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Basic Lighting Worktext for Film and Video

Book Description

Basic Lighting Worktext for Film and Video guides the film and video student through a series of readings, exercises and projects designed to provide the fundamentals of light science. In addition to up-to-date descriptions of equipment and tips on how to use it properly, the book provides numerous set-ups that illustrate the techniques and thoughts behind proper studio and location lighting.

From this book, you will learn:
* The fundamentals of light and electricity in film
* The fine distinction of lighting for video versus lighting for film
* How to identify and filter sources such as daylight, tungsten, fluorescent, arc, HNI and industrial discharge lamps
* The use of lensed and open-faced lighting fixtures
* How to modify with barndoors, scrims, snoots, nets, cookies, and other accessories
* Variations on the basic three-point lighting setup
* The duties of each member of a lighting unit
* How to light night exteriors, day interiors, and campfires
* High-key, low-key, and modulated value lighting
* How to scout locations, plan lighting, plots, and pre-rig sets

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. CONTENTS
  7. Preface and Acknowledgments
  8. CHAPTER ONE THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM
    1. Introduction
    2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. White Light
    4. Specular and Diffused Light
    5. Properties of Light
      1. Reflection
      2. Absorption
      3. Transmission
      4. Refraction
    6. Self-Study
    7. Project 1.1: Splitting White Light
    8. Project 1.2: Properties of Visible Light
  9. CHAPTER TWO FILM AND EXPOSURE
    1. Introduction
    2. How Film Works
    3. Negative and Reversal Films
    4. Sensitometry
    5. Exposure Index
    6. The Characteristic Curve
      1. Film Speed
      2. Latitude
    7. Pushing Film
    8. Flashing Film
    9. Reciprocity
    10. Film Storage
    11. Self-Study
    12. Project 2.1: Using Fast and Slow Films
  10. CHAPTER THREE USING ELECTRICITY
    1. Introduction
    2. Elements of Electricity
    3. Electrical Units
    4. Direct Current
    5. Circuits
    6. Fuses and Circuit Breakers
    7. Resistance, Voltage Drop, and Color Temperature
    8. Cables and Connectors
    9. Self-Study
    10. Project 3.1: Location Preview—Determining Electrical Loads
  11. CHAPTER FOUR VIDEO, THE ELECTRONIC MEDIUM
    1. Introduction
    2. Video and Film Compared
    3. Video Imaging
      1. The Pickup Tube
      2. The Charge-Coupled Device
    4. Light Levels
    5. Contrast Ratio
    6. The Waveform Monitor
    7. Self-Study
    8. Project 4.1: Using the Waveform Monitor
  12. CHAPTER FIVE CONTROLLING COLOR TEMPERATURE: LIGHT SOURCES AND FILTERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Color Temperature
      1. The Kelvin Scale
      2. Variance of Color Temperature
    3. Photographic Daylight
    4. Tungsten Illumination
      1. Standard Incandescent Lamps
      2. Tungsten-Halogen Lamps
    5. Fluorescent Lamps
      1. How the Fluorescent Lamp Works
      2. Color Temperature Problems
    6. Carbon Arc Lamps
    7. Enclosed Arc Lamps
      1. HMI Lamps
      2. Industrial Discharge Lamps
    8. Filters
      1. General Purpose Filters
      2. Color-Balancing Filters
    9. Filtering Fluorescent Lamps
    10. Filtering Arc-Type Lamps
    11. Self-Study
    12. Project 5.1: Identifying Artificial Sources
    13. Project 5.2: Using Color-Balancing and Color-Compensating Filters
  13. CHAPTER SIX CONTROLLING LIGHT QUALITY: LIGHTING EQUIPMENT
    1. Introduction
    2. Light Quality
    3. Controlling Light Quality
    4. The Lighting Fixture
    5. Lensed Fixtures
      1. Reflector Design
      2. Lens Design
      3. The Ellipsoidal Fixture
      4. The Follow Spot
      5. The Fresnel Fixture
    6. Sealed-Beam (PAR) Lamps
    7. Open-Faced Fixtures
      1. Prime and Compact Fixtures
      2. Scoop and Broad Fixtures
      3. Softlight Fixtures
      4. Background Fixtures
    8. Safety Precautions
    9. Lighting Accessories
      1. Fixture-Mounted Accessories
      2. Gobos
      3. Reflectors
      4. Other Accessories
      5. Expendables
    10. Self-Study
    11. Project 6.1: Qualities of Various Fixtures and Accessories
  14. CHAPTER SEVEN MEASURING LIGHT INTENSITY
    1. Introduction
    2. Photometry
    3. Incident Light
      1. Lumens and Watts
      2. The Inverse Square Law
    4. Reflected Light
    5. The Exposure Meter
    6. Light Meter Designs
      1. Reflected Light Meters
      2. Spot Meters
      3. Through-the-Lens Meters
      4. Incident Meters
    7. Care and Feeding of Light Meters
    8. Self-Study
    9. Project 7.1: lntepreting Reflected Meter Readings
  15. CHAPTER EIGHT MANIPULATING LIGHT: DIRECTION AND BALANCE
    1. Introduction
    2. The Key Light and Key Light Placement
      1. Front-Back Key Placement
      2. High-Low Key Placement
      3. Hard-Soft Key Quality
    3. Balance
      1. Measuring the Lighting Ratio
    4. The Separation Light
    5. The Background Light
    6. Self-Study
    7. Project 8.1: Setting Light Ratios
  16. CHAPTER NINE LIGHTING CONCEPTS IN PRACTICE
    1. Introduction
    2. Lighting Style
      1. High-Key Lighting
      2. Low-Key Lighting
      3. Modulated Value Lighting
    3. Project 9.1: Three Styles for Motivated Interior Window Lighting
    4. Basic Lighting Configurations
      1. Basic Three-Point Setup
      2. The Controlled Interview
    5. Project 9.2: Lighting an Interview
      1. Cross-Key Lighting
    6. Project 9.3: Cross-Key Lighting
      1. Semicontrolled Action
    7. Project 9.4: 360° Lighting
  17. CHAPTER TEN LIGHTING IN THE STUDIO
    1. Introduction
    2. The Production Crew
    3. The Studio
    4. The Television Studio vs. The Motion Picture Soundstage
    5. The Cyclorama
    6. Project 10.1: The Limbo Effect
    7. Day Interiors
    8. Lighting Designs
    9. Project 10.2: High-Key Living Room—Afternoon
    10. Project 10.3: Bedroom Side Lighting—Early Morning
    11. Night Interiors
    12. Project 10.4: The Night Office
    13. Project 10.5: Living Room Cross-Key Lighting—Evening
    14. Night Exteriors
    15. Project 10.6: Moonlit Night by a Campfire
  18. CHAPTER ELEVEN LIGHTING ON LOCATION
    1. Introduction
    2. Location Scouting and Planning
    3. Day Exteriors
    4. Project 11.1: Lighting a Daylight Exterior
    5. Night Exteriors
      1. Day-for-Night
      2. Night-for-Night
      3. Using Ambient Sources
    6. Project 11.2: Night Exterior—Sidewalk on a Residential Street
    7. Day Interiors
    8. Project 11.3: Balancing Sources in a Daytime Office
    9. Pre-Rigging
      1. The Location Lighting Grid
      2. Lighting a Controlled Group
    10. Project 11.4: Lighting a Controlled Croup (Table)
    11. Lighting in the Real World
  19. Appendix A: Filters for Light Balancing and Color Compensating
  20. Appendix B: Some Additional Rosco Filters for Special Applications
  21. Glossary
  22. Bibliography