13 Antilock Brake and Traction-Control Systems
Antilock brake systems (ABS) were first introduced on railcars at the beginning of the 20th century. The original motivation
was to avoid flat spots on the steel wheels; however, it soon was noted that stopping distance also was reduced by the ABS.
Robert Bosch received a patent for ABS in 1936. In 1948, a Boeing B-47 was equipped with ABS to test its effectiveness in
avoiding tire blowout on dry concrete and spinouts on icy runways. It used a “bang-bang” (i.e., dump brake pressure to zero, then rebuild) control strategy. Fully modulating ABS control strategies were introduced in the 1950s (e.g., Ford Lincoln, Goodyear, and HydroAire). A rear-wheels-only ABS was first available in luxury automobiles ...