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Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Book Description

This book provides an overview of the basics of electrical and electronic engineering that are required at the undergraduate level. Efforts have been taken to keep the complexity level of the subject to bare minimum so that the students of non electrical/electronics can easily understand the basics. It offers an unparalleled exposure to the entire gamut of topics such as Electricity Fundamentals, Network Theory, Electro-magnetism, Electrical Machines, Transformers, Measuring Instruments, Power Systems, Semiconductor Devices, Digital Electronics and Integrated Circuits.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Basic Concepts, Laws, and Principles
    1. 1.1 - Introduction
    2. 1.2 - Atomic Structure and Electric Charge
    3. 1.3 - Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors
    4. 1.4 - Electric Field and Magnetic Field
    5. 1.5 - Electric Current, Resistance, Potential, and Potential Difference
      1. 1.5.1 - Electric Current
      2. 1.5.2 - Resistance
      3. 1.5.3 - Potential and Potential Difference
    6. 1.6 - Ohm's Law
    7. 1.7 - The Effect of Temperature on Resistance
    8. 1.8 - Work, Power, and Energy
      1. 1.8.1 - Work
      2. 1.8.2 - Power
      3. 1.8.3 - Energy
      4. 1.8.4 - Units of Work, Power, and Energy
    9. 1.9 - Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
      1. 1.9.1 - Introduction
      2. 1.9.2 - Magnetic Field around a Current-carrying Conductor
      3. 1.9.3 - Magnetic Field around a Coil
      4. 1.9.4 - A Current-carrying Conductor Placed in a Magnetic Field
      5. 1.9.5 - A Current-carrying Coil Placed in a Magnetic Field
    10. 1.10 - Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
    11. 1.11 - Induced EMF in a Coil Rotating in a Magnetic Field
    12. 1.12 - EMF Induced in a Conductor
    13. 1.13 - Dynamically Induced EMF and Statically Induced EMF
    14. 1.14 - Self-induced EMF and Mutually induced EMF
    15. 1.15 - Self-inductance of a Coil
    16. 1.16 - Mutual Inductance
    17. 1.17 - Inductance of Coils Connected in Series Having a Common Core
    18. 1.18 - Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
    19. 1.19 - Electrical Circuit Elements
      1. 1.19.1 - Resistors
      2. 1.19.2 - Inductors
      3. 1.19.3 - Capacitors
    20. 1.20 - Energy Stored in a Capacitor
    21. 1.21 - Capacitor in Parallel and in Series
    22. 1.22 - Review Questions
  8. 2. DC Networks and Network Theorems
    1. 2.1 - Introduction
    2. 2.2 - DC Network Terminologies, Voltage, and Current Sources
      1. 2.2.1 - Network Terminologies
      2. 2.2.2 - Voltage and Current Sources
      3. 2.2.3 - Source Transformation
    3. 2.3 - Series–Parallel Circuits
      1. 2.3.1 - Series Circuits
      2. 2.3.2 - Parallel Circuits
      3. 2.3.3 - Series–Parallel Circuits
    4. 2.4 - Voltage and Current Divider Rules
      1. 2.4.1 - Voltage Divider Rule
      2. 2.4.2 - Current Divider Rule
    5. 2.5 - Kirchhoff's Laws
      1. 2.5.1 - Kirchhoff's Current Law
      2. 2.5.2 - Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
      3. 2.5.3 - Solution of Simultaneous Equations Using Cramer's Rule
      4. 2.5.4 - Method of Evaluating Determinant
    6. 2.6 - Maxwell's Mesh Current Method
    7. 2.7 - Nodal Voltage Method (Nodal Analysis)
    8. 2.8 - Network Theorems
      1. 2.8.1 - Superposition Theorem
      2. 2.8.2 - Thevenin's Theorem
      3. 2.8.3 - Norton's Theorem
      4. 2.8.4 - Millman's Theorem
      5. 2.8.5 - Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
    9. 2.9 - Star–Delta Transformation
      1. 2.9.1 - Transforming Relations for Delta to Star
      2. 2.9.2 - Transforming Relations for Star to Delta
    10. 2.10 - DC Transients
      1. 2.10.1 - Introduction
      2. 2.10.2 - Transient in R–L Circuit
      3. 2.10.3 - Transient in R–C Circuit
    11. 2.11 - Review Questions
  9. 3. AC Fundamentals and Single-phase Circuits
    1. 3.1 - AC Fundamentals
      1. 3.1.1 - Introduction
      2. 3.1.2 - Generation of Alternating Voltage in an Elementary Generator
      3. 3.1.3 - Concept of Frequency, Cycle, Time Period, Instantaneous Value, Average Value, and Maximum Value
      4. 3.1.4 - Sinusoidal and Non-sinusoidal Wave Forms
      5. 3.1.5 - Concept of Average Value and Root Mean Square (RMS) Value of an Alternating Quantity
      6. 3.1.6 - Analytical Method of Calculation of RMS Value, Average Value, and Form Factor
      7. 3.1.7 - RMS and Average Values of Half-wave-rectified Alternating Quantity
      8. 3.1.8 - Concept of Phase and Phase Difference
    2. 3.2 - Single-phase AC Circuits
      1. 3.2.1 - Behaviour of R, L, and C in AC Circuits
      2. 3.2.2 - L–R Series Circuit
      3. 3.2.3 - Apparent Power, Real Power, and Reactive Power
      4. 3.2.4 - Power in an AC Circuit
      5. 3.2.5 - R–C Series Circuit
      6. 3.2.6 - R–L–C Series Circuit
      7. 3.2.7 - AC Parallel Circuits
      8. 3.2.8 - AC Series—Parallel Circuits
    3. 3.3 - Resonance in AC Circuits
      1. 3.3.1 - Resonance in AC Series Circuit
      2. 3.3.2 - Resonance in AC Parallel Circuits
    4. 3.4 - Review Questions
  10. 4. Three-phase System
    1. 4.1 - Introduction
    2. 4.2 - Advantages of Three-phase Systems
    3. 4.3 - Generation of Three-phase Voltages
    4. 4.4 - Terms Used in Three-phase Systems and Circuits
    5. 4.5 - Three-phase Winding Connections
      1. 4.5.1 - Star Connection
      2. 4.5.2 - Delta Connection
      3. 4.5.3 - Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages, and Currents in a Star-connected System
      4. 4.5.4 - Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Delta-connected System
    6. 4.6 - Active and Reactive Power
    7. 4.7 - Comparison between Star Connection and Delta Connection
    8. 4.8 - Measurement of Power in Three-phase Circuits
      1. 4.8.1 - One-Wattmeter Method
      2. 4.8.2 - Two-Wattmeter Method
      3. 4.8.3 - Three-Wattmeter Method
    9. 4.9 - Review Questions
  11. 5. Electromagnetism and Magnetic Circuits
    1. 5.1 - Magnets and Magnetic Fields
      1. 5.1.1 - Field around a Current-carrying Conductor
      2. 5.1.2 - Magnetic Flux Density
      3. 5.1.3 - Magnetic Field Strength
      4. 5.1.4 - Permeability
      5. 5.1.5 - Relative Permeability
    2. 5.2 - Magnetic Field Due to Current-carrying Conductor Laws of Electromagnetism
      1. 5.2.1 - Ampere's Circuital Law
      2. 5.2.2 - Biot-Savart Law
      3. 5.2.3 - Application of Biot-Savart Law
    3. 5.3 - Magnetization Curve of a Magnetic Material
    4. 5.4 - Hysteresis Loss and Eddy Current Loss in Magnetic Materials
      1. 5.4.1 - Hysteresis Loss
      2. 5.4.2 - Eddy Current Loss
    5. 5.5 - Magnetic Circuits
    6. 5.6 - Comparison between Magnetic and Electric Circuits
    7. 5.7 - Magnetic Leakage and Fringing
    8. 5.8 - Series and Parallel Magnetic Circuits
    9. 5.9 - Attractive Force or the Lifting Power of Electromagnets
    10. 5.10 - Review Questions
  12. 6. Transformers
    1. 6.1 - Introduction
    2. 6.2 - Applications of Transformers
    3. 6.3 - Basic Principle and Constructional Details
      1. 6.3.1 - Basic Principle
      2. 6.3.2 - Constructional Details
    4. 6.4 - Core-type and Shell-type Transformers
      1. 6.4.1 - Power Transformers and Distribution Transformers
    5. 6.5 - EMF Equation
    6. 6.6 - Transformer on No-load
    7. 6.7 - Transformer on Load
    8. 6.8 - Transformer Circuit Parameters and Equivalent Circuit
    9. 6.9 - Phasor Diagram of a Transformer
    10. 6.10 - Concept of Voltage Regulation
    11. 6.11 - Concept of an Ideal Transformer
    12. 6.12 - Transformer Tests
      1. 6.12.1 - Open-circuit Test or No-load Test
      2. 6.12.2 - Short-circuit Test
    13. 6.13 - Efficiency of a Transformer
    14. 6.14 - Condition for Maximum Efficiency
    15. 6.15 - All-day Efficiency
    16. 6.16 - Calculation of Regulation of a Transformer
    17. 6.17 - Factors Affecting Losses in a Transformer
    18. 6.18 - Solved Numerical Problems
    19. 6.19 - Review Questions
  13. 7. DC Machines
    1. 7.1 - Introduction and Principle of Working
      1. 7.1.1 - Nature of Load Current When Output is Taken out through Brush and Slip-ring Arrangement
      2. 7.1.2 - Nature of Load Current When Output is Taken through Brush and Commutator Arrangement
      3. 7.1.3 - Function of Brush and Commutators in Motoring Action
    2. 7.2 - Constructional Details
      1. 7.2.1 - The Field System
      2. 7.2.2 - The Armature
      3. 7.2.3 - Armature Winding
      4. 7.2.4 - Types of Armature Winding
    3. 7.3 - EMF Equation of a DC Machine
      1. 7.3.1 - Induced EMF is Equated to Flux Cut per Second
    4. 7.4 - Types of DC Machines
    5. 7.5 - Characteristics of DC Generators
      1. 7.5.1 - No-load Characteristics
      2. 7.5.2 - Load Characteristics
    6. 7.6 - Applications of DC Generators
    7. 7.7 - Operation of a dc Machine as a Motor
      1. 7.7.1 - Working Principle of a DC Motor
      2. 7.7.2 - Changing the Direction of Rotation
      3. 7.7.3 - Energy Conversion Equation
    8. 7.8 - Torque Equation
    9. 7.9 - Starting a DC Motor
    10. 7.10 - Speed Control of DC Motors
      1. 7.10.1 - Voltage Control Method
      2. 7.10.2 - Field Control Method
      3. 7.10.3 - Armature Control Method
    11. 7.11 - Starter for a DC Motor
      1. 7.11.1 - Three-point Starter
      2. 7.11.2 - Four-point Starter
    12. 7.12 - Types and Characteristics of DC Motors
      1. 7.12.1 - Characteristics of DC Shunt Motors
      2. 7.12.2 - Characteristics of DC Series Motors
      3. 7.12.3 - Characteristics of DC Compound Motors
    13. 7.13 - Losses and Efficiency
      1. 7.13.1 - Losses in a DC Machine
      2. 7.13.2 - Efficiency of DC Machine
      3. 7.13.3 - Condition for Maximum Efficiency
    14. 7.14 - Applications of DC Machines
      1. 7.14.1 - DC Generators
      2. 7.14.2 - DC Motors
      3. 7.14.3 - DC Series Motors
      4. 7.14.4 - DC Compound Motors
    15. 7.15 - Solved Numerical Problems
    16. 7.16 - Review Questions
  14. 8. Three-phase Induction Motors
    1. 8.1 - Introduction
    2. 8.2 - Constructional Details
    3. 8.3 - Windings and Pole Formation
    4. 8.4 - Production of Rotating Magnetic Field
    5. 8.5 - Principle of Working
    6. 8.6 - Rotor-induced EMF, Rotor Frequency, Rotor Current
    7. 8.7 - Losses in Induction Motors
    8. 8.8 - Power Flow Diagram
    9. 8.9 - Torque Equation
    10. 8.10 - Starting Torque
    11. 8.11 - Condition for Maximum Torque
    12. 8.12 - Torque–Slip Characteristic
    13. 8.13 - Variation of Torque–Slip Characteristic with Change in Rotor–Circuit Resistance
    14. 8.14 - Starting of Induction Motors
      1. 8.14.1 - Direct-on-Line Starting
      2. 8.14.2 - Manual Star–Delta Starter
    15. 8.15 - Speed Control of Induction Motors
    16. 8.16 - Determination of Efficiency
      1. 8.16.1 - No-load Test
      2. 8.16.2 - Blocked-rotor Test
    17. 8.17 - Applications of Induction Motors
    18. 8.18 - Solved Numerical Problems
    19. 8.19 - Review Questions
  15. 9. Single-phase Motors
    1. 9.1 - Introduction to Single-phase Induction Motors
    2. 9.2 - Constructional Details
    3. 9.3 - Double Revolving Field Theory and Principle of Working of Single-phase Induction Motors
    4. 9.4 - Torque–Speed Characteristic
    5. 9.5 - Split–Phase Induction Motors
    6. 9.6 - Shaded Pole Induction Motor
    7. 9.7 - Single-phase AC Series Motors
    8. 9.8 - Operation of a Series Motor on DC and AC (Universal Motors)
    9. 9.9 - Single-phase Synchronous Motors
      1. 9.9.1 - Reluctance Motors
      2. 9.9.2 - Hysteresis Motors
    10. 9.10 - Stepper Motors
    11. 9.11 - Review Questions
  16. 10. Synchronous Machines
    1. 10.1 - Introduction
    2. 10.2 - Constructional Details of Synchronous Machines
    3. 10.3 - Advantages of Stationary Armature and Rotating Field
    4. 10.4 - Use of Laminated Sheets for the Stator and the Rotor
    5. 10.5 - Armature Windings
    6. 10.6 - Concept of Coil Span, Mechanical, and Electrical Degrees
    7. 10.7 - Types of Windings
    8. 10.8 - Induced EMF in a Synchronous Machine
      1. 10.8.1 - EMF Equation
      2. 10.8.2 - Distribution Factor
      3. 10.8.3 - Pitch Factor
    9. 10.9 - Open-circuit or No-load Characteristic
    10. 10.10 - Synchronous Generator on Load
    11. 10.11 - Synchronous Impedance and Voltage Drop Due to Synchronous Impedance
    12. 10.12 - Voltage Regulation of a Synchronous Generator
    13. 10.13 - Determination of Voltage Regulation by the Synchronous Impedance Method
    14. 10.14 - Synchronous Generators Connected in Parallel to Supply a Common Load
      1. 10.14.1 - Advantages of Parallel Operation
      2. 10.14.2 - Parallel Connection of Alternators
      3. 10.14.3 - Conditions for Parallel Connection and Synchronization
      4. 10.14.4 - Load Sharing
    15. 10.15 - Synchronous Motor
      1. 10.15.1 - Introduction
      2. 10.15.2 - Principle of Working of a Synchronous Motor
      3. 10.15.3 - Effect of Change of Excitation of a Synchronous Motor
      4. 10.15.4 - Application of Synchronous Motors
    16. 10.16 - Review Questions
  17. 11. Measurement and Measuring Instruments
    1. 11.1 - Introduction
    2. 11.2 - Analog and Digital Instruments
    3. 11.3 - Passive and Active Instruments
    4. 11.4 - Static Characteristics of Instruments
      1. 11.4.1 - Accuracy
      2. 11.4.2 - Precision
      3. 11.4.3 - Sensitivity and Resolution
      4. 11.4.4 - Error, Threshold, and Loading Effect
    5. 11.5 - Linear and Non-linear Systems
    6. 11.6 - Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments
    7. 11.7 - Classification of the Instrument System
      1. 11.7.1 - Active and Passive Instruments
      2. 11.7.2 - Analog and Digital Instruments
      3. 11.7.3 - Indicating, Recording, and Integrating Instruments
      4. 11.7.4 - Deflection- and Null-type Instruments
    8. 11.8 - Measurement Error
    9. 11.9 - Indicating-type Instruments
      1. 11.9.1 - Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments
      2. 11.9.2 - Use of Shunts and Multipliers
      3. 11.9.3 - Moving Iron Instruments
      4. 11.9.4 - Dynamometer-type moving coil Instruments
    10. 11.10 - Measurement of Power
      1. 11.10.1 - Power in DC and AC Circuits
      2. 11.10.2 - Measurement of Power in Single-phase AC Circuit
      3. 11.10.3 - Sources of Error in measurement using Dynamometer-type Wattmeters
    11. 11.11 - Measurement of Energy
      1. 11.11.1 - Introduction
      2. 11.11.2 - Constructional details and working principle of Single-phase Induction-type Energy Meter
    12. 11.12 - Instrument Transformers
      1. 11.12.1 - Current Transformers
      2. 11.12.2 - Potential Transformers
    13. 11.13 - Megger and Measurement of Insulation Resistance
    14. 11.14 - Multimeter and Measurement of Resistance
    15. 11.15 - Review Questions
  18. 12. Transducers
    1. 12.1 - Introduction
    2. 12.2 - Classification of Transducers
    3. 12.3 - Characteristics of a Transducer
    4. 12.4 - Linear Variable Differential Transformer
    5. 12.5 - Capacitive Transducers
    6. 12.6 - Inductive Transducers
    7. 12.7 - Potentiometric Transducer
    8. 12.8 - Strain Gauge Transducer
    9. 12.9 - Thermistors
    10. 12.10 - Thermocouples
    11. 12.11 - Hall Effect Transducers
    12. 12.12 - Piezoelectric Transducer
    13. 12.13 - Photoelectric Transducer
    14. 12.14 - Selection of Transducers
    15. 12.15 - Review Questions
  19. 13. Power Systems
    1. 13.1 - Introduction
    2. 13.2 - Generation of Electricity
    3. 13.3 - Sources of Energy for Electricity Generation
    4. 13.4 - Thermal Power Generation from Fossil-fuel
      1. 13.4.1 - Coal-fired Thermal Power Stations
      2. 13.4.2 - Gas-fired Thermal Power Stations
      3. 13.4.3 - Oil- and Diesel-oil-fired Thermal Power Stations
    5. 13.5 - Hydroelectric Power-generating Stations
    6. 13.6 - Nuclear Power-generating Stations
    7. 13.7 - Non-conventional or Alternative Generating Stations
      1. 13.7.1 - Solar Electricity Generation
      2. 13.7.2 - Wind Energy to Produce Electricity
      3. 13.7.3 - Electricity from Biomass
      4. 13.7.4 - Mini/Micro Hydel Power Generation
      5. 13.7.5 - Electricity from Tidal Energy
      6. 13.7.6 - Electricity from Ocean Energy
      7. 13.7.7 - Electricity from Geothermal Energy
    8. 13.8 - Transmission and Distribution of Electricity
      1. 13.8.1 - AC versus DC Transmission
      2. 13.8.2 - Distribution System
      3. 13.8.3 - Overhead versus Underground Distribution Systems
      4. 13.8.4 - Connection Schemes of Distribution System
    9. 13.9 - Domestic Wiring
      1. 13.9.1 - Service Connection
      2. 13.9.2 - Service Mains
      3. 13.9.3 - Distribution Board for Single-phase Installation
      4. 13.9.4 - Neutral and Earth Wire
      5. 13.9.5 - Earthing
      6. 13.9.6 - System of Wiring
      7. 13.9.7 - System of Connection of Lights, Fans and Other Electrical Loads
    10. 13.10 - Circuit Protective Devices and Safety Precautions
      1. 13.10.1 - Safety Precautions in Using Electricity
    11. 13.11 - Efficient Use of Electricity
    12. 13.12 - Review Questions
  20. 14. Semiconductor Devices
    1. 14.1 - Introduction
    2. 14.2 - Review of Atomic Theory
    3. 14.3 - Binding Forces between Atoms in Semiconductor Materials
    4. 14.4 - Extrinsic Semiconductors
      1. 14.4.1 - N-Type Semiconductor Material
      2. 14.4.2 - P-Type Semiconductor Material
      3. 14.4.3 - The p–n Junction
      4. 14.4.4 - Biasing of p–n Junction
    5. 14.5 - Semiconductor Diodes
      1. 14.5.1 - Volt-ampere Characteristic of a Diode
      2. 14.5.2 - An Ideal Diode
      3. 14.5.3 - Diode Parameters and Diode Ratings
    6. 14.6 - Zener Diode
      1. 14.6.1 - Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator
      2. 14.6.2 - Zener Diode as a Reference Voltage
    7. 14.7 - Bipolar Junction Transistors
      1. 14.7.1 - Working of a n–p–n Transistor
      2. 14.7.2 - Working of a p–n–p Transistor
      3. 14.7.3 - Transistor Configurations
      4. 14.7.4 - Transistor as an Amplifier
      5. 14.7.5 - Transistor as a Switch
    8. 14.8 - Field Effect Transistors
      1. 14.8.1 - Junction Field Effect Transistors
      2. 14.8.2 - FET Applications
    9. 14.9 - MOSFET
      1. 14.9.1 - The Enhancement MOSFET (EMOSFET)
      2. 14.9.2 - The Depletion MOSFET
      3. 14.9.3 - Static Characteristics of MOSFET
      4. 14.9.4 - Applications of MOSFET
    10. 14.10 - Silicon-controlled Rectifier
      1. 14.10.1 - Characteristics of SCR
      2. 14.10.2 - Two-transistor Analogy of an SCR
      3. 14.10.3 - Applications of SCR
    11. 14.11 - DIAC
    12. 14.12 - TRIAC
    13. 14.13 - Optoelectronic Devices
      1. 14.13.1 - Light-dependent Resistor
      2. 14.13.2 - Light-emitting Diodes
      3. 14.13.3 - Seven Segment Displays
      4. 14.13.4 - Liquid Crystal Displays
      5. 14.13.5 - Photodiodes
      6. 14.13.6 - Photovoltaic Cells or Solar Cells
      7. 14.13.7 - Phototransistors
      8. 14.13.8 - Photo-darlington
      9. 14.13.9 - Optocouplers
    14. 14.14 - Review Questions
  21. 15. Rectifiers and Other Diode Circuits
    1. 15.1 - Rectifiers
      1. 15.1.1 - Introduction
      2. 15.1.2 - Half-wave Rectifier
      3. 15.1.3 - Analysis of Half-wave Rectifier
      4. 15.1.4 - Full-wave Rectifier
      5. 15.1.5 - Full-wave Bridge Rectifier
      6. 15.1.6 - Analysis of Full-wave Rectifiers
      7. 15.1.7 - Comparison of Half-wave and Full-wave Rectifiers
    2. 15.2 - Filters
    3. 15.3 - Applications of Diodes in Clipping and Clamping Circuits
      1. 15.3.1 - Negative and Positive Series Clippers
      2. 15.3.2 - Shunt Clippers
      3. 15.3.3 - Biased Clippers
      4. 15.3.4 - Clamping Circuits
    4. 15.4 - Review Questions
  22. 16. Digital Electronics
    1. 16.1 - Introduction
    2. 16.2 - Number Systems
      1. 16.2.1 - Decimal Number System
      2. 16.2.2 - Binary Number System
      3. 16.2.3 - Conversion of Binary to Decimal
      4. 16.2.4 - Conversion of Decimal to Binary
      5. 16.2.5 - Binary Addition
      6. 16.2.6 - Binary Subtraction
      7. 16.2.7 - Binary Multiplication
    3. 16.3 - Octal Number System
    4. 16.4 - Hexadecimal Number System
      1. 16.4.1 - Application of Binary Numbers in Computers
    5. 16.5 - Logic Gates
      1. 16.5.1 - NOT Gate
      2. 16.5.2 - OR Gate
      3. 16.5.3 - AND Gate
      4. 16.5.4 - NAND Gate
      5. 16.5.5 - NOR Gate
    6. 16.6 - Boolean Algebra
      1. 16.6.1 - Boolean Expressions
    7. 16.7 - De Morgan's Theorem
    8. 16.8 - Combinational Circuits
    9. 16.9 - Simplification of Boolean Expressions Using De Morgan's Theorem
    10. 16.10 - Universal Gates
      1. 16.10.1 - Use of NAND Gate to Form the Three Basic Gates
      2. 16.10.2 - Use of NOR Gate to Form the Three Basic Gates
    11. 16.11 - Flip-flops
      1. 16.11.1 - RS Flip-flop
      2. 16.11.2 - Gated or Clocked RS Flip-flop
      3. 16.11.3 - JK Flip-flop
      4. 16.11.4 - D Flip-flops
      5. 16.11.5 - T Flip-flops (Toggle Flip-flop)
      6. 16.11.6 - Master–Slave JK Flip-flop
      7. 16.11.7 - Counters and Shift Registers
      8. 16.11.8 - Arithmetic Circuits
      9. 16.11.9 - Memory Function or Data Storage
      10. 16.11.10 - Digital Systems
    12. 16.12 - Review Questions
  23. 17. Integrated Circuits
    1. 17.1 - Introduction
    2. 17.2 - Fabrication of Monolithic ICs
    3. 17.3 - Hybrid Integrated Circuits
    4. 17.4 - Linear and Digital ICs
    5. 17.5 - Operational Amplifiers
    6. 17.6 - Op-amp Applications
      1. 17.6.1 - Op-amp as a Summing Amplifier
      2. 17.6.2 - Op-amp as a Differential Amplifier (Subtractor)
      3. 17.6.3 - Op-amp as a Derivative Amplifier
      4. 17.6.4 - Op-amp as an Integrator
      5. 17.6.5 - Other Applications of Op-amps
    7. 17.7 - The 555 Timer Integrated Circuit
      1. 17.7.1 - Three Operating Modes of IC 555
      2. 17.7.2 - Pin Configuration of IC 555
      3. 17.7.3 - Functional Block Diagram of IC 555
      4. 17.7.4 - Monostable Application of IC 555
      5. 17.7.5 - Astable Application of IC 555
      6. 17.7.6 - An IC 555 Timer Astable Oscillator Circuit
    8. 17.8 - IC Voltage Regulators or Regulator ICs
    9. 17.9 - Digital Integrated Circuits
    10. 17.10 - Review Questions
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