“We form the cities—then the cities form us.”
It is estimated that about 110 billion humans1 have lived throughout the entire history of mankind on our planet. Most of those humans did not live in cities, and none of us have really lived in smart cities. Historically, the single biggest social change until recent decades was arguably the massive movements of populations from the rural countryside to cities, which influenced human politics, conflicts, religions, cultural development and myriad other factors.
The first city was arguably Ur, in modern-day Iraq, with a population of around 60,000 in the year 2000 BC. The first metropolis was Rome, founded ...