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Automated Lighting: The Art and Science of Moving Light in Theatre, Live Performance, Broadcast, and Entertainment

Book Description

"Automated Lighting-Technology, Applications, and Design" is a comprehensive text covering everything you will need to know as a working or aspiring lighting professional about automated lighting fixtures, systems, how they are used and design issues you will face. It is written in clear, easy-to-understand language but includes enough detailed information that the most experienced technician and engineer will appreciate and benefit from reading. Subjects covered include the history of automated lighting, DC and AC electricity, basic electronics, power supplies, digital electronics, electro-mechanical systems, optical systems (including dichroic filters, reflectors, lenses, and more), lamp technology, lighting effects (including color mixing, glass gobos, and more), data distribution systems, DMX, RDM, and ACN. State-of-the-art automated lighting fixtures in various applications including theatre, television, concert/touring, and permanent installations are discussed and special design issues are addressed.

The text is amply illustrated with drawings and pictures. The newest technology in automated lighting--"digital" lighting or pixel-based automated lighting projection--is also covered in detail. This book is the antithesis of a reference manual or user manual. It is entertaining and educational with lots of graphic illustrations and easy-to-understand concepts. It's the most fun you can have without sitting behind a console.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Section 1: Introduction to Automated Lighting
    1. Chapter 1: Automated Lighting in the Global Village
    2. Chapter 2: The Foundation of the Automated Lighting Industry
      1. A. The Genesis of the Automated Lighting Industry
      2. B. Synchronicity
      3. C. “If We Can Make It Change Color…“
      4. D. The Black Hole
      5. E. For Sale: Automated Lighting
      6. F. Sue Me, Sue You Blues
      7. G. The Future of Automated Lighting
    3. Chapter 3: Automated Lighting Systems
      1. A. Systems Overview
      2. B. Rigging Systems
        1. Aluminum Structures
        2. Theatrical Rigging
        3. Rigging Hardware
      3. C. Power Distribution Systems
        1. Disconnect Switch
        2. Feeder Cable
        3. Distribution Panels and Portable Power Distribution Units (PPDUs)
        4. Overcurrent Protection
        5. Dimmers
        6. Branch Circuits
        7. Connectors
        8. Worldwide Electrical Safety and Wiring Codes
        9. Compliance
        10. Wire Gauges
      4. D. Data Distribution Systems
        1. Data Cables
        2. Data Splitters
        3. Data Amplifiers
        4. Data Converters
        5. Data Terminators
        6. A/B Switches
        7. Data Connectors
      5. E. Control Systems
        1. Automated Lighting Controllers
        2. Automated Lighting Consoles
        3. PC-Based Controllers
        4. Dedicated Controllers
        5. Playback Units
        6. Remote Focus Units
        7. Preset Stations
        8. Media Servers
        9. Redundant Backup Systems
      6. F. Luminaires
        1. Electrical Systems
        2. Electronics Systems
        3. Electromechanical Systems
        4. Mechanical Systems
        5. Optical Systems
        6. Communications Systems
  10. Section 2: Electricity and Electronics
    1. Chapter 4: DC Electricity
      1. A. The Flow of Electrons
      2. B. The Relative Size of Electrons
      3. C. The Electron Drift Theory
      4. D. Friction
      5. E. Conductive Properties of Materials
      6. F. Current Convention
      7. G. Voltage, Current, and Resistance
      8. H. Water and Electricity—Bad Mix, Good Analogy
      9. I. The DC Circuit
      10. J. Units of Measure—Current, Voltage, Resistance, Power
      11. K. The Resistor Color Code
      12. L. Resistor Wattage
      13. M. Series Resistance
      14. N. Parallel Resistance
      15. O. Series/Parallel Resistance
      16. P. Ohm’s Law
      17. Q. DC Power
    2. Chapter 5: Electricity and Magnetism
      1. A. Magnetic Lines of Flux
      2. B. Electromagnetic Induction
      3. C. Inducing Current
      4. D. Alternating Current
    3. Chapter 6: AC Electricity
      1. A. The Alternating Current Generator
      2. B. Peak Value
      3. C. Average Value
      4. D. The Inductor
      5. E. The Capacitor
      6. F. Phase Relationships
      7. G. Impedance
      8. H. The Transformer
      9. I. AC Power
      10. J. Power Factor
      11. K. Three-Phase Power
      12. L. The Three-Phase Wye Configuration
      13. M. Three-Phase Wye Connections
      14. N. The Three-Phase Delta Configuration
      15. O. Electrical Safety
      16. P. Drugs and Alcohol
    4. Chapter 7: Power Supplies
      1. A. The Diode
        1. Half-Wave Rectification
        2. Full-Wave Rectification
      2. B. The DC Power Supply
      3. C. Switched-Mode Power Supplies
      4. D. Power Supplies for Arc Lamps
        1. The Magnetic Ballast Power Supply
        2. Electronic Switching Power Supply for Gas Discharge Lamps
        3. Advantages of Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies
        4. Disadvantages of Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies
        5. Advantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies
        6. Disadvantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies
    5. Chapter 8: Overcurrent and Overvoltage Protection
      1. A. Fuses
      2. B. Circuit Breakers
      3. C. Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs)
    6. Chapter 9: Digital Electronics
      1. A. Binary Numbering
      2. B. Binary Offset
      3. C. Hexadecimal Numbering
      4. D. Digital Electronics
      5. E. Electronic Switching
      6. F. Data Transmission
    7. Chapter 10: Computer Architecture
      1. A. The CPU
      2. B. Memory
      3. C. Input/Output Ports
      4. D. The System Bus
      5. E. Microprocessor Architecture
      6. F. Execution of a Cue
  11. Section 3: Electromechanical and Mechanical Systems
    1. Chapter 11: Electromechanical Systems
      1. A. Stepper Motors
        1. Hybrid Stepper Motors
        2. Single-Phase Excitation Mode
        3. Dual-Phase Excitation Mode
        4. Half-Step Excitation
        5. Microstepping
        6. Resonance
        7. Stepper Motor Control Systems
      2. B. Position Sensing and Encoding
        1. The Mechanical Stop
        2. Optical Sensing
        3. Hall Effect Sensors
        4. Focus Correction
      3. C. Fans
        1. Fan Types
        2. Fan Cleaning and Maintenance
    2. Chapter 12: Mechanical Systems
      1. A. Materials
        1. Aluminum
        2. Stainless Steel
        3. Plastics
        4. Glass
        5. Metal Finishes
      2. B. Fasteners
        1. Thread Standards
        2. Preventing Vibrational Loosening
      3. C. Gears
      4. D. Belts
  12. Section 4: Optical Systems
    1. Chapter 13: Lamp Technology
      1. A. The Incandescent Lamp
        1. Incandescence
        2. Gas Fill
        3. Halogen Lamps
        4. Color Temperature
        5. Incandescent Lamp Efficiency
        6. Dimming Incandescent Lamps
      2. B. Discharge Lamps
        1. Anatomy of a Discharge Lamp
        2. Starting a Discharge Lamp
        3. Hot Restrike Lamps
        4. Discharge Lamp Characteristics
        5. Lamp Life Ratings
        6. Discharge Lamp Hazards
    2. Chapter 14: The Optical Path
      1. A. Specular Reflection
      2. B. Reflector Geometry
        1. The Parabolic Reflector
        2. The Elliptical Reflector
        3. The Spherical Reflector
      3. C. Reflector Materials
      4. D. Infrared Filters
      5. E. Mechanical Dimming
      6. F. Optical Thin-Film Filters
        1. The Deposition Process
        2. Thin-Film Interference
        3. Filter Types
      7. G. Color Selection
        1. Color Wheels
        2. Color Combining
        3. Color Mixing
      8. H. Gobos
        1. Metal Gobos
        2. Glass Gobos
      9. I. Front-Surface Mirrors
      10. J. Antireflective Coatings
      11. K. Effects
      12. L. Lenses
        1. Spherical Aberrations
        2. Chromatic Aberration
  13. Section 5: Communications
    1. Chapter 15: DMX512
      1. A. The Physical Layer
      2. B. Data Cable
      3. C. DMX512 over CAT 5
      4. D. DMX Connectors
      5. E. Termination
      6. F. Building a Data Network
      7. G. DMX512 Data Protocol
    2. Chapter 16: DMX512-A
      1. A. Alternate Start Codes
        1. Reserved ASCs
        2. Proprietary ASCs
      2. B. Enhanced Function Topologies
        1. Enhanced Function 1
        2. Enhanced Function 2
        3. Enhanced Function 3
        4. Enhanced Function 4
      3. C. Bidirectional Distribution Amplifiers/Return Data Combiners
      4. D. Termination
      5. E. Isolation
    3. Chapter 17: Remote Device Management (RDM)
      1. A. The RDM Physical Layer
      2. B. The RDM Discovery Process
      3. C. RDM Parameter Messages
        1. Network Management Messages
        2. Status Collection Messages
        3. RDM Information Messages
        4. Product Information Messages
        5. DMX512 Setup Messages
        6. Sensor Parameter Messages
        7. Power and Lamp Setting Parameter Messages
        8. Display Setting Parameter Messages
        9. Device Configuration Parameter Messages
        10. Device Control Parameter Messages
    4. Chapter 18: Architecture for Control Networks (ACN)
      1. A. The ACN Suite of Protocols
      2. B. ACN Elements
        1. Device Description Language
        2. Device Management Protocol
        3. Session Data Transport
      3. C. The ACN Transport
      4. D. Network Media
    5. Chapter 19: Menuing
  14. Section 6: Maintenance and Troubleshooting
    1. Chapter 20: Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
      1. A. Common Sources of Problems: Heat, Gravity, Age
      2. B. Preventive Maintenance
      3. C. Cleaning Automated Lighting Components
      4. D. Lubrication
      5. E. Troubleshooting
        1. Troubleshooting Procedures
        2. Common Failures
  15. Section 7: Digital Lighting
    1. Chapter 21: Digital Lighting
      1. A. The Digital Mirror Device
      2. B. Digital Light Processing and LEDs
      3. C. Liquid Crystal Displays
      4. D. Perceived Brightness
      5. E. Lamp Technology and Projection
      6. F. The UHP Lamp
  16. Section 8: Automated Lighting Programming
    1. Chapter 22: Automated Lighting Programming
      1. A. Preshow Preparation
      2. B. Backing Up
      3. C. Patching Fixtures
      4. D. Preparing Fixture Groups
      5. E. Preparing Palettes
      6. F. Program Blocking
      7. G. On-Site Preparation
      8. H. Programming Cues
      9. I. Tracking
      10. J. Blocking Cues
      11. K. Mark Cues
      12. L. Point Cues
      13. M. Playback
      14. N. Precedence
      15. O. Busking
      16. P. Perfecting the Craft
  17. Section 9: Lighting Design with Automated Luminaires
    1. Chapter 23: Automated Luminaire Types
      1. A. Moving Yoke Fixtures
      2. B. Moving Mirror Fixtures
      3. C. Hybrids
      4. D. Profile Spot Fixtures
      5. E. Color Wash Fixtures
        1. Fresnel Fixtures
        2. Plano-Convex Fixtures
        3. Cyc Lighting Fixtures
      6. F. Exterior Luminaires
      7. G. IP Ratings
    2. Chapter 24: Automated Lighting Applications
      1. A. Key Light
      2. B. Color Temperature and Balance
      3. C. Fill Light and Back Light
      4. D. Image Projection and Beam Projection
      5. E. Color Wash
      6. F. “Architainment”
        1. Ingress Protection
        2. Serviceability
    3. Chapter 25: Automated Lighting in Production
      1. A. Concerts and Touring
      2. B. Theatre
      3. C. Television
      4. D. Industrial Shows and Corporate Events
      5. E. Film
      6. F. Houses of Worship
      7. G. Nightclubs
      8. H. Cruise Ships
      9. I. Retail
    4. Chapter 26: Lighting Design Software
      1. A. Computer-Aided Drafting
      2. B. Rendering
      3. C. Visualization
      4. D. Lighting Paperwork
    5. Chapter 27: Design Issues
      1. A. Movement
      2. B. Color Consistency
      3. C. Color Rendering
      4. D. Color Correction
      5. E. Magenta and Green Balance
      6. F. Panning and Tilting
      7. G. Color and Gobo Changes
      8. H. Indexing (Hysteresis)
      9. I. Dimming
      10. J. Color Media
      11. K. Fan and Motor Noise
      12. L. Heat
      13. M. Thermal Load Calculations
      14. N. Remote-Controlled Followspots
  18. Section 10: The Future of Automated Lighting Technology
    1. Chapter 28: The Evolution of Automated Lighting Technology
    2. Chapter 29: The Digital Lighting Revolution
      1. A. Digital Lighting Luminaires
      2. B. Media Servers
      3. C. Content Development
      4. D. Display Devices
  19. Index