Hybrid vehicles, especially hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), demonstrate significant potential in reducing fuel consumption
and exhaust emissions while maintaining driving performance. Hybrid vehicles are equipped with more than one power source, and at least one should
be reversible. The reversible power source serves as an energy storage device, whereas the other power source is either the primary power source or a “range extender.” Most hybrid vehicles use a battery as the energy buffer, in which case they are known as HEVs. They can be classified as series, split, and parallel hybrids (Figure 10.1
). The performance potential of the different configurations and the associated control problems are quite different. ...