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Automating Manufacturing Operations by William M. Hawkins

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Communications

What hath God wrought.

—Samuel F. B. Morse (by telegraph over 57 km of wire, 1844)

Mr. Watson—come here—I want to see you.

—Alexander G. Bell (with an acid-filled microphone, 1876)

That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.

—Neil Armstrong (from the Moon, 1969)

Introduction

Communication is a process that uses a system of symbols, signs, or behavior to transfer information as a message from a sender to one or more receivers. Information is transferred only if both sides have the same understanding of the symbols, signs, or behavior. Protocols are used to avoid misunderstanding, especially if the consequences of misunderstanding could cause great harm, such as war.

Humans developed ways of communication ...

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