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Automotive Electricity: Electric Drive

Book Description

Since the beginning of the century, electrical goods have invaded our everyday lives. Now, electric power is coming to be seen as a solution to the pollution caused by cars. While this transition has remained very slow during the last ten years, it has been accelerating as the statutory constraints and needs of the market have changed. Even if the electric car itself fails to dominate the market, electric traction is taking an important place in our drive to move away from gas-powered vehicles. Another solution, hybrid vehicles, combine two sources of energy (electric and chemical), reducing the global consumption of fossil fuels. Fuel cell vehicles are also one of the most promising technologies for the future, with the capacity to use any fuel - hydrogen being the ideal fuel ecologically, but constrained by infrastructure and storage issues. This book explores all these different solutions for moving our vehicles from fossil fuel consumption to new, more environmentally-friendly power sources.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1. Automotive constraints
    2. 1.2. Key figures from the automotive industry — data from the CCFA (association of French car manufacturers)
  6. Chapter 2: Basic Definitions
    1. 2.1. Basic concepts
      1. 2.1.1. Basics of automotive energy
      2. 2.1.2. Basics of automotive dynamics
        1. 2.1.2.1. Useful reminder of automotive dynamics
        2. 2.1.2.2. The drive force
    2. 2.2. The different electric drive-train systems
      1. 2.2.1. Basic definitions
      2. 2.2.2. Definitions of drive-train systems
      3. 2.2.3. Thermal-electric hybrid systems
        1. 2.2.3.1. Fuel-cell systems
        2. 2.2.3.2. Panorama of simple thermal-electric hybrids
      4. 2.2.4. Complex hybrids
  7. Chapter 3: Electric-Powered Vehicles
    1. 3.1. History
    2. 3.2. Battery-powered electric vehicles
      1. 3.2.1. Battery sizing
      2. 3.2.2. Vehicle specifications
      3. 3.2.3. Calculating the vehicle weights
      4. 3.2.4. Application on a small vehicle
    3. 3.3. Recharging systems for electric vehicles
      1. 3.3.1. What is battery charging?
      2. 3.3.2. The various types of chargers
      3. 3.3.3. Recharging efficiency
      4. 3.3.4. Recharging in complete safety
    4. 3.4. Thermal/electric hybrid vehicles
      1. 3.4.1. Assessment of traditional motorizations
        1. 3.4.1.1. Recent evolutions and prospects
          1. 3.4.1.1.1. Gasoline engine
          2. 3.4.1.1.2. Diesel engine
          3. 3.4.1.1.3. Downsizing
          4. 3.4.1.1.4. Auto-ignition combustion engine
          5. 3.4.1.1.5. Electromagnetic control of the valves
          6. 3.4.1.1.6. Transmissions
          7. 3.4.1.1.7. Electrical equipment
        2. 3.4.1.2. Conditions of use
      2. 3.4.2. Implementation of hybrid transmissions
        1. 3.4.2.1. General principle
        2. 3.4.2.2. Simple classification
        3. 3.4.2.3. The different configurations
        4. 3.4.2.4. The thermal-electric configuration
      3. 3.4.3. Context of research concerning hybrid transmission
        1. 3.4.3.1. The initial epoch
        2. 3.4.3.2. Energy management
        3. 3.4.3.3. Emission control
        4. 3.4.3.4. Raised awareness of the greenhouse effect
      4. 3.4.4. Functionalities of hybrid architectures
        1. 3.4.4.1. Choice of classification
        2. 3.4.4.2. Light hybrids
          1. 3.4.4.2.1. Thermal engine startup (stop&go)
          2. 3.4.4.2.2. Thermal-engine assist
          3. 3.4.4.2.3. On-board generator
          4. 3.4.4.2.4. All-electric mode
          5. 3.4.4.2.5. Energy recovery during braking
          6. 3.4.4.2.6. Electric continuous transmission
          7. 3.4.4.2.7. Electric continuous transmission with storage (series hybrid)
          8. 3.4.4.2.8. Gear-change assist
          9. 3.4.4.2.9. Damping of the angular oscillations
        3. 3.4.4.3. Functional hybrids
          1. 3.4.4.3.1. All-electric mode with autonomy
          2. 3.4.4.3.2. Distributed motorization
          3. 3.4.4.3.3. External electric connections
      5. 3.4.5. Evaluation of hybrid vehicles
        1. 3.4.5.1. Issues
        2. 3.4.5.2. Reversible storage of energy not rechargeable on network
        3. 3.4.5.3. Reversible storage of energy rechargeable on network
        4. 3.4.5.4. Taking into account the electric mode with autonomy
        5. 3.4.5.5. Taking into account of braking on roller test bench
        6. 3.4.5.6. Distributed braking
      6. 3.4.6. The first vehicles on the market
        1. 3.4.6.1. Passenger cars
          1. 3.4.6.1.1. Which hybridizations?
          2. 3.4.6.1.2. What performance?
          3. 3.4.6.1.3. What strategies?
          4. 3.4.6.1.4. The Toyota Prius
          5. 3.4.6.1.5. The Honda Insight
          6. 3.4.6.1.6. The Honda Civic
          7. 3.4.6.1.7. The Toyota Estima
          8. 3.4.6.1.8. The Ford Escape hybrid
          9. 3.4.6.1.9. The Toyota Crown
        2. 3.4.6.2. Public transport
          1. 3.4.6.2.1. Issues
          2. 3.4.6.2.2. Diesel-electric implementations
          3. 3.4.6.2.3. Series-hybrid implementation
          4. 3.4.6.2.4. Implementation of parallel and parallel-series hybrid
    5. 3.5. Fuel-cell vehicles
      1. 3.5.1. History, introduction
      2. 3.5.2. Choosing the kind of fuel cell
        1. 3.5.2.1. The principle of a fuel-cell vehicle
        2. 3.5.2.2. The major car manufacturers’ fuel-cell programs
        3. 3.5.2.3. Overall assessments
    6. 3.6. Bibliography
    7. 3.7. Summary table of fuel-cell (PEM) vehicle prototypes (as of February 2005)
  8. Chapter 4: The Components of Electric-Powered Vehicles
    1. 4.1. Electric motors
    2. 4.2. Electronic converters
      1. 4.2.1. Characteristics of electric vehicles
      2. 4.2.2. Components of electronic converters
      3. 4.2.3. Generators — receivers — sources
      4. 4.2.4. Rectifiers
      5. 4.2.5. Choppers
      6. 4.2.6. Inverters
    3. 4.3. Batteries and static storage systems
      1. 4.3.1. The different electrochemical couples for batteries
      2. 4.3.2. Positioning of Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries for different applications
      3. 4.3.3. Recycling processes
    4. 4.4. The fuel cell and on-board fuel storage
      1. 4.4.1. History of the fuel cell
      2. 4.4.2. The different fuel-cell technologies
      3. 4.4.3. The PEM fuel cell
      4. 4.4.4. Technology and cost of fuel-cell components
      5. 4.4.5. Peripherals of the fuel cell
      6. 4.4.6. Numerical modeling of the fuel cell
      7. 4.4.7. The fuel and its storage
        1. 4.4.7.1. Hydrogen storage
        2. 4.4.7.2. Regulation and standardization
      8. 4.4.8. Conclusions
    5. 4.5. Bibliography
  9. Chapter 5: Prospects and Evolutions of Electric-Powered Vehicles: What Technologies by 2015?
    1. 5.1. Mobility
    2. 5.2. New technologies
      1. 5.2.1. Electric motors
      2. 5.2.2. Electronic power systems
      3. 5.2.3. Electric energy sources
    3. 5.3. New cars
  10. Automobile Glossary
  11. Appendices
    1. Appendix 1. European regulation emissions for light vehicles
    2. Appendix 2.a. Example of hybrid parallel transmission with flywheel storage
    3. Appendix 2.b. Example of hybrid parallel transmission with oleo-pneumatic storage
    4. Appendix 3. Example of function allocation
    5. Appendix 4. Toyota Prius engine
  12. List of authors
  13. Index