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Basic Electronics

Book Description

Basic Electronics, meant for the core science and technology courses in engineering colleges and universities, has been designed with the key objective of enhancing the students' knowledge in the field of electronics. Solid state electronics, a rapidly-evolving field of study, has been extensively researched for the latest updates, and the authors have supplemented the related chapters with customized pedagogical features. The required knowledge in mathematics has been developed throughout the book and no prior grasp of physical electronics has been assumed as an essential requirement for understanding the subject. Detailed mathematical derivations illustrated by solved examples enhance the understanding of the theoretical concepts. With its simple language and clear-cut style of presentation, this book presents an intelligent understanding of a complex subject like electronics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Reviewers
  7. The Author and the Contributor
  8. 1. Semiconductor Fundamentals
    1. 1-1 Introduction
    2. 1-2 Crystalline Materials
      1. Semiconducting Materials
      2. 1-2-1 Crystals and Crystal Structures
      3. 1-2-2 Mechanical Properties
      4. 1-2-3 Energy Band Theory
      5. Simplified Derivation of the Fermi–Dirac Statistics
    3. 1-3 Basis of Classification: Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators
      1. 1-3-1 Insulators (Eg >> 4 eV)
      2. 1-3-2 Semiconductors (0 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 4 eV)
      3. 1-3-3 Metals (Inter-Penetrating Band Structure)
    4. 1-4 Intrinsic Semiconductors
    5. 1-5 Extrinsic Semiconductors
      1. 1-5-1 Doping
      2. 1-5-2 Dopants
      3. 1-5-3 Carrier Statistics in n- and p-type Semiconductors
      4. Properties of the Fermi–Dirac Integral
    6. 1-6 Electrical Conduction Phenomenon
      1. 1-6-1 Mobility
      2. 1-6-2 Conductivity
      3. 1-6-3 Diffusion of Carriers
      4. 1-6-4 Einstein Relation
      5. 1-6-5 Recombination and Generation Processes
    7. 1-7 The Continuity Equation
    8. 1-8 Hall Effect
  9. 2. Diode Fundamentals
    1. 2-1 Introduction
    2. 2-2 Formation of the p–n Junction
    3. 2-3 Energy Band Diagrams
      1. 2-3-1 The p–n Junction at Thermal Equilibrium
    4. 2-4 Concepts of Junction Potential
      1. 2-4-1 Space-Charge Region
      2. 2-4-2 Built-in and Contact Potentials
      3. 2-4-3 Effect of Doping on Barrier Field
      4. Invariance of Fermi Level at Thermal Equilibrium
      5. 2-4-4 Formulation of Built-in Potential
    5. 2-5 Modes of the p–n Junction
      1. 2-5-1 The p–n Junction with External Applied Voltage
      2. 2-5-2 Rectifying Voltage–Current Characteristics of a p–n Junction
      3. 2-5-3 The Junction Capacitance
      4. 2-5-4 The Varactor Diode
    6. 2-6 Derivation of the I–V Characteristics of a p–n Junction Diode
    7. 2-7 Linear Piecewise Models
    8. 2-8 Breakdown Diode
      1. 2-8-1 Zener Breakdown
      2. 2-8-2 Avalanche Breakdown
    9. 2-9 Special Types of p–n Junction Semiconductor Diodes
      1. 2-9-1 Tunnel Diode
      2. 2-9-2 Light-Emitting Diode
      3. 2-9-3 Photo Detector Diode
      4. 2-9-4 Photovoltaic Diode
    10. 2-10 Applications of Diode
      1. 2-10-1 Radio Demodulation
      2. 2-10-2 Power Conversion
      3. 2-10-3 Over-Voltage Protection
      4. 2-10-4 Logic Gates
      5. 2-10-5 Ionizing Radiation Detectors
      6. 2-10-6 Temperature Measuring
      7. 2-10-7 Charge-Coupled Devices
  10. 3. Diode Circuits
    1. 3-1 Introduction
    2. 3-2 Analysis of Diode Circuits
    3. 3-3 Load Line and Q-Point
    4. 3-4 Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator
      1. 3-4-1 Line Regulation
      2. 3-4-2 Load Regulation: Regulation with Varying Load Resistance
    5. 3-5 Rectifiers
      1. 3-5-1 Half-Wave Rectifier
      2. 3-5-2 Full-Wave Rectifier
      3. 3-5-3 Use of Filters in Rectification
      4. 3-5-4 Regulation
      5. 3-5-5 Performance Analysis of Various Rectifier Circuits
    6. 3-6 Clipper and Clamper Circuits
      1. 3-6-1 Clipper
      2. 3-6-2 Clamper
    7. 3-7 Comparators
    8. 3-8 Additional Diode Circuits
      1. 3-8-1 Voltage Multiplier
      2. 3-8-2 Peak Detector
      3. 3-8-3 Digital Circuits
      4. 3-8-4 Switching Regulators
  11. 4. BJT Fundamentals
    1. 4-1 Introduction
    2. 4-2 Formation of p–n–p and n–p–n Junctions
    3. 4-3 Transistor Mechanism
    4. 4-4 Energy Band Diagrams
    5. 4-5 Transistor Current Components
      1. 4-5-1 Current Components in p–n–p Transistor
      2. 4-5-2 Current Components in n–p–n Transistor
    6. 4-6 CB, CE and CC Configurations
      1. 4-6-1 Common-Base (CB) Mode
      2. 4-6-2 Common-Emitter (CE) Mode
      3. 4-6-3 Common-Collector (CC) Mode
    7. 4-7 Expression for Current Gain
      1. 4-7-1 Relationship between α and β
      2. Ebers–Moll Model of Transistor
    8. 4-8 Transistor Characteristics
      1. 4-8-1 Input Characteristics
      2. 4-8-2 Output Characteristics
    9. 4-9 Operating Point and the Concept of Load Line
    10. 4-10 Early Effect
  12. 5. BJT Circuits
    1. 5-1 Introduction
    2. 5-2 Biasing and Bias Stability
      1. 5-2-1 Circuit Configurations
      2. 5-2-2 Stabilization Against Variations in ICO, VBE and β
    3. 5-3 Calculation of Stability Factors
      1. 5-3-1 Stability Factor S
      2. 5-3-2 Stability Factor S'
      3. 5-3-3 Stability Factor S''
      4. 5-3-4 General Remarks on Collector Current Stability
    4. 5-4 CE, CB Modes and Their Properties
      1. 5-4-1 Common-Emitter (CE) Mode
      2. 5-4-2 Common-Base Mode
    5. 5-5 Small-Signal Low-Frequency Operation of Transistors
      1. 5-5-1 Hybrid Parameters and Two-Port Network
    6. 5-6 Equivalent Circuits Through Hybrid Parameters as a Two-Port Network
    7. 5-7 Transistor as Amplifier
      1. 5-7-1 The Parameter α'
    8. 5-8 Expressions of Current Gain, Input Resistance, Voltage Gain and Output Resistance
      1. 5-8-1 Current Gain (AI)
      2. 5-8-2 Input Resistance (RI)
      3. 5-8-3 Voltage Gain (Av)
      4. 5-8-4 Output Resistance (RO)
    9. 5-9 Frequency Response for CE Amplifier with and without Source Impedance
      1. 5-9-1 Conclusions
    10. 5-10 Emitter Follower
    11. 5-11 Darlington Pair
    12. 5-12 Transistor at High Frequencies
    13. 5-13 Real-Life Applications of the Transistor
  13. 6. Field-Effect Transistor
    1. 6-1 Introduction
    2. 6-2 The Field-Effect Transistor
      1. 6-2-1 Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET)
      2. 6-2-2 Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistor (IGFET)
      3. 6-2-3 Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MESFET)
    3. 6-3 Construction of the JFET
    4. 6-4 Biasing of the JFET
      1. 6-4-1 Effect of the Gate Voltage
    5. 6-5 Current–Voltage Characteristics
    6. 6-6 Transfer Characteristics of the JFET
    7. 6-7 Construction and Characteristics of the MOSFET
      1. 6-7-1 Depletion-Type MOSFET
      2. 6-7-2 Enhancement-Type MOSFET
    8. 6-8 Complementary MOS
      1. 6-8-1 Construction of the CMOS
      2. 6-8-2 CMOS Inverter
      3. Examination of Mosfets under Two Extremes
    9. 6-9 Real-Life Applications of the FET
  14. 7. FET Circuits
    1. 7-1 Introduction
    2. 7-2 FET Biasing
      1. 7-2-1 Fixed-Bias Arrangement
      2. 7-2-2 Self-Bias Arrangement
      3. 7-2-3 Voltage Divider Biasing Arrangement
    3. 7-3 FET as an Amplifier
      1. 7-3-1 DC Bias Point
      2. 7-3-2 Voltage Gain of the FET
    4. 7-4 Electrical Parameters of the FET
    5. 7-5 AC Equivalent Circuit for Small-Signal Analysis
      1. 7-5-1 Small-Signal Model for the MOSFET
      2. T Equivalent-Circuit Model
    6. 7-6 High-Frequency MOSFET Model
      1. 7-6-1 Effective Capacitance of the Gate
      2. 7-6-2 The Junction Capacitance
      3. 7-6-3 The High-Frequency Models of the MOSFET
    7. 7-7 Additional FET Circuits
      1. 7-7-1 MOS Differential Amplifiers
      2. 7-7-2 Current Source Circuits
    8. 7-8 Comparison Between the FET and the BJT
  15. 8. Special Semiconductor Devices
    1. 8-1 Introduction
    2. 8-2 Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
      1. 8-2-1 Constructional Features
      2. 8-2-2 Physical Operation and Characteristics
      3. 8-2-3 I–V Characteristics of the SCR
      4. 8-2-4 Simple Applications
    3. 8-3 Triode AC Switch (TRIAC)
      1. 8-3-1 Constructional Features
      2. Physical Operation and Characteristics of the TRIAC
    4. 8-4 Diode AC Switch (DIAC)
      1. 8-4-1 Constructional Features
      2. 8-4-2 Physical Operation and Characteristics
      3. 8-4-3 Applications
    5. 8-5 Unijunction Transistor (UJT)
      1. 8-5-1 Constructional Features
      2. 8-5-2 Physical Operation and Characteristics
      3. 8-5-3 Applications
    6. 8-6 Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
      1. 8-6-1 Constructional Features
      2. 8-6-2 Physical Operation and Characteristics
    7. 8-7 Real-Life Applications
  16. 9. Feedback Amplifier
    1. 9-1 Introduction
    2. 9-2 Conceptual Development Through Block Diagrams
      1. 9-2-1 Input Signal
      2. 9-2-2 Output Signal
      3. 9-2-3 Sampling Network
      4. 9-2-4 Comparison or Summing Network
      5. 9-2-5 Basic Amplifier
    3. 9-3 Properties of Negative Feedback
    4. 9-4 Calculations of Open-Loop Gain, Closed-Loop Gain and Feedback Factors
      1. 9-4-1 Loop Gain or Return Ratio
    5. 9-5 Topologies of the Feedback Amplifier
      1. 9-5-1 Voltage-Series or Series-Shunt Feedback
      2. 9-5-2 Current-Series or Series-Series Feedback
      3. 9-5-3 Current-Shunt or Shunt-Series Feedback
      4. 9-5-4 Voltage-Shunt or Shunt-Shunt Feedback
    6. 9-6 Effect of Feedback on Gain, Input and Output Impedances
      1. 9-6-1 Effect of Feedback on Input Impedance
      2. 9-6-2 Effect of Feedback on Output Impedance
    7. 9-7 Practical Implementations of the Feedback Topologies
      1. 9-7-1 Voltage-Series Feedback Using Transistor
      2. 9-7-2 Current-Series Feedback Using Transistor
      3. 9-7-3 Voltage-Shunt Feedback Using Transistor
      4. 9-7-4 Current-Shunt Feedback Using Transistor
    8. 9-8 Sensitivity
    9. 9-9 Bandwidth Stability
    10. 9-10 Effect of Positive Feedback
      1. 9-10-1 Instability and Oscillation
      2. 9-10-2 Nyquist Criterion
      3. 9-10-3 Condition of Oscillation
      4. 9-10-4 Barkhausen Criterion
  17. 10. Fundamentals of Integrated Circuit Fabrication
    1. 10-1 Introduction
    2. 10-2 Fundamentals of Integrated Circuits
    3. 10-3 Types of Integrated Circuits
      1. 10-3-1 Monolithic IC
      2. 10-3-2 Hybrid IC
    4. 10-4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrated Circuits
    5. 10-5 Scale of Integration
      1. 10-5-1 Types of IC Chips
    6. 10-6 Crystal Growth and Wafer Preparation
    7. 10-7 Epitaxial Growth
    8. 10-8 Oxidation for Isolation
    9. 10-9 Photolithography for Pattern Transfer
      1. 10-9-1 Mask Alignment and UV Exposure
    10. 10-10 Etching for Design
      1. 10-10-1 Wet Chemical Etching
      2. 10-10-2 Dry Chemical Etching
      3. 10-10-3 Chemical Plasma Etching
      4. 10-10-4 Ion Beam Etching
      5. 10-10-5 Reactive Ion Etching
    11. 10-11 Diffusion for Doping
    12. 10-12 Ion Implantation for Doping
    13. 10-13 Metallization for Interconnection
    14. 10-14 Testing for Reliability
    15. 10-15 Packaging Protection
    16. 10-16 IC Symbols
    17. 10-17 Fabrication Steps for Different Circuits
      1. 10-17-1 Fabrication of Resistors in Integrated Circuits
      2. 10-17-2 Steps of Fabrication of Capacitors
      3. 10-17-3 Steps of Fabrication of the Transistor Circuit
      4. 10-17-4 The Schottky Diode
      5. 10-17-5 Schematic Diagram of a CMOS Circuit
    18. 10-18 Real-Life Applications
  18. 11. Operational Amplifier
    1. 11-1 Introduction
    2. 11-2 Properties of the Ideal Operational Amplifier
    3. 11-3 Specifications of IC 741C
      1. 11-3-1 Description of Op-Amp 741 IC Pins
    4. 11-4 Operational Amplifier and its Terminal Properties
      1. 11-4-1 Input Offset Voltage and Output Offset Voltage
      2. 11-4-2 Input-Bias Current
      3. 11-4-3 Input Offset Current and Output Offset Current
      4. 11-4-4 Input Offset Null Voltage
      5. 11-4-5 Differential Input Resistance
      6. 11-4-6 Input Capacitance
      7. 11-4-7 Offset Voltage Adjustment Range
      8. 11-4-8 Input Voltage Range
      9. 11-4-9 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
      10. 11-4-10 Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio (SVRR)
      11. 11-4-11 Large Signal Voltage Gain
      12. 11-4-12 Output Voltage Swing
      13. 11-4-13 Output Resistance
      14. 11-4-14 Supply Voltage
      15. 11-4-15 Supply Current
      16. 11-4-16 Power Consumption
      17. 11-4-17 Slew Rate
      18. 11-4-18 Gain Bandwidth Product
      19. 11-4-19 Virtual Ground
    5. 11-5 Applications of the Operational Amplifier
      1. 11-5-1 Inverting Mode of Operation
      2. 11-5-2 Non-Inverting Mode of Operation
      3. 11-5-3 Voltage Summing, Difference, and Constant Gain Multiplier
      4. 11-5-4 Voltage Follower or Unity Gain Amplifier
      5. 11-5-5 Comparator
      6. 11-5-6 Integrator
      7. 11-5-7 Differentiator
      8. 11-5-8 Logarithmic Amplifier
    6. 11-6 Real-Life Applications
  19. 12. Oscillators
    1. 12-1 Introduction
    2. 12-2 Classifications of Oscillators
    3. 12-3 Circuit Analysis of a General Oscillator
      1. 12-3-1 Hartley Oscillator
      2. 12-3-2 Colpitts Oscillator
      3. 12-3-3 Phase-Shift Oscillator
      4. 12-3-4 Wien-Bridge Oscillator
    4. 12-4 Conditions for Oscillation: Barkhausen Criterion
      1. 12-4-1 Nyquist Criterion for Oscillation
    5. 12-5 Tuned Oscillator
      1. 12-5-1 Circuit Analysis
    6. 12-6 Crystal Oscillator
    7. 12-7 Real-Life Applications of Oscillators
      1. 12-7-1 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
      2. 12-7-2 Cascode Crystal Oscillator
  20. 13. Digital Electronic Principles
    1. 13-1 Introduction
    2. 13-2 Number System
    3. 13-3 Conversion of Number System
      1. 13-3-1 Binary to Decimal
      2. 13-3-2 Decimal to Binary
      3. 13-3-3 Number System Conversions
    4. 13-4 Boolean Algebra
      1. 13-4-1 Addition
      2. 13-4-2 Subtraction
      3. 13-4-3 Basic Boolean Laws
    5. 13-5 Logic Gates
      1. 13-5-1 AND Gate
      2. 13-5-2 OR Gate
      3. 13-5-3 NOT Gate
      4. 13-5-4 NAND Gate
      5. 13-5-5 NOR Gate
      6. 13-5-6 XOR Gate
      7. 13-5-7 XNOR Gate
      8. 13-5-8 Universal Gate
      9. 13-5-9 Characteristics of Logic Gates
    6. 13-6 De Morgan’s Theorem
      1. 13-6-1 Using Basic Logic Gates
      2. 13-6-2 Application of De Morgan’s Theorem
    7. 13-7 Simplification of Boolean Expression
    8. 13-8 Logic Gate Circuits
      1. 13-8-1 Combinational Logic
      2. 13-8-2 Sequential Logic Circuit
    9. 13-9 Real-Life Applications of Digital Circuits
  21. 14. Electronic Instruments
    1. 14-1 Introduction
    2. 14-2 Components of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
    3. 14-3 Cathode-Ray Tube
      1. 14-3-1 Electron Gun
      2. 14-3-2 Deflection Systems
      3. 14-3-3 Fluorescent Screen
    4. 14-4 Time-Base Generators
      1. 14-4-1 Oscilloscope Amplifiers
      2. 14-4-2 Vertical Amplifiers
    5. 14-5 Measurements Using the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
      1. 14-5-1 Measurement of Frequency
      2. 14-5-2 Measurement of Phase
      3. 14-5-3 Measurement of Phase Using Lissajous Figures
    6. 14-6 Types of Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope
      1. 14-6-1 Analog CRO
      2. 14-6-2 Digital CRO
      3. 14-6-3 Storage CRO
      4. 14-6-4 Dual-Beam CRO
    7. 14-7 Sweep Frequency Generator
      1. 14-7-1 Applications of the Sweep Frequency Generator
    8. 14-8 Function Generator
    9. 14-9 Sine Wave Generator
    10. 14-10 Square Wave Generator
    11. 14-11 AF Signal Generator
  22. Acknowledgements
  23. Copyright