5.6 Types of Operations on Lathe Machine
    6. 19.6 Shaper, Slotter, and Planer
      1. 19.6.1 Shaping and Planing
      2. 19.6.2 Constructional Detail of Shaper
      3. 19.6.3 Slotter Machine
      4. 19.6.4 Crank and Slotted Arm Quick Return Mechanism
      5. 19.6.5 Specification of Shaper
      6. 19.6.6 Constructional Detail of Planer
      7. 19.6.7 Fast and Loose Pulleys Driving Mechanism of Planer
      8. 19.6.8 Specifications of Planer
      9. 19.6.9 Difference Between Shaper and Planer
    7. 19.7 Drilling Machine
      1. 19.7.1 Driving Mechanism in Drilling Machine
      2. 19.7.2 Drill Bit
      3. 19.7.3 Specifications of a Drilling Machine
      4. 19.7.4 Operations Performed on Drilling Machine
      5. 19.7.5 Advanced Types of Drilling Machine
    8. 19.8 Boring
      1. 19.8.1 Specification of Boring Machines
    9. 19.9 Milling Machines
      1. 19.9.1 Constructional Detail of Milling Machine
      2. 19.9.2 Basic Milling Operations
      3. 19.9.3 Nomenclature of Milling Cutter
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Fill in the Blanks
    13. Review Questions
  26. Chapter 20: Casting and Welding
    1. 20.1 Introduction to Casting Processes
    2. 20.2 Classification of Casting Process
    3. 20.3 Sand Casting
      1. 20.3.1 Steps in Sand Casting
      2. 20.3.2 Pattern Making
      3. 20.3.3 Types of Pattern
      4. 20.3.4 Mould Making
      5. 20.3.5 Properties of Mouldings Sands
      6. 20.3.6 Hand Tools Used in Moulding
      7. 20.3.7 Moulding Procedure
      8. 20.3.8 Gating System
      9. 20.3.9 Chills
      10. 20.3.10 Chaplets
      11. 20.3.11 Cores
      12. 20.3.12 Sand Testing
    4. 20.4 Special Casting Methods
      1. 20.4.1 Gravity/Permanent Mould Casting
      2. 20.4.2 Slush Casting
      3. 20.4.3 Pressed or Carthias Casting
      4. 20.4.4 Die Casting
      5. 20.4.5 Low-pressure Casting
      6. 20.4.6 Centrifugal Casting
      7. 20.4.7 Lost-wax Precision Casting Method
      8. 20.4.8 Shell Moulding
    5. 20.5 Casting Defects
    6. 20.6 Surface Cleaning of the Casting
    7. 20.7 Introduction to Welding Processes
      1. 20.7.1 Definition of Welding
    8. 20.8 Classification of Welding Process
    9. 20.9 Gas Welding
      1. 20.9.1 Oxyacetylene Welding
      2. 20.9.2 Gas Welding Methods
    10. 20.10 Electric Arc Welding
      1. 20.10.1 Functions of Electrode Coatings
      2. 20.10.2 Ingredients of Electrode Coating
      3. 20.10.3 Selection of Electrodes
      4. 20.10.4 Specifications for Electrodes
    11. 20.11 Types of Electric Arc Welding
      1. 20.11.1 Carbon Arc Welding
      2. 20.11.2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
      3. 20.11.3 Metal Inert Gas Arc Welding (MIG)/Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
      4. 20.11.4 Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG)/Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
      5. 20.11.5 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
      6. 20.11.6 Electroslag Welding
      7. 20.11.7 Atomic Hydrogen Welding
      8. 20.11.8 Plasma Arc Welding
    12. 20.12 Resistance Welding
      1. 20.12.1 Resistance Spot Welding
      2. 20.12.2 Resistance Seam Welding
      3. 20.12.3 Resistance Projection Welding
      4. 20.12.4 Flash Welding
      5. 20.12.5 Percussion Welding
      6. 20.12.6 Resistance Butt Welding
    13. 20.13 Unconventional Welding Methods
      1. 20.13.1 Laser Beam Welding (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
      2. 20.13.2 Electron Beam Welding
      3. 20.13.3 Ultrasonic Welding
      4. 20.13.4 Thermit Welding
    14. 20.14 Welding Allied Processes
      1. 20.14.1 Soldering
      2. 20.14.2 Brazing
      3. 20.14.3 Braze Welding
    15. 20.15 Welding Defects
    16. Summary
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Fill in the Blanks
    19. Review Questions
  27. Chapter 21: Mechanical Working of Metals, Sheet Metal Work, and Powder Metallurgy
    1. 21.1 Introduction of Mechanical Working process
      1. 21.1.1 Advantages of Mechanical Working Process Over Other Manufacturing Processes
    2. 21.2 Rolling
      1. 21.2.1 Terminology
      2. 21.2.2 Types of Rolling Mills
      3. 21.2.3 Rolling Defects
    3. 21.3 Forging
      1. 21.3.1 Advantages of Forging Processes
      2. 21.3.2 Disadvantages of Forging Processes
      3. 21.3.3 Different Types of Forging
    4. 21.4 Extrusion
      1. 21.4.1 Hot Extrusion
      2. 21.4.2 Cold Extrusion
      3. 21.4.3 Impact Extrusion
    5. 21.5 Wire Drawing
    6. 21.6 Bar Drawing
    7. 21.7 Tube Drawing
    8. 21.8 High Energy Rate Forming
      1. 21.8.1 Explosive Forming
      2. 21.8.2 Electrohydraulic Forming
      3. 21.8.3 Electromagnetic Forming
    9. 21.9 Thread Rolling
    10. 21.10 Piercing or Seamless Tubing
    11. 21.11 Some Other Forming Processes
    12. 21.12 Introduction of Sheet Metal Process
    13. 21.13 Sheet Metal Joints
    14. 21.14 Materials Used for Sheet Metal
    15. 21.15 Hand Tools Used in Sheet Metal Work
    16. 21.16 Sheet Metal Operations
      1. 21.16.1 Shearing
      2. 21.16.2 Bending
      3. 21.16.3 Stretch Forming
      4. 21.16.4 Deep Drawing
      5. 21.16.5 Hot Spinning
    17. 21.17 Introduction of Powder Metallurgy
    18. 21.18 Manufacturing of Metal Powders
      1. 21.18.1 Characteristics of Metal Powder
      2. 21.18.2 Methods of Production
    19. 21.19 Blending/Mixing of Powders
    20. 21.20 Compacting
    21. 21.21 Sintering
    22. 21.22 Finishing Operations
    23. 21.23 Advantages of Powder Metallurgy
    24. 21.24 Limitations of Powder Metallurgy
    25. 21.25 Applications of Powder Metallurgy
    26. Summary
    27. Multiple Choice Questions
    28. Fill in the Blanks
    29. Review Questions
  28. Chapter 22: Manufacturing Systems: NC, CNC, AND DNC
    1. 22.1 Introduction
      1. 22.1.1 Production Machines, Tools, Fixtures, and Other Related Hardware
      2. 22.1.2 Material Handling System
      3. 22.1.3 Computer Systems
      4. 22.1.4 Human Workers
    2. 22.2 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
    3. 22.3 CAD/CAM
      1. 22.3.1 Computer Aided Design (CAD)
      2. 22.3.2 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
    4. 22.4 Numerical Control (NC)
      1. 22.4.1 Limitations/Drawback of Conventional NC System
    5. 22.5 Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
    6. 22.6 Programming Methods
      1. 22.6.1 Advantages of CNC System
    7. 22.7 Comparison of NC and CNC Machines
    8. 22.8 Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
      1. 22.8.1 Advantages of DNC System
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
  29. Chapter 23: Unconventional Machining Processes
    1. 23.1 Introduction
      1. 23.1.1 Main Characteristics of UCM
      2. 23.1.2 Important UCM Processes
    2. 23.2 Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
      1. 23.2.1 Principle of Operation
      2. 23.2.2 Process Parameters
      3. 23.2.3 Application of AJM
      4. 23.2.4 Advantages of AJM
      5. 23.2.5 Limitations of AJM
    3. 23.3 Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
      1. 23.3.1 M.C. Saw’s Assumptions for Material Removal
      2. 23.3.2 Process Parameters
      3. 23.3.3 Applications of USM
      4. 23.3.4 Advantages of USM
      5. 23.3.5 Disadvantages of USM
    4. 23.4 Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
      1. 23.4.1 Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis
      2. 23.4.2 Functions of Electrolytes
      3. 23.4.3 Types of Electrolytes Used
      4. 23.4.4 Surface Finish in ECM
      5. 23.4.5 Advantages of ECM
      6. 23.4.6 Disadvantages of ECM
      7. 23.4.7 Application of ECM
    5. 23.5 Photochemical Blanking (PCB)
      1. 23.5.1 Advantages of PCB
      2. 23.5.2 Disadvantages of PCB
      3. 23.5.3 Application of PCB
    6. 23.6 Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
      1. 23.6.1 Advantages
      2. 23.6.2 Disadvantages
      3. 23.6.3 Applications
    7. 23.7 Laser Beam Machining
      1. 23.7.1 Advantages
      2. 23.7.2 Limitations
      3. 23.7.3 Applications
    8. 23.8 Electro-discharge Machining
      1. 23.8.1 Principle of Electro-discharge Machining
      2. 23.8.2 Advantages
      3. 23.8.3 Applications
    9. 23.9 Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)
      1. 23.9.1 Advantages
      2. 23.9.2 Limitations
      3. 23.9.3 Applications
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Fill in the Blanks
    13. Review Questions
  30. Chapter 24: Heat Treatment
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram
    3. 24.3 TTT (Time–Temperature–Transformation) Diagram
    4. 24.4 Normalizing
    5. 24.5 Annealing
    6. 24.6 Spheroidizing
    7. 24.7 Hardening
    8. 24.8 Tempering
      1. 24.8.1 Austempering
      2. 24.8.2 Martempering
    9. 24.9 Carburizing
    10. 24.10 Cyaniding
    11. 24.11 Nitriding
    12. 24.12 Induction Hardening
    13. Summary
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Fill in the Blanks
    16. Review Questions
  31. Appendix 1: Mollier Diagram for Water
  32. Appendix 2: Steam Table
  33. Acknowledgements
  34. Copyright
  35. Back Cover