For obvious reasons, engine-control systems were among the first developed for vehicles: The engine is not only the most crucial component for automobile
performance; its emission performance also significantly affects the environment. As discussed in Chapter 1
, engine-control systems may include fuel-injection control (i.e., air–fuel ratio control), ignition or spark-timing control,
antiknock-control systems, idle-speed control, EGR control, and transmission control. The goal of engine-control systems is
to ensure that the engine operates at near-optimal conditions at all times in terms of drivability, fuel economy, and emissions.
Overall, engine-control systems are complex due to the nonlinearity of many of the ...