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Automated Lighting, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Automated Lighting: The Art and Science of Moving Light in Theatre, Live Performance and Entertainment continues to be the most trusted text for working and aspiring lighting professionals. Now in its second edition, it has been fully updated to include new advances in lamp sources such as LEDs and plasma lamps, automated and programmable displays, updates for managing color, and new methods for using electronics. Its clear, easy-to-understand language also includes enough detailed information for the most experienced technician and engineer.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Automated Lighting
  3. Full Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. SECTION 1: Introduction to Automated Lighting
    1. Chapter 1 Automated Lighting in the Third Millennium
    2. Chapter 2 The Foundation of the Automated Lighting Industry
      1. The Genesis of the Automated Lighting Industry
      2. Synchronicity
      3. “If We Can Make It Change Color …”
      4. The Black Hole
      5. For Sale: Automated Lighting
      6. Sue Me, Sue You Blues
      7. The Future of Automated Lighting
    3. Chapter 3 Automated Lighting Systems
      1. Systems Overview
      2. Rigging Systems
      3. Aluminum Structures
      4. Theatrical Rigging
      5. Rigging Hardware
      6. Power Distribution Systems
      7. Disconnect Switch
      8. Feeder Cable
      9. Distribution Panels and Portable Power Distribution Units
      10. Overcurrent Protection
      11. Dimmers
      12. Branch Circuits
      13. Wire Gauges
      14. Voltage Drop
      15. Connectors
      16. Worldwide Electrical Safety and Wiring Codes
      17. Compliance
      18. Data Distribution Systems
      19. Data Cables
      20. Data Splitters
      21. Data Amplifiers
      22. Data Converters
      23. Data Terminators
      24. A/B Switches
      25. Data Connectors
      26. Control Systems
      27. Automated Lighting Controllers
      28. Automated Lighting Consoles
      29. PC-Based Controllers
      30. Dedicated Controllers
      31. Playback Units
      32. Remote Focus Units
      33. Preset Stations
      34. Media Servers
      35. Redundant Backup Systems
      36. Luminaires
      37. Electrical Systems
      38. Electronics Systems
      39. Electromechanical Systems
      40. Mechanical Systems
      41. Optical Systems
      42. Communications Systems
  8. SECTION 2: Electricity and Electronics
    1. Chapter 4 DC Electricity
      1. The Flow of Electrons
      2. The Relative Size of Electrons
      3. The Electron Drift Theory
      4. Friction
      5. Conductive Properties of Materials
      6. Current Convention
      7. Voltage, Current, and Resistance
      8. Water and Electricity—Bad Mix, Good Analogy
      9. The DC Circuit
      10. Units of Measure—Current, Voltage, Resistance, Power
      11. The Resistor Color Code
      12. Resistor Wattage
      13. Series Resistance
      14. Parallel Resistance
      15. Series/Parallel Resistance
      16. Ohm's Law
        1. Practice Problems
      17. DC Power
        1. Practice Problems
    2. Chapter 5 Electricity and Magnetism
      1. Magnetic Lines of Flux
      2. Electromagnetic Induction
      3. Inducing Current
      4. Alternating Current
    3. Chapter 6 AC Electricity
      1. The Alternating Current Generator
      2. Peak Voltage
      3. RMS Voltage
      4. The Inductor
      5. The Capacitor
      6. Phase Relationships
      7. Impedance
      8. The Transformer
      9. AC Power
      10. Power Factor
      11. Three-Phase Power
      12. The Three-Phase Delta-Wye Configuration
      13. Three-Phase Wye Connections
      14. The Three-Phase Delta-Delta Configuration
      15. Electrical Safety
      16. Drugs and Alcohol
    4. Chapter 7 Power Supplies
      1. The Diode
      2. Half-Wave Rectification
      3. Full-Wave Rectification
      4. The Linear Power Supply
      5. Switched-Mode Power Supplies
      6. Power Supplies for Arc Lamps
      7. The Magnetic Ballast Power Supply
      8. Electronic Switching Power Supply for Gas Discharge Lamps
        1. Advantages of Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies
        2. Disadvantages of Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies
        3. Advantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies
        4. Disadvantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies
    5. Chapter 8 Overcurrent and Overvoltage Protection
      1. Fuses
      2. Circuit Breakers
      3. Metal Oxide Varistor
    6. Chapter 9 Digital Electronics
      1. Binary Numbering
      2. Binary Offset
      3. Hexadecimal Numbering
      4. Digital Electronics
      5. Electronic Switching
      6. Data Transmission
    7. Chapter 10 Computer Architecture
      1. The CPU
      2. Memory
      3. I/O Ports
      4. The System Bus
      5. μP Architecture
      6. Execution of a Cue
  9. SECTION 3: Electomechanical and Mechanical Systems
    1. Chapter 11 Electromechanical Systems
      1. Stepper Motors
      2. Hybrid Stepper Motors
      3. Single Phase Excitation Mode
      4. Dual Phase Excitation Mode
      5. Half Step Excitation
      6. Microstepping
      7. Resonance
      8. Stepper Motor Control Systems
      9. Position Sensing and Encoding
      10. The Mechanical Stop
      11. Optical Sensing
      12. Hall Effect Sensors
      13. Focus Correction
      14. Quadrature Encoding
      15. Absolute Encoding
      16. Fans
        1. Fan Types
        2. Fan Cleaning and Maintenance
    2. Chapter 12 Mechanical Systems
      1. Materials
        1. Aluminum
        2. Stainless Steel
        3. Plastics
        4. Ceramics
        5. Glass
        6. Fused Quartz
        7. Optical glass
      2. Metal Finishes
      3. Fasteners
      4. Thread Standards
      5. Preventing Vibrational Loosening
      6. Gears
      7. Belts
  10. SECTION 4: Optical Systems
    1. Chapter 13 Lamp Technology
      1. Incandescent Lamps
      2. Incandescence
      3. Gas Fill
      4. Halogen Lamps
      5. Discharge Lamps
      6. Discharge Lamp Construction
      7. Starting a Discharge Lamp
      8. The Effects of Lamp Strikes
      9. Hot Restrike Lamps
      10. Testing Discharge Lamps
      11. LEDs
      12. Plasma Lamps
      13. Color Temperature
      14. Luminous Efficacy
      15. Spectral Power Distribution
      16. Color Rendering Index
      17. Dimming
      18. Lumen Maintenance
      19. Lamp Life Ratings
      20. Lamp Hazards
    2. Chapter 14 The Optical Path
      1. Specular Reflection
      2. Reflector Geometry
        1. The Parabolic Reflector
        2. The Elliptical Reflector
        3. The Spherical Reflector
      3. Reflector Materials
      4. Infrared Filters
      5. Mechanical Dimming
      6. Optical Thin-Film Filters
      7. The Deposition Process
      8. Thin-Film Interference
      9. Filter Types
      10. Color Selection
      11. DichroFilm
      12. Color Wheels
      13. Color Combining
        1. Subtractive Color Mixing
        2. Additive Color Mixing
      14. Gobos
        1. Metal Gobos
        2. Glass Gobos
      15. Laser Ablation
      16. Installation Orientation
      17. Front Surface Mirrors
      18. Anti-Reflective Coatings
      19. Effects
      20. Lenses
      21. Spherical Aberrations
      22. Chromatic Aberration
  11. SECTION 5: Network and Communications
    1. Chapter 15 The Channel Count Explosion
      1. Cable Management in a 0–10 V World
      2. Taming the Cable Beast
      3. The Channel Count Explosion
      4. State-of-the-Art Protocols
    2. Chapter 16 DMX512 and DMX512-A
      1. The DMX512 Physical Layer
      2. Data Cable
      3. DMX512 Over CAT5
      4. DMX512 Connectors
      5. Termination
      6. Building a Data Network
      7. DMX512-A versus DMX512
      8. DMX512-A Data Protocol
      9. Reset Sequence
      10. ASCs
      11. Proprietary ASCs
      12. Data Slot Format
      13. Refresh Rate
      14. Enhanced Function Topologies
        1. EF1
        2. EF2
        3. EF3
        4. EF4
      15. Bi-Directional Distribution Amplifiers/Return Data Combiners
      16. Termination
      17. Isolation
    3. Chapter 17 Remote Device Management (RDM)
      1. The RDM Physical Layer
      2. RDM Packet Format
      3. The RDM Discovery Process
      4. RDM Parameter Messages
        1. Network Management Messages
        2. Status Collection Messages
      5. RDM Information Messages
        1. Product Information Messages
        2. DMX512 Setup Messages
        3. Sensor Parameter Messages
        4. Power/Lamp Setting Parameter Messages
        5. Display Setting Parameter Messages
        6. Device Configuration Parameter Messages
        7. Device Control Parameter Messages
    4. Chapter 18 Architecture for Control Networks (ACN)
      1. The ACN Suite of Protocols
      2. ACN Elements
        1. Device Description Language
        2. DMP
        3. Session Data Transport
        4. The ACN Transport
      3. Network Media
      4. Streaming DMX512 Over ACN
  12. SECTION 6: Maintenance and Troubleshooting
    1. Chapter 19 Tools of the Trade
      1. Tools for the Task
        1. Load-In
        2. Programming
        3. Troubleshooting in the Field
      2. Voltmeter Specifications
        1. Voltmeter Category Ratings
        2. True RMS Meters
      3. V-Rated Tools
    2. Chapter 20 Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting
      1. Common Sources of Problems: Heat, Gravity, Age
      2. Preventive Maintenance
      3. Cleaning Automated Lighting Components
      4. Lubrication
      5. Troubleshooting
        1. Sample List of Recommended Spare Parts
      6. Troubleshooting Procedures
      7. Common Failures
        1. Motor Drive Chips
        2. SMPS
        3. Printed Circuits Boards
        4. Power Factor Correction Capacitors
        5. Ballasts
        6. Transformers
        7. Fasteners
        8. Sensors
  13. SECTION 7: Convergence of Lighting and Video
    1. Chapter 21 Convergence of Lighting and Video
      1. The Digital Micromirror Device
      2. Digital Light Processing and LEDs
      3. Liquid Crystal Display Projectors
      4. Perceived Brightness
      5. Lamp Technology and Projection
      6. The UHP Lamp
  14. SECTION 8: Lighting Design With Automated Luminaires
    1. Chapter 22 Lighting Design
      1. Design Goals
        1. Visibility
        2. Focusing Attention
        3. Lighting for Video
        4. Modeling
        5. Creating Depth
        6. Aesthetics and Mood
      2. Three-Point Lighting
      3. Toning a Three-Point Lighting System
      4. Multi-Point Lighting
      5. Calculating Illuminance
      6. Target Illuminance
      7. Color Temperature and Green/Magenta Balance
      8. Finishing the Lighting Plot
        1. Color Wash
        2. Image and Beam Projection
    2. Chapter 23 Lighting Design Software
      1. CAD
      2. File Formats
      3. CAD Libraries
      4. Data and Attributes
      5. Lighting Paperwork
      6. Rendering
      7. Fly-Throughs
      8. Visualization
      9. Off-Line Editors
  15. SECTION 9: Automated Lighting Programming
    1. Chapter 24 Automated Lighting Programming
      1. The Programming Approach
      2. Pre-Show Preparation
      3. Pre-Visualization and Off-Line Editing
      4. Backing Up
      5. On-Site Preparation
      6. The Linear Fader Model versus the Real World Model
      7. Patching Fixtures
      8. Highlight
      9. Preparing Fixture Groups
      10. Preparing Palettes or Presets
      11. Preset Focus Positions
      12. Program Blocking
      13. Tracking
      14. Precedence
      15. Laying Out the Cues on the Console
      16. Programming Cues
      17. Timing of Cues
      18. Mark Cues or Move in Black
      19. Blocking Cues
      20. Point Cues
      21. Busking
      22. Perfecting the Craft
  16. Epilogue: The Future of Automated Lighting Technology
  17. Appendix A: IP Ratings
  18. Appendix B: Useful Formulas
  19. Appendix C: Conversion Factors
  20. Appendix D: DMX512-A Enhanced Functions
  21. Appendix E: DMX512 Connector and Pinout
  22. Appendix F: Data Termination
  23. Index