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Audio Signal Processing and Coding

Book Description

An in-depth treatment of algorithms and standards for perceptual coding of high-fidelity audio, this self-contained reference surveys and addresses all aspects of the field. Coverage includes signal processing and perceptual (psychoacoustic) fundamentals, details on relevant research and signal models, details on standardization and applications, and details on performance measures and perceptual measurement systems. It includes a comprehensive bibliography with over 600 references, computer exercises, and MATLAB-based projects for use in EE multimedia, computer science, and DSP courses. An ftp site containing supplementary material such as wave files, MATLAB programs and workspaces for the students to solve some of the numerical problems and computer exercises in the book can be found at ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/audio_signal

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. THE WILEY BICENTENNIAL–KNOWLEDGE FOR GENERATIONS
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. CONTENTS
  7. PREFACE
    1. Organization
    2. Use in Courses
    3. Trademarks and Copyrights
    4. Acknowledgments
  8. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    2. 1.2 A GENERAL PERCEPTUAL AUDIO CODING ARCHITECTURE
    3. 1.3 AUDIO CODER ATTRIBUTES
    4. 1.4 TYPES OF AUDIO CODERS – AN OVERVIEW
    5. 1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    6. 1.6 NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
    7. PROBLEMS
    8. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  9. CHAPTER 2: SIGNAL PROCESSING ESSENTIALS
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 SPECTRA OF ANALOG SIGNALS
    3. 2.3 REVIEW OF CONVOLUTION AND FILTERING
    4. 2.4 UNIFORM SAMPLING
    5. 2.5 DISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING
    6. 2.6 DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS AND DIGITAL FILTERS
    7. 2.7 THE TRANSFER AND THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS
    8. 2.8 REVIEW OF MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING
    9. 2.9 DISCRETE-TIME RANDOM SIGNALS
    10. 2.10 SUMMARY
    11. PROBLEMS
    12. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  10. CHAPTER 3: QUANTIZATION AND ENTROPY CODING
    1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 3.2 DENSITY FUNCTIONS AND QUANTIZATION
    3. 3.3 SCALAR QUANTIZATION
    4. 3.4 VECTOR QUANTIZATION
    5. 3.5 BIT-ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS
    6. 3.6 ENTROPY CODING
    7. 3.7 SUMMARY
    8. PROBLEMS
    9. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  11. CHAPTER 4: LINEAR PREDICTION IN NARROWBAND AND WIDEBAND CODING
    1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 4.2 LP-BASED SOURCE-SYSTEM MODELING FOR SPEECH
    3. 4.3 SHORT-TERM LINEAR PREDICTION
    4. 4.4 OPEN-LOOP ANALYSIS-SYNTHESIS LINEAR PREDICTION
    5. 4.5 ANALYSIS-BY-SYNTHESIS LINEAR PREDICTION
    6. 4.6 LINEAR PREDICTION IN WIDEBAND CODING
    7. 4.7 SUMMARY
    8. PROBLEMS
    9. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  12. CHAPTER 5: PSYCHOACOUSTIC PRINCIPLES
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 5.2 ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD OF HEARING
    3. 5.3 CRITICAL BANDS
    4. 5.4 SIMULTANEOUS MASKING, MASKING ASYMMETRY, AND THE SPREAD OF MASKING
    5. 5.5 NONSIMULTANEOUS MASKING
    6. 5.6 PERCEPTUAL ENTROPY
    7. 5.7 EXAMPLE CODEC PERCEPTUAL MODEL: ISO/IEC 11172-3 (MPEG - 1) PSYCHOACOUSTIC MODEL 1
    8. 5.8 PERCEPTUAL BIT ALLOCATION
    9. 5.9 SUMMARY
    10. PROBLEMS
    11. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  13. CHAPTER 6: TIME-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS: FILTER BANKS AND TRANSFORMS
    1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 6.2 ANALYSIS-SYNTHESIS FRAMEWORK FOR M -BAND FILTER BANKS
    3. 6.3 FILTER BANKS FOR AUDIO CODING: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    4. 6.4 QUADRATURE MIRROR AND CONJUGATE QUADRATURE FILTERS
    5. 6.5 TREE-STRUCTURED QMF AND CQF M -BAND BANKS
    6. 6.6 COSINE MODULATED “PSEUDO QMF” M -BAND BANKS
    7. 6.7 COSINE MODULATED PERFECT RECONSTRUCTION (PR) M -BAND BANKS AND THE MODIFIED DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM (MDCT)
    8. 6.8 DISCRETE FOURIER AND DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM
    9. 6.9 PRE-ECHO DISTORTION
    10. 6.10 PRE-ECHO CONTROL STRATEGIES
    11. 6.11 SUMMARY
    12. PROBLEMS
    13. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  14. CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORM CODERS
    1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 7.2 OPTIMUM CODING IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
    3. 7.3 PERCEPTUAL TRANSFORM CODER
    4. 7.4 BRANDENBURG-JOHNSTON HYBRID CODER
    5. 7.5 CNET CODERS
    6. 7.6 ADAPTIVE SPECTRAL ENTROPY CODING
    7. 7.7 DIFFERENTIAL PERCEPTUAL AUDIO CODER
    8. 7.8 DFT NOISE SUBSTITUTION
    9. 7.9 DCT WITH VECTOR QUANTIZATION
    10. 7.10 MDCT WITH VECTOR QUANTIZATION
    11. 7.11 SUMMARY
    12. PROBLEMS
    13. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  15. CHAPTER 8: SUBBAND CODERS
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 DWT AND DISCRETE WAVELET PACKET TRANSFORM (DWPT)
    3. 8.3 ADAPTED WP ALGORITHMS
    4. 8.4 ADAPTED NONUNIFORM FILTER BANKS
    5. 8.5 HYBRID WP AND ADAPTED WP/SINUSOIDAL ALGORITHMS
    6. 8.6 SUBBAND CODING WITH HYBRID FILTER BANK/CELP ALGORITHMS
    7. 8.7 SUBBAND CODING WITH IIR FILTER BANKS
    8. PROBLEMS
    9. COMPUTER EXERCISE
  16. CHAPTER 9: SINUSOIDAL CODERS
    1. 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 9.2 THE SINUSOIDAL MODEL
    3. 9.3 ANALYSIS/SYNTHESIS AUDIO CODEC (ASAC)
    4. 9.4 HARMONIC AND INDIVIDUAL LINES PLUS NOISE CODER (HILN)
    5. 9.5 FM SYNTHESIS
    6. 9.6 THE SINES + TRANSIENTS + NOISE (STN) MODEL
    7. 9.7 HYBRID SINUSOIDAL CODERS
    8. 9.8 SUMMARY
    9. PROBLEMS
    10. COMPUTER EXERCISES
  17. CHAPTER 10: AUDIO CODING STANDARDS AND ALGORITHMS
    1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 10.2 MIDI VERSUS DIGITAL AUDIO
    3. 10.3 MULTICHANNEL SURROUND SOUND
    4. 10.4 MPEG AUDIO STANDARDS
    5. 10.5 ADAPTIVE TRANSFORM ACOUSTIC CODING (ATRAC)
    6. 10.6 LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES PAC, EPAC, AND MPAC
    7. 10.7 DOLBY AUDIO CODING STANDARDS
    8. 10.8 AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APT-x100
    9. 10.9 DTS – COHERENT ACOUSTICS
    10. PROBLEMS
    11. COMPUTER EXERCISE
  18. CHAPTER 11: LOSSLESS AUDIO CODING AND DIGITAL WATERMARKING
    1. 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 11.2 LOSSLESS AUDIO CODING (L 2 AC)
    3. 11.3 DVD-AUDIO
    4. 11.4 SUPER-AUDIO CD (SACD)
    5. 11.5 DIGITAL AUDIO WATERMARKING
    6. 11.6 SUMMARY OF COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
    7. PROBLEMS
    8. COMPUTER EXERCISE
  19. CHAPTER 12: QUALITY MEASURES FOR PERCEPTUAL AUDIO CODING
    1. 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 12.2 SUBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASURES
    3. 12.3 CONFOUNDING FACTORS IN SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS
    4. 12.4 SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS OF TWO-CHANNEL STANDARDIZED CODECS
    5. 12.5 SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS OF 5.1-CHANNEL STANDARDIZED CODECS
    6. 12.6 SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS USING PERCEPTUAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS
    7. 12.7 ALGORITHMS FOR PERCEPTUAL MEASUREMENT
    8. 12.8 ITU-R BS.1387 AND ITU-T P.861: STANDARDS FOR PERCEPTUAL QUALITY MEASUREMENT
    9. 12.9 RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR PERCEPTUAL CODEC QUALITY MEASURES
  20. REFERENCES
  21. INDEX