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Automated Weighing Technology

Book Description

Weighing items and bulk materials is one of the most essential functions of industrial enterprise and automating those tasks is at the heart of efficient materials management. This concise introduction to the principles and applications of automated weighing is the first book to specifically address the challenges and uses of automated controls for both static weighing and ongoing dynamic weighing. It offers you: • Thorough explanation of the basic theory and procedures of static and dynamic weight measurement; • Explanations of how a suite of widely-used controllers and sensors from Siemens can achieve maximal efficiency in weighing operations; • Practical steps to incorporate automated weight systems into bulk materials handling; • Guidance on dynamic weighing including belt scales, weightbelt conveyors, and solids flowmeters; and • Detailed applications in mining operations, food processing, and agricultural operations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Dedication Page
  7. Foreword
  8. Chapter 1 Introduction to Weighing
    1. Topics
    2. Types of weighing
      1. Static weighing
      2. Dynamic weighing
    3. Weighing history
      1. Static industrial weighing
      2. Conveyor belt scales
    4. Terminology
    5. Industrial weighing and Siemens
      1. Siemens Milltronics
      2. The Merrick years
      3. SIWAREX
    6. Summary
  9. Chapter 2 Bulk Material Handling
    1. Topics
    2. Belt feeders
    3. Belt conveyors
    4. Screw feeders and conveyors
    5. Apron feeders
      1. Pan feeder
    6. Rotary airlock feeders
    7. Aerated gravity conveyors
    8. Gates, valves, and shutoffs
    9. Rotating table feeders
    10. Drag chain conveyors
    11. Bucket elevators
    12. Vibratory feeders
    13. Summary
  10. Chapter 3 Dynamic Weighing Devices
    1. Topics
    2. Belt scales
    3. Weighfeeders
    4. Weighbelt conveyors
    5. Solids flowmeters
      1. Impact
      2. Centripetal or momentum force
      3. Coriolis force
      4. Loss-in-weight feeders
      5. Rotor weighfeeder
    6. Summary
  11. Chapter 4 Belt Scale Designs
    1. Topics
    2. Weighbridge design
    3. Belt scale weighbridge design
    4. Weighbridge design considerations
    5. Current weighbridge designs
      1. 1. Basic pivot
      2. 2. Leaf spring as flexure bearing
      3. 3. Direct application to dual load cells
    6. Common full construction single-idler weighbridge designs
    7. Common full construction single-idler belt scale designs
    8. Single-idler: full construction versus modular
    9. Installing a modular scale
    10. Common multi-idler weighbridge designs
    11. Full construction multi-idler designs versus multiple single-idler designs
    12. Multi-idler: full-length versus multiple single-idler in tandem
    13. The MSI – advanced weighbridge design
      1. Approvals
    14. The design
    15. Designed for exceptional accuracy
      1. MSI single-idler belt scale
      2. Double-idler MSI belt scale
      3. Triple-idler MSI belt scale
    16. Summary
  12. Chapter 5 Load Cells
    1. Topics
    2. Load cell technology
      1. LVDT load cells
    3. Strain gauge load cells
      1. Bonded strain gauge
      2. Basic strain gauge circuit with digital output
      3. Protecting the load cells
    4. Load cell types
    5. Load cells at a glance
    6. Summary
  13. Chapter 6 Speed Sensors
    1. Topics
    2. Belt speed detection
      1. Return belt speed sensor (RBSS)
      2. Pulley driven belt speed sensors
      3. Proximity switch sensors
      4. Photocell toothed-wheel pickup sensor
      5. Rotary shaft encoder sensors
      6. High resolution encoder with anti-vibration interface circuit sensor
      7. SITRANS WS300 logic description
      8. AC tacho-generator
      9. Comparison of Speed Sensors
      10. Summary
    3. Chapter 7 Integration
      1. Topics
      2. Mechanical integration
      3. Electronic integrators
        1. Basic function
      4. Integrator design
        1. Basic integrator operation
        2. Basic integrator programming
        3. Belt scale calibration
        4. Span calibration
      5. Integrator designs
        1. Stand alone
        2. PLC based
        3. Integration programmed into a PLC operating system
        4. Multiple integrators
        5. Load cell signal processing
        6. Digital load cell interface
      6. Common integrator features
      7. Recording control system totals
    4. Comparison of Integration options
    5. Summary
  14. Chapter 8 Belt Scale Installation
    1. Topics
    2. Belt scale/conveyor terminology
      1. Scale area idlers
    3. Installation
      1. Belt scale location
      2. Conveyer types
      3. Other installation considerations
      4. Idlers
      5. Idler alignment in the scale area
      6. Pulleys
      7. Conveyor
    4. General installation guidelines
      1. Speed sensor installation
      2. Integrator installation
      3. Connecting components
    5. Maintenance and modifications
      1. Maintenance
      2. Modifications
      3. Material buildup
      4. Material spills
    6. Summary
  15. Chapter 9 Applications and Summary
    1. Topics
    2. Application overview
      1. Mining and aggregates
      2. Cement
      3. Food and beverage
      4. Secondary markets
      5. Mining, aggregate, cement
      6. Agriculture
    3. Summary
  16. Appendix A
    1. Glossary
  17. Index
  18. Ad Page
  19. Back Cover