In this section we give some properties of integers that the reader will encounter throughout the book. We do not intend to give here an axiomatic development of this topic (we do this in Chapter 13); rather we assume our familiarity with addition, multiplication of integers, and the usual properties of these operations.

We first give some definitions and notation. An integer *b* is a *factor* or *divisor* of an integer *a* (or *a* is a *multiple* of *b*) if there exists an integer *c* such that *a = bc*. We say that *b* divides *a* and write *b*|*a* ( means *b* does not divide *a*). A nonzero integer *p* is ...

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