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Avionics Navigation Systems, 2nd Edition

Book Description

An indispensable resource for all those who design, build, manage, and operate electronic navigation systems

Avionics Navigation Systems, Second Edition, is a complete guide to the art and science of modern electronic navigation, focusing on aircraft. It covers electronic navigation systems in civil and military aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, and manned spacecraft. It has been thoroughly updated and expanded to include all of the major advances that have occurred since the publication of the classic first edition. It covers the entire field from basic navigation principles, equations, and state-of-the-art hardware to emerging technologies. Each chapter is devoted to a different system or technology and provides detailed information about its functions, design characteristics, equipment configurations, performance limitations, and directions for the future. You'll find everything you need to know about:

  • Traditional ground-based radio navigation

  • Satellite systems: GPS, GLONASS, and their augmentations

  • New inertial systems, including optical rate sensors, micromechanical accelerometers, and high-accuracy stellar-inertial navigators Instrument Landing System and its successors

  • Integrated communication-navigation systems used on battlefields

  • Airborne mapping, Doppler, and multimode radars

  • Terrain matching

  • Special needs of military aircraft

  • And much more

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. PREFACE
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 DEFINITIONS
    2. 1.2 GUIDANCE VERSUS NAVIGATION
    3. 1.3 CATEGORIES OF NAVIGATION
    4. 1.4 THE VEHICLE
    5. 1.5 PHASES OF FLIGHT
    6. 1.6 DESIGN TRADE-OFFS
    7. 1.7 EVOLUTION OF AIR NAVIGATION
    8. 1.8 INTEGRATED AVIONICS
    9. 1.9 HUMAN NAVIGATOR
  9. 2 The Navigation Equations
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 GEOMETRY OF THE EARTH
    3. 2.3 COORDINATE FRAMES
    4. 2.4 DEAD-RECKONING COMPUTATIONS
    5. 2.5 POSITIONING
    6. 2.6 TERRAIN-MATCHING NAVIGATION
    7. 2.7 COURSE COMPUTATION
    8. 2.8 NAVIGATION ERRORS
    9. 2.9 DIGITAL CHARTS
    10. 2.10 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
    11. 2.11 FUTURE TRENDS
    12. PROBLEMS
  10. 3 Multisensor Navigation Systems
    1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 3.2 INERTIAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
    3. 3.3 AN INTEGRATED STELLAR-INERTIAL SYSTEM
    4. 3.4 INTEGRATED DOPPLER-INERTIAL SYSTEMS
    5. 3.5 AN AIRSPEED-DAMPED INERTIAL SYSTEM
    6. 3.6 AN INTEGRATED STELLAR-INERTIAL-DOPPLER SYSTEM
    7. 3.7 POSITION UPDATE OF AN INERTIAL SYSTEM
    8. 3.8 NONINERTIAL GPS MULTISENSOR NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
    9. 3.9 FILTERING OF MEASUREMENTS
    10. 3.10 KALMAN FILTER BASICS
    11. 3.11 OPEN-LOOP KALMAN FILTER MECHANIZATION
    12. 3.12 CLOSED-LOOP KALMAN FILTER MECHANIZATION
    13. 3.13 GPS–INS MECHANIZATION
    14. 3.14 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    15. 3.15 FEDERATED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
    16. 3.16 FUTURE TRENDS
    17. PROBLEMS
  11. 4 Terrestrial Radio-Navigation Systems
    1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 4.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    3. 4.3 SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    4. 4.4 POINT SOURCE SYSTEMS [ 5 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]
    5. 4.5 HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS
    6. 4.6 FUTURE TRENDS
    7. PROBLEMS
  12. 5 Satellite Radio Navigation
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 5.2 THE BASICS OF SATELLITE RADIO NAVIGATION
    3. 5.3 ORBITAL MECHANICS AND CLOCK CHARACTERISTICS
    4. 5.4 ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON SATELLITE SIGNALS
    5. 5.5 NAVSTAR GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
    6. 5.6 GLOBAL ORBITING NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GLONASS)
    7. 5.7 GNSS INTEGRITY AND AVAILABILITY
    8. 5.8 FUTURE TRENDS
    9. PROBLEMS
  13. 6 Terrestrial Integrated Radio Communication–Navigation Systems
    1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 6.2 JTIDS RELATIVE NAVIGATION
    3. 6.3 POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM
    4. 6.4 FUTURE TRENDS
    5. PROBLEMS
  14. 7 Inertial Navigation
    1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 7.2 THE SYSTEM
    3. 7.3 INSTRUMENTS
    4. 7.4 PLATFORMS
    5. 7.5 MECHANIZATION EQUATIONS
    6. 7.5.1 Coordinate Frames
    7. 7.6 ERROR ANALYSIS
    8. 7.7 ALIGNMENT
    9. 7.8 FUNDAMENTAL LIMITS
    10. 7.9 FUTURE TRENDS
    11. PROBLEMS
  15. 8 Air-Data Systems
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 AIR-DATA MEASUREMENTS
    3. 8.3 AIR DATA EQUATIONS
    4. 8.4 AIR-DATA SYSTEMS
    5. 8.5 SPECIALTY DESIGNS
    6. 8.5.2 Optical Air-Data Systems
    7. 8.6 CALIBRATION AND SYSTEM TEST
    8. PROBLEMS
  16. 9 Attitude and Heading References
    1. 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 9.2 BASIC INSTRUMENTS
    3. 9.3 VERTICAL REFERENCES
    4. 9.4 HEADING REFERENCES
    5. 9.5 INITIAL ALIGNMENT OF HEADING REFERENCES
    6. 9.6 FUTURE TRENDS
    7. PROBLEMS
  17. 10 Doppler and Altimeter Radars
    1. 10.1 DOPPLER RADARS
    2. 10.2 RADAR ALTIMETERS
    3. 10.3 FUTURE TRENDS
    4. PROBLEMS
  18. 11 Mapping and Multimode Radars
    1. 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 11.2 RADAR PILOTAGE
    3. 11.3 SEMIAUTOMATIC POSITION FIXING
    4. 11.4 SEMIAUTOMATIC POSITION FIXING WITH SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADARS
    5. 11.5 PRECISION VELOCITY UPDATE
    6. 11.6 TERRAIN FOLLOWING AND AVOIDANCE
    7. 11.7 MULTIMODE RADARS
    8. 11.8 SIGNAL PROCESSING
    9. 11.9 AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
    10. 11.10 FUTURE TRENDS
    11. PROBLEMS
  19. 12 Celestial Navigation
    1. 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 12.2 STAR OBSERVATION GEOMETRY
    3. 12.3 THEORY OF STELLAR-INERTIAL NAVIGATION
    4. 12.4 STELLAR SENSOR DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
    5. 12.5 CELESTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM DESIGN
    6. 12.6 STAR CATALOG CHARACTERISTICS
    7. 12.7 SYSTEM CALIBRATION AND ALIGNMENT
    8. 12.6 FUTURE TRENDS
    9. PROBLEMS
  20. 13 Landing Systems
    1. 13.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 13.2 LOW-VISIBILITY OPERATIONS
    3. 13.3 THE MECHANICS OF THE LANDING
    4. 13.4 AUTOMATIC LANDING SYSTEMS
    5. 13.5 THE INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM
    6. 13.6 THE MICROWAVE-LANDING SYSTEM
    7. 13.7 SATELLITE LANDING SYSTEMS
    8. 13.8 CARRIER-LANDING SYSTEMS
    9. 13.9 FUTURE TRENDS
    10. PROBLEMS
  21. 14 Air Traffic Management
    1. 14.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 14.2 FLIGHT RULES AND AIRSPACE ORGANIZATION
    3. 14.3 AIRWAYS AND PROCEDURES
    4. 14.4 PHASES OF FLIGHT
    5. 14.5 SUBSYSTEMS
    6. 14.6 FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS
    7. 14.7 SYSTEM CAPACITY
    8. 14.8 AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS
    9. 14.9 FUTURE TRENDS
    10. PROBLEMS
  22. 15 Avionics Interfaces
    1. 15.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 15.2 DATA BUSES
    3. 15.3 CREW DISPLAYS
    4. 15.4 POWER
    5. 15.5 MAINTENANCE
    6. 15.6 PHYSICAL INTERFACE
    7. 15.7 FUTURE TRENDS
    8. PROBLEMS
  23. References
    1. CHAPTER 1
    2. CHAPTER 2
    3. CHAPTER 3
    4. CHAPTER 4
    5. CHAPTER 5
    6. CHAPTER 6
    7. CHAPTER 7
    8. CHAPTER 8
    9. CHAPTER 9
    10. CHAPTER 10
    11. CHAPTER 11
    12. CHAPTER 12
    13. CHAPTER 13
    14. CHAPTER 14
    15. CHAPTER 15
  24. INDEX