An important motivation for AVCS technologies is safety, and a key safety technology is collision detection and avoidance
systems. This type of safety enhancement is termed “active safety,” which is different from the traditional passive-safety concept (i.e., crashworthiness) (Sun and Chen 2010
). The goal is to prevent collisions, not simply mitigate their effects. There are two major driving forces behind recent
progress in the active-safety area, as follows:
1. The continuous progress in passive-safety systems has pushed the technology into a return/cost plateau. For example, a recent study shows that 42 percent of fatal-crash occupants can be saved by safety belts, and 47 percent ...